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Encyclopedia > Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
अटल बिहारी वाजपेयी


In office
May 16, 1996 – June 1, 1996
Preceded by Narasimha Rao
Succeeded by Deve Gowda

Second Term
In office
March 19, 1998 – May 22, 2004
Preceded by I. K. Gujral
Succeeded by Dr. Manmohan Singh

Born December 25, 1924 (1924-12-25) (age 82)
Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, British India
Political party Bharatiya Janata Party
Occupation Politician , Poet
Religion Hindu

Atal Bihari Vajpayee (Hindi: अटल बिहारी वाजपेयी, IPA: [əʈəl bɪhaːriː vaːdʒpeiː]) (born December 25, 1924) was the Prime Minister of India, briefly in 1996, and again from March 19, 1998 until May 19, 2004. He retired from active politics in December 2005, but still comments on and participates in national debates of policy, welfare and defence. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao (Telugu: ) (28 June 1921 – 23 December 2004) was the twelth Prime Minister of the Republic of India[1] and led one of the most important administrations in Indias modern history overseeing a major economic transformation and several incidents affecting national security. ... Haradanahalli Doddegowda Deve Gowda (Kannada: ಎಚ್ ಡಿ ದೇವೇಗೌಡ) (b. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Inder Kumar Gujral (born 4 December 1919) was the twelfth Prime Minister of the Republic of India. ... This article is about the Prime Minister of India. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , Gwalior   is a city in Madhya Pradesh in India. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... The Bharatiya Janata Party [BJP] (Hindi: , translation: Indian Peoples Party), created in 1980, is a major Indian political party. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


He is a senior leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party and Indian politics in general. He has served as a member of the Parliament of India for nearly 50 years. He is also a poet, writing in his native language, Hindi. The Bharatiya Janata Party [BJP] (Hindi: , translation: Indian Peoples Party), created in 1980, is a major Indian political party. ... Sansad Bhavan, The Parliament of India The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is bicameral. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the two central official languages of India, the other being English. ...

Contents

Early political career

Vajpayee's involvement in politics began as a freedom-fighter during the Quit India Movement of 1942-1945. Later he joined the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), an organization propounding Hindutva, or Hindu Nationalism and considered Right-Wing in Indian politics. The Quit India Movement (Bharat Chhodo Andolan or the August Movement) was a civil disobedience movement in India launched in August 1942 in response to Mahatma Gandhis call for immediate independence of India. ... The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (Hindi: , English: ), also known as the Sangh or the RSS, is a Hindu nationalist organization in India. ... For Veer Savarkars book Hindutva, see Hindutva. ...


He became a close follower and aide to Syama Prasad Mookerjee, the leader of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh (BJS). Vajpayee was at Mookerjee's side when he went on a fast-unto-death in Kashmir in 1953, to protest the identity card requirement and what he claimed was the "inferior" treatment of Indian citizens visiting Kashmir, and the special treatment accorded to Kashmir because it had a Muslim majority. Mookerjee's fast and protest ended the identity card requirement, and hastened the integration of Kashmir into the Indian Union. But Mookherjee died after weeks of weakness, illness and confinement in jail. These events were a watershed moment for the young Vajpayee. Taking the baton from Mookerjee, Vajpayee won his first election to parliament in 1957. Syama Prasad Mookerjee (also spelled as Shyama Prasad Mukherjee) (July 6, 1901 – May 23, 1953) was the founder of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh. ... Bharatiya Jana Sangh is the old name of Bharatiya Janata Party of India. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...


As the leader of BJS, he expanded its political appeal, organization and agenda. In spite of his youth, he soon became a respected voice in the opposition -- one of reason and intelligence. His broad appeal brought respect, recognition and acceptance to a rising nationalist cultural movement.

See also: Indian Nationalism, Hindutva, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For Veer Savarkars book Hindutva, see Hindutva. ... The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (Hindi: , English: ), also known as the Sangh or the RSS, is a Hindu nationalist organization in India. ...

The Janata phase

While the Bharatiya Jana Sangh had strong constituencies of support, it failed to dislodge the Indian National Congress as the leading party in Indian parliament. Indira Gandhi's vast majorities in 1967 and 1971 further diminished other political parties. Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) ran a whole big country. ...


