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Encyclopedia > Atargatis
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Atargatis, in Aramaic ‘Atar‘atah, was a Syrian deity, more commonly known to the Greeks by a shortened form of the name, Derceto or Derketo (Strabo 16.785; Pliny, Nat. Hist. 5.81), and as Dea Syria (the "Goddess of Syria, rendered in one word Deasura). She is often now popularly described as the mermaid-goddess. Semitic gods refers to the gods or deities of peoples generally classified as speaking a Semitic language. ... Image File history File links Palm_tree_symbol. ... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... In the Levantine pantheon, the Elohim are the sons of El the ancient of days (olam) assembled on the divine holy place, Mount Zephon (Jebel Aqra). ... Arabic Mythology is the ancient beliefs of the Arabs. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ancient Near Eastern religion. ... The Yezidi or Yazidi (Kurdish; Êzidî) are adherents of a small Middle Eastern religion with ancient origins. ... The Levant Levant is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Ä’l (אל) is a northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either god or God or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. ... Elyon: The name or epithet or word ‘Elyôn (Masoretic pronunciation of Hebrew עליון), is traditionally rendered in Samaritan Hebrew as illiyyon, and means something like higher, upper. It derives from the Hebrew root ‘lh, Semitic root ‘ly go up, ascend. ‘Ely... Haddad - בעל הדד - حداد (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ... A 19th-century reproduction of a Greek bronze of Adonis found at Pompeii. ... Anat, also ‘Anat (in ASCII spelling `Anat and often simplified to Anat), Hebrew or Phoenician ענת (‘Anāt), Ugaritic ‘nt, Greek Αναθ (transliterated Anath), in Egyptian rendered as Antit, Anit, Anti (not to be confused with Anti) , or Anant, is a major northwest Semitic goddess. ... The Palmyran god of the evening star. ... For the small research submarine, see Asherah (submarine). ... Astarte on a car with four branches protruding from roof. ... Azizos or Aziz; the Palmyran god of the morning star. ... Baal (; Hebrew: בעל) is a Northwest Semitic title and honorific meaning master or lord that is used for various gods, spirits and demons particularly of the Levant, cognate to Assyrian bêlu. ... {{Fertile Crescent myt==External links== [http://depts. ... Other deities worshipped at Ugarit were El Shaddai, El Elyon, and El Berith. ... // The ancient god Dagon Dagon was a major northwest Semitic god, the god of grain and agriculture according to the few sources to speak of the matter, worshipped by the early Amorites, by the people of Ebla, by the people of Ugarit and a chief god (perhaps the chief god... In the Levantine pantheon, the Elohim are the sons of El the ancient of days (olam) assembled on the divine holy place, Mount Zephon (Jebel Aqra). ... Eshmun (or Eshmoun, less accurately Esmun or Esmoun) was a northwestern Semitic god of healing and the tutelary god of Sidon. ... See Kug-Baba for the sumerian queen. ... Liluri was an old Syrian goddess of mountains. ... Manuzi was an old Syrian weather god. ... In Ugaritic Mot Death (spelled mt) is personified as a god of death. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Shalim is the god of dusk in the pantheon of Ugarit, the counterpart of Shahar the god of dawn. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tetragrammaton. ... Yam is the name of the Ugaritic god of Rivers and Sea, and in some myths he is one of the ilhm (Elohim) or sons of El, the name given to the Levantine pantheon. ... Yarikh, in Canaanite mythology, is a god of the moon whose epithets are Illuminator of the Heavens, Illuminator of the Myriads of Stars, and Lord of the Sickle (the latter may come from the appearance of the crescent moon). ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19c portrait. ...


The name appears in the Talmud ("Ab. Zarah" 11b, line 28) as tr‘th. The full name ‘tr‘th appears on a bilingual inscription found in Palmyra and on coins. The first page of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... A general view of the site Palmyra was in the ancient times an important city of central Syria, located in an oasis 215 km northeast of Damascus and 120 km southwest of the Euphrates. ...