When Prime Minister Gandhi imposed a national state of emergency in 1975, the RSS and BJS joined a wide-array of parties in opposing the suspension of elections and civil liberties. Vajpayee was briefly jailed during that period. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


When Indira Gandhi called elections in 1977, the BJS joined the Janata coalition, a vast collage of regional groups, socialist, communist and right-wing forces. Janata swept the polls and formed the next government under Prime Minister Morarji Desai. Vajpayee took office as the Minister for External Affairs. Morarji Ranchhodji Desai (Hindi: ) (February 29, 1896 – April 10, 1995) was an Indian freedom fighter and the first Prime Minister that did not belong to the Indian Congress Party. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a cabinet minister who helps form the governmental foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ...


In a tenure lasting two years, Vajpayee achieved several milestones. He went on a historic visit to China in 1979, normalizing relations with China for the first time since the 1962 Sino-Indian War. He also visited Pakistan and initiated normal dialogue and trade relations that were frozen since the 1971 Indo-Pak War and subsequent political instability in both countries. This act was particularly surprising for a man perceived as a hard-right Hindu nationalist. Minister Vajpayee represented the nation at the Conference on Disarmament, where he defended the national nuclear program, the centerpiece of national security in the Cold War world, especially with neighboring China being a nuclear power. (India had become the sixth nuclear power in the world with an underground nuclear test at Pokhran in 1974) Although he resigned in 1979 when the government politically attacked the RSS, he had established his credentials as an experienced statesman and respected political leader. During this tenure, he also became the first person to deliver a speech to the United Nations General Assembly in Hindi (in 1977), the "most unforgettable" moment in his life by his own admission. Combatants China India Commanders Zhang Guohua[4] Brij Mohan Kaul Strength 80,000[5][6] Casualties Killed 1,460 (Chinese sources)[7] None captured[8][9][10][11] Wounded 1,697[7] Killed 3,128 (Indian sources)[12] Captured 3,968[2] Wounded 548[13] The Sino-Indian War (Simplified... Combatants India Mukti Bahini Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora A. A. K. Niazi # Strength 500,000+ troops 400,000+ troops Casualties 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] c. ... Conference on Disarmament (CD) is a multilateral disarmament negotiating forum. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Pokhran (also spelt Pokaran) is a city and a municipality in Jaisalmer district in the Indian state of Rajasthan. ...


The rise of the BJP

Part of a series on
Hindu politics Hindu politics refers to the political movements professing to draw inspiration from Hinduism. ...

Major parties

Bharatiya Janata Party
Shiv Sena
Hindu Mahasabha
The Bharatiya Janata Party [BJP] (Hindi: , translation: Indian Peoples Party), created in 1980, is a major Indian political party. ... SS election symbol Shiv Sena or शिव सेना (meaning Army of Shiva, referring to Shiva) is a political party in India founded on June 19, 1966 by Bal Thackeray, who is the president of the party. ... Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha, a Hindu nationalist organization, was originally founded in 1915 to counter the Muslim League and the secular Indian National Congress. ...

Defunct parties

Bharatiya Jana Sangh
Ram Rajya Parishad
Bharatiya Jana Sangh is the old name of Bharatiya Janata Party of India. ... Ram Rajya Parishad (), Sanskrit, Forum of Ramas Kingdom, was a traditionalist Hindu party in India. ...

Ideas

Integral humanism
Hindu nationalism
Hindutva
Integral humanism is the political philosophy practised by the Bharatiya Janata Party and the former Bharatiya Jana Sangh of India. ... Hindu nationalism is a nationalist ideology that sees the modern state of the Republic of India as a Hindu polity [1] (Hindu Rashtra), and seeks to preserve the Hindu heritage. ... For Veer Savarkars book Hindutva, see Hindutva. ...

Major figures

Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
Syama Prasad Mookerjee
Deendayal Upadhyaya
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Lal Krishna Advani
Bal Thackeray
Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856 - 1920), was an Indian nationalist, social reformer and freedom fighter who was the first popular leader of the Indian Independence Movement. ... Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya was a national leader and a freedom fighter of India. ... Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Vināyak Dāmodar Sāvarkar (Marathi: विनायक दामोदर सावरकर) (May 28, 1883 – February 26, 1966) was an Indian politician and activist, who is credited with developing the Hindu nationalist political ideology Hindutva. ... Syama Prasad Mookerjee (also spelled as Shyama Prasad Mukherjee) (July 6, 1901 – May 23, 1953) was the founder of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh. ... Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya (Hindi:पण्डित दीनदयाल उपाध्याय) (September 25, 1916 - February 11, 1968), along with Dr.Syama Prasad Mookerjee, was an important leader of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, now the Bharatiya Janata Party. ... Lal Krishna Advani (Sindhi: लाल कृष्ण आडवाणी, لال ڪرشنا آڏواڻي) ( ਲਾਲ ਕ੍ਰਿਸ਼ਨ ਆਡਵਾਨੀ ), also known as Lal Kishenchand Advani (Sindhi: लाल किशेन्चन्द आडवाणी, لال ڪشن چند آڏواڻي) (b. ... Bal Keshav Thackeray (Marathi: बाळ केशव ठाकरे bāḷ keśav ṭhākare) (born January 23, 1924), popularly called Balasaheb, and also Sher, Tiger, or Hindu Hridaysamrat, is the founder and president of the Shiv Sena, a Hindu nationalist, Marathi ethnocentric and populist party active mainly in the western Indian state of Maharashtra. ...

Related authors

B.C. Chattopadhyay
Koenraad Elst
Francois Gautier
Sita Ram Goel
K.S. Lal
Harsh Narain
Yvette Rosser
Arun Shourie
Ram Swarup
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (26 June 1838 - 8 April 1894) (Bengali: Bôngkim Chôndro Chôţţopaddhae) (Chattopadhyay in the original Bengali; Chatterjee as spelt by the British) was a Bengali Indian poet, novelist, essayist and journalist, most famous as the author of Vande Mataram or Bande Mataram... Koenraad Elst is a Belgian orientalist, writer and researcher[1]. He has authored fifteen books on topics related to Hinduism, Indian history, and Indian politics. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Sita Ram Goel (Devanāgarī: सीता राम गोयल, Sītā Rām Goyal) (1921–2003), author and publisher, is an important figure amongst late 20th century Hindu thinkers. ... K.S. Lal is a controversial Indian historian. ... Harsh Narain is an Indian author. ... Yvette Rosser is an American author, scholar and educationalist. ... Arun Shourie Arun Shourie (born 1941) is a prominent journalist, author, and politician of India. ... Ram Swarup (राम स्‍वरूप) (1920 - December 26, 1998) was an influential ideologue for the Hindutvamovement. ...

Politics · Govt of India ·  v  d  e 

Vajpayee resigned from government with Morarji Desai's resignation as prime minister, and the Janata coalition dissolved soon after. The BJS had devoted political organization to sustain the coalition and was left exhausted by the internecine wars within Janata.


Atal Bihari Vajpayee, along with many BJS and RSS colleagues, particularly his long-time and close friends Lal Krishna Advani and Bhairon Singh Shekhawat, formed the Bharatiya Janata Party in 1980 as the new home of Hindutva, right-wing social and economic ideas and nationalism. Vajpayee became its founding President. The BJP was a strong critic of the Congress government, and while it opposed the Sikh militancy that was rising in the state of Punjab, it also blamed Indira Gandhi for divisive and corrupt politics that fostered the militancy at national expense. Leader Darasingh opines that Vajpayee thus "brought in Hindu-Sikh harmony." [1] Lal Krishna Advani (Sindhi: लाल कृष्ण आडवाणी, لال ڪرشنا آڏواڻي) ( ਲਾਲ ਕ੍ਰਿਸ਼ਨ ਆਡਵਾਨੀ ), also known as Lal Kishenchand Advani (Sindhi: लाल किशेन्चन्द आडवाणी, لال ڪشن چند آڏواڻي) (b. ... Bhairon Singh Shekhawat (born October 23, 1923) is a former Vice-President of India. ... The Bharatiya Janata Party [BJP] (Hindi: , translation: Indian Peoples Party), created in 1980, is a major Indian political party. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ...


Although supporting Operation Bluestar, the BJP strongly protested the violence against Sikhs in Delhi that broke out in 1984 following the assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi by her Sikh bodyguards. Vajpayee was known and commended for protecting Sikhs against Congress-followers seeking to avenge the death of their leader. While the BJP won only two parliamentary seats in the 1984 elections, in which the Congress party led by Rajiv Gandhi (son of Indira Gandhi) won in a historic landslide, the BJP however had established itself in the mainstream of Indian politics, and soon began expanding its organization to attract younger Indians throughout the country. During this period Vajpayee remained center-stage as party President and Leader of the Opposition in Parliament, but increasingly hard-line Hindu nationalists began to rise within the party and define its politics. The Operation Blue Star (also known as the Golden Temple Massacre) (June 4 to June 6, 1984) was the Indian military raid of the Golden Temple in Amritsar, Punjab, the holiest temple of the Sikh religion. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... The Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party) is the largest subscription-based organisation in the world. ... Rajiv Ratna Gandhi (IPA: ) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) ran a whole big country. ...