As Ataratha she may be recognized by the characteristic self-mutilation of her votaries, recorded in a passage from the Book of the Laws of the Countries, one of the oldest works of Syriac prose, an early 3rd century product of the school of Bar Daisan (Bardesanes): Bar Daisan (154-222), also latinized as Bardesanes, was a Syrian gnostic and an outstanding scientist, scholar, and poet. ...

"In Syria and in Urhâi [Edessa] the men used to castrate themselves in honor of Taratha. But when King Abgar became a believer, he commanded that anyone who emasculated himself should have a hand cut off. And from that day to the present no one in Urhâi emasculates himself anymore." —Chapter 45.

This name ‘Atar‘atah is a compound of two divine names: the first part is a form of the Ugaritic ‘Athtart, Himyaritic ‘Athtar, the equivalent of the Old Testament ‘Ashtoreth, the Phoenician ‘Ashtart rendered in Greek as Astarte. The feminine ending -t has been omitted. Compare the cognate Akkadian form Ishtar. The second half is a Palmyrene divine name Athe (i.e. tempus opportunum), which occurs as part of many compounds. The heritage of Roman Edessa survives today in these columns at the site of Urfa Castle, dominating the skyline of the modern city of Åžanlı Urfa. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christianity. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... ‘Ashtart, commonly known as Astarte (also Hebrew or Phoenician עשתרת, Ugaritic ‘ttrt (also ‘Attart or ‘Athtart), Akkadian dAs_tar_tú (also Astartu), Greek Αστάρτη (Astártê)), was a major northwest_Semitic goddess, cognate in name, origin, and functions with... ‘Ashtart, commonly known as Astarte (also Hebrew or Phoenician עשתרת, Ugaritic ‘ttrt (also ‘Attart or ‘Athtart), Akkadian dAs_tar_tú (also Astartu), Greek Αστάρτη (Astártê)), was a major northwest_Semitic goddess, cognate in name, origin, and functions with... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Ishtar is the Assyrian and Babylonian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate northwest Semitic goddess Astarte. ...


As a consequence of the first half of the name, Atargatis has frequently, though wrongly, been identified as ‘Ashtart. The two deities were probably of common origin and have many features in common, but their cults are historically distinct. We find reference to an Atargateion or Atergateion, a temple of Atargatis) at Carnion in Gilead (cf. 1 Maccabees 5.43), but the home of the goddess was unquestionably not Israel or Canaan, but Syria proper, especially at Hierapolis, where she had a great temple. In the Bible, Gilead (גִּלְעָד Heap/mass of testimony/witness, Standard Hebrew GilÊ¿ad, Tiberian Hebrew Gilʿāḏ) is the name of three persons and two geographic places. ... 1 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which was written by a Jewish (pre-Christian) author, probably about 100 BC, after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom. ... Canaan (Canaanite: כנען, Hebrew: , Greek: Χαναάν whence Latin: Canaan; and from Hebrew, Aramaic: whence Arabic: ‎). Canaan is an ancient term for a region approximating present-day Israel(94%.) and West Bank and Gaza plus adjoining coastal lands and parts of Lebanon and Syria. ... The theatre Hierapolis (Arabic Manbij or Mumbij) is an ancient Syrian town occupying one of the finest sites in Northern Syria, in a fertile district about 16 miles southwest of the confluence of the Sajur and Euphrates. ...

Atargatis, on the reverse of a coin of Demetrius III Eucaerus. She is veiled, holding flower, barley stalks at each shoulder.
Atargatis, on the reverse of a coin of Demetrius III Eucaerus. She is veiled, holding flower, barley stalks at each shoulder.

From Syria her worship extended to Greece and to the furthest west. Lucian and Apuleius give descriptions of the beggar-priests who went round the great cities with an image of the goddess on an ass and collected money. The wide extension of the cult is attributable largely to Syrian merchants; thus we find traces of it in the great seaport towns; at Delos especially numerous inscriptions have been found bearing witness to its importance. Again we find the cult in Sicily, introduced, no doubt, by slaves and mercenary troops, who carried it even to the farthest northern limits of the Roman empire. In many cases Atargatis and ‘Ashtart and other goddesses who once had independent cults and mythologies became fused to such an extent as to be indistinguishable. Image File history File links DemetriusIIICoin. ... Image File history File links DemetriusIIICoin. ... Coin of Demetrius III. Obv: Diademed head of Demetrius III. Greek legend BASILEWS DHMHTRIOU QEOU FILOPATOROS SWTHROS King Demetrius, Loving son and Saviour. Rev: Figure of Atargatis, veiled, holding flower, barley stalks at each shoulder. ... Lucian Lucian of Samosata (Greek, Λουκιανὸς Σαμοσατεύς, Latin, Lucianus; c. ... Lucius Apuleius (c. ... The island of Delos, Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847 The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian, Sicilian and Spanish, Σικελία in Greek) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 km² and 5 million inhabitants. ... Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld practices of various schools of thought. ...