The BJP became the political voice of the Ram Janmabhoomi Mandir Movement, which was led by activists of the Vishwa Hindu Parishad and the RSS, and was seeking to build a temple dedicated to Lord Rama at the site of the Babri mosque in the city of Ayodhya. Hindu activists believed the site was the birthplace of the Lord, and thus qualified as one of the most sacred sites of Hinduism. Ram Janmabhoomi (राम जन्मभूमि) refers to a tract of land in the North Indian city of Ayodhya which is believed to be the birthplace of the Rama. ... The Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP; World Hindu Council in Hindi), is a Hindu nationalist organisation in Bharat, an offshoot of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. ... Rama ( in IAST, in DevanāgarÄ«) or Ramachandra is a legendary or historical king of ancient India. ... A view of the Babri Mosque, pre-1992. ... Ayodhya   (Hindi: अयोध्या, Urdu: ایودھیا IAST Ayodhyā) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


On December 6, 1992, hundreds of VHP and BJP activists broke down an organized protest into a frenzied attack on the mosque. By the end of the day, the mosque had crumbled to pieces. Over the following weeks, waves of violence between Hindus and Muslims erupted in various parts of the country, killing over 1000 people. The VHP organization was banned by the government, and many BJP leaders including Lal Krishna Advani were arrested briefly for provoking the destruction. Although widely condemned by many across the country for playing politics with sensitive issues, the BJP won the loyalty and support of millions of conservative Hindus, as well as national prominence.


Prime Minister of India

First Term: 1996

Political energy and expansion made BJP the single-largest political party in the Lok Sabha elected in 1996. Mired down by corruption scandals, the Congress was at a historic low, and a vast medley of regional parties and break-off factions dominated the hung Parliament. Asked to form the government, A.B. Vajpayee was sworn in as prime minister, but the BJP failed to gather enough support from other parties to form a majority. Vajpayee resigned after just 13 days, when it became clear that he could not garner a majority. Hung can refer to: Hung language, a Viet-Muong language spoken in Laos. ...


Second Term: 1998-1999

After a third-party coalition governed India between 1996 and 1998, the terribly divided Parliament was dissolved and fresh elections held. These elections again put the BJP at the head. This time, a cohesive bloc of political parties lined up with it to form the National Democratic Alliance, and A.B. Vajpayee was sworn in as the prime minister. The NDA proved its 286 vote majority in a narrow vote of confidence. Towards the end of 1998 however, the AIADMK under J.Jayalalitha withdrew its support from the 13-month old government. The government lost the ensuing vote of confidence motion by a single vote.Chief Minister of Orissa state voted in the parliment as sitting congress member. As the opposition was unable to come up with the numbers to form the new government, the country returned to elections with Vajpayee remaining the "care-taker prime minister". After the election in 1999, Vajpayee was sworn in as the Prime Minister for the third time. The coalition government that was formed lasted its full term of 5 years – the only non-Congress government to do so. The National Democratic Alliance is a name used by at least two groups India - National Democratic Alliance (India) Iraq - National Democratic Alliance (Iraq) Sudan - National Democratic Alliance (Sudan) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) is a regional political party in India. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ...


His premiership began at a decisive phase of national life and history: the Congress Party, dominant for over 40 years, appeared irreparably damaged, and fractious regional parties seemed to threaten the very stability of the nation by continually fracturing government work.


Nuclear Bomb Testing

In May 1998, India conducted five underground nuclear weapon tests in Pokhran, Rajasthan. The five tests shocked and surprised the world, especially considering that the government had been in power for only a month. Two weeks later, Pakistan responded with its own nuclear weapon tests, making it the newest nation with nuclear weapons. 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Pokhran (also spelt Pokaran) is a city and a municipality in Jaisalmer district in the Indian state of Rajasthan. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ...


While some nations, such as Russia and France, endorsed India's right to defensive nuclear power, others including USA, Canada, Japan, UK and the European Union imposed sanctions on the sale of military equipment and high-tech scientific information, resources and technology to India or Pakistan. In spite of the intense international criticism steady decline in foreign investment and trade, the nuclear tests were popular domestically and the Vajpayee's popularity and the BJP's prestige rose in response.


During his premiership, Vajpayee introduced many important economic and infrastructural reforms domestically including, encouraging the private sector and foreign investements; reducing governmental waste; encouraging research and development and privatizing of government owned corporations.


Lahore summit

In late 1998 and early 1999, Vajpayee began a push for a full-scale diplomatic peace process with Pakistan. With the historic inauguration of the Delhi-Lahore bus service in February 1999, Vajpayee initiated a new peace process aimed towards permanently resolving the Kashmir dispute and other territorial/nuclear/strategic conflicts with Pakistan. The resultant Lahore Declaration espoused a commitment to dialogue, expanded trade relations and the goal of denuclearized South Asia, and mutual friendship. This eased the tension created by the 1998 nuclear tests, not only within the two nations, but also in South Asia and the rest of the world. The Lahore Declaration was a historic declaration signed by the Indian Prime Minister, Mr. ...