This fusion is exemplified by the Carnion temple, which is probably identical with the famous temple of ‘Ashtart at Ashtaroth-Karnaim. Atargatis generally appears as the wife of Hadad. They are the protecting deities of the community. Atargatis, wears a mural crown, is the ancestor the royal house, the founder of social and religious life, the goddess of generation and fertility (hence the prevalence of phallic emblems), and the inventor of useful appliances. Not unnaturally she is identified with the Greek Aphrodite. By the conjunction of these many functions, she becomes ultimately a great Nature-goddess, analogous to Cybele and Rhea; in one aspect she typifies the protection of water in producing life; in another, the universal of other-earth (Macrobius, Saturn. 1.23); in a third (influenced, no doubt, by Chaldean astrology), the power of destiny. Coat of Arms of Malta includes a Mural Crown The term Mural crown (from Latin corona muralis) as used in Roman antiquity, was a golden crown, or a circle of gold intended to resemble a battlement, bestowed to a soldier who first climbed the wall of a besieged city or... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 Aphrodite (Greek: Ἀφροδίτη, pronounced in English as and in Ancient Greek as ) was the Greek goddess of love, lust, beauty, and sexuality. ... Cybele with her attributes. ... Rhea (or Ria meaning she who flows) was the Titaness daughter of Uranus and of Gaia. ... Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius, Roman grammarian and Neoplatonist philosopher, flourished during the reigns of Honorius and Arcadius (395–423). ... Look up Chaldean in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The legends are numerous and of an astrological character. An account for the Syrian dove-worship and abstinence from fish is seen in the story in Athenaeus 8.37, where Atargatis is explained to mean "without Gatis", the name of a queen who is said to have forbidden the eating of fish. Thus Diodorus Siculus (2.4.2) quoting Ctesias, tells how Derceto fell in love with a youth and became by him the mother of a child and how in shame Derceto flung herself into a lake near Ascalon and her body was changed into the form of a fish though her head remained human. Derceto's child grew up to become Semiramis, the Assyrian queen. In another story told by Hyginus, an egg fell from the sky into the Euphrates, was rolled onto land by fish, doves settled on it and hatched it, and Venus, known as the Syrian goodess, came forth. Athenaeus (ca. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... Ctesias of Cnidus (in Caria) (Greek ), was a Greek physician and historian, who flourished in the 5th century BC. In early life he was physician to Artaxerxes Mnemon, whom he accompanied in 401 BC on his expedition against his brother Cyrus the Younger. ... The name Ascalon can refer to a number of possible topics: a middle-eastern city, more usually called Ashkelon the lance (or in some versions of the story, sword) that St George used to slay the dragon, named after the city Ashkelon the British WW2 aeroplane used by Winston Churchill... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Gaius Julius Hyginus, (c. ... The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name, Arabic: الفرات Al-Furat, Armenian: Եփրատ Yeṗrat, Hebrew: פְּרָת Perath, Kurdish: Ferat, Azeri: Fərat, Old Persian: Ufrat, Syriac: ܦܪܘܬ or ܦܪܬ Frot or Prâth, Turkish: Fırat, Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other being the... Marble Venus of the Capitoline Venus type, Roman (British Museum) Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. ...


Ovid in his Metamorphoses (5.331) relates that Venus took the form of a fish to hide from Typhon. Eratosthenes explained the constellation of Piscis Austrinus as the parent of the two fish making up the constellation of Pisces, placed in the heavens in memory of when Derceto fell into the lake at Bambyce near the Euphrates in Syria and was saved by a large fish which is why the Syrians don't eat fish. In his Fasti (2.459–74) Ovid instead relates how Dione, by which Ovid here means Venus/Aphrodite, fleeing from Typhon with her child Cupid/Eros came to the river Euphrates in Syria. Hearing the wind suddenly rise and fearing that it was Typhon, the goddess begged aid from the river nymphs and leapt into the river with her son. Two fish bore them up and were rewarded by being transformed into the constellation Pisces and for that reason the Syrians will eat no fish. Engraved frontispiece of George Sandyss 1632 London edition of Publius Ovidius Naso (Sulmona, March 20, 43 BC â€“ Tomis, now Constanta AD 17) Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid, wrote on topics of love, abandoned women, and mythological transformations. ... Cover of George Sandyss 1632 edition of The Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid is a poem in fifteen books that describes the creation and history of the world in terms of Greek and Roman mythology. ... Chalcidian black-figure hydria of Typhon fighting Zeus, c. ... Eratosthenes (Ἐρατοσθένης) Eratosthenes (Greek ) (276 BC - 194 BC) was a Hellenistic mathematician, geographer and astronomer. ... Piscis Austrinus or Piscis Australis (both of which are Latin for Southern Fish) was one of the 48 constellations listed by Ptolemy, and is also one of the 88 modern constellations. ... The theatre Hierapolis Bambyce or Mabug (Arabic Manbij or Mumbij) is not to be confused with the better known Hierapolis on top of the Pamukkale hot springs in western Turkey near Denizli, listed as a World Heritage Site. ... Dione in Greek mythology is a vague goddess presence who has her most concrete form in Book V of Homers Iliad as the mother of Aphrodite: Aphrodite journeys to Diones side after she has been wounded in battle while protecting her favorite son Aeneas. ... Chalcidian black-figure hydria of Typhon fighting Zeus, c. ... Cupidon (French for Cupid), by William-Adolphe Bouguereau, 1875. ... In Greek mythology, Eros was the god responsible for lust, love, and sex; he was also worshipped as a fertility deity. ... For the astrological sign, see Pisces (astrology). ...


References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Moshe Weinfeld, Semiramis: her name and her origin. In: Mordechai Cogan/Israel Eph’al (Hrsg.), Ah, Assyria ... Studies in Assyrian history and ancient Near Eastern historiography presented to Hayim Tadmor (Scripta Hierosolymitana 33), (Jerusalem 1991), 99-103.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

  • Jewish Encyclopedia: Derceto
  • Lucian of Samosata, Concerning the Syrian Goddess (English translation and commentary.)

This assessment of the second half of the name Atargatis may miss an important play on words. Rather than deriving the "second half is a Palmyrene divine name Athe...", there may be a closer connection to a word that actually has the "g" sound in it, and is consistent with the "fish" context of Atargatis.


As per Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon (see www.perseus.org ) the Greek word "gados" means "fish". For example, the Greek name for "sea monster" (e.g., whale) is the cognate term "ketos". So Atar-Gatis probably means the "Fish Goddess Atar".


  Results from FactBites:
 
Atargatis - LoveToKnow 1911 (541 words)
Atargatis appears generally as the wife of Hadad (Baal).
Atargatis, in the capacity of fro?uovxos, wears a mural crown, is the ancestor of the royal house, the founder of social and religious life, the goddess of generation and fertility (hence the prevalence of phallic emblems), and the inventor of useful appliances.
In another story she was hatched from an egg found by some fish in the Euphrates and by them thrust on the bank where it was hatched by a dove; out of gratitude she persuaded Jupiter to transfer the fish to the Zodiac (cf.
Atargatis at AllExperts (1008 words)
Atargatis, in Aramaic ‘Atar‘atah, was a Syrian deity, more commonly known to the Greeks by a shortened form of the name, Derceto or Derketo (Strabo 16.785; Pliny, Nat.
Atargatis, on the reverse of a coin of Demetrius III Eucaerus.
Atargatis, wears a mural crown, is the ancestor the royal house, the founder of social and religious life, the goddess of generation and fertility (hence the prevalence of phallic emblems), and the inventor of useful appliances.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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