The Vajpayee led government was faced with two crises in mid-1999. The AIADMK party had continually threatened to withdraw support from the coalition and national leaders repeatedly flew down from Delhi to Chennai to pacify the AIADMK chief J. Jayalalitha. Finally, in May 1999, the AIADMK did pull the plug on the NDA, and the Vajpayee administration was reduced to a caretaker status pending fresh elections scheduled for October. Jayalalitha Jayalalithaa Jayaram or J.Jayalalithaa (born February 24, 1948, Mysore) is the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, India (since March 2, 2002). ...


Kargil Invasion

(see main article Kargil War) More importantly and soon after, it was revealed that thousands of terrorists and non-uniformed Pakistani soldiers (many with official identifications and Pakistan Army's custom weaponry) had infiltrated into the Kashmir Valley and captured control of border hilltops, unmanned border posts and were spreading out fast. The incursion was centered around the town of Kargil, but also included the Batalik and Akhnoor sectors and include artillery exchanges at the Siachen Glacier. Combatants India Pakistan, Kashmiri secessionists, Islamic militants (Foreign Fighters) Strength 30,000 5,000 Casualties Indian Official Figures: 527 killed,[1][2][3] 1,363 wounded[4] 1 POW Pakistani Estimates: 357–4,000+ killed[5][6] (Pakistan troops) 665+ soldiers wounded[5] 8 POWs. ... Pakistan Army Flag The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is mainly responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations. ... Kargil was a part of Gilgit-Baltistan before 1947, but now is a town in the Indian-controlled Kashmir. ... Batalik is a part of Indian Administered Kashmir which has been the centre of all Indo-Pakistani wars. ... 59. ... The Siachen Glacier is located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalaya Mountains along the disputed India-Pakistan border at approximately . ...


Indian army units were rushed into Kashmir in response. Operation Vijay (1999), launched in June 1999, saw the Indian military fighting thousands of terrorists and soldiers amidst heavy artillery shelling and while facing extremely cold weather, snow and treacherous terrain at the high altitude. Over 500 Indian soldiers died in the three-month long Kargil War, and it is estimated around 600 Pakistani militants and soldiers died as well. Pakistan's army shot down two air force jets. The mutilation of the body of pilot Ajay Ahuja inflamed public opinion in India. After both the United States and China refused to condone the incursion or threaten India to stop its military operations, Pakistan's Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif asked the militants to stop and withdraw to Pakistan-occupied Kashmir. In the 1999 Kargil Conflict between India and Pakistan, Operation Vijay (Victory in Hindi) was the name of the successful Indian operation to push back the infiltrators from the Kargil Sector. ... Combatants India Pakistan, Kashmiri secessionists, Islamic militants (Foreign Fighters) Strength 30,000 5,000 Casualties Indian Official Figures: 527 killed,[1][2][3] 1,363 wounded[4] 1 POW Pakistani Estimates: 357–4,000+ killed[5][6] (Pakistan troops) 665+ soldiers wounded[5] 8 POWs. ... Sqn. ... Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (Urdu: میاں محمد نواز شریف ) (born December 25, 1949 in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan) is a Pakistani politician. ...


Third Term: 1999-2004

On October 13, 1999, General Pervez Musharraf, chief of Pakistan's army and the chief planner of the Kargil conflict, seized power from the civilian, democratic government of Pakistan, and established his own dictatorship. On the same day, Atal Bihari Vajpayee took oath as Prime Minister of India for the third time. The BJP-led NDA had won 303 seats in the 543 seat Lok Sabha, a comfortable, stable majority, without the AIADMK. General Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: پرويز مشرف) (born August 11, 1943) is the President of Pakistan, the Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army and had become the leader of the country in wake of a coup. ... The Kargil War was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan in late 1999 in Indian-controlled Kashmir. ...


A national crisis popped up in December 1999, when an Indian Airlines flight (IC 814 from Nepal) was hijacked by Pakistani terrorists and flown via Pakistan to Taliban ruled Afghanistan. The media and the relatives of the hijacked passengers built up tremendous pressure on the government to give in to the hijackers' demand to release certain Kashmiri terrorists, including high-ranking Maulana Masood Azhar, from prison. The government ultimately caved in and Jaswant Singh, the Indian External Affairs minister, flew with the terrorists to Afghanistan and exchanged them for the passengers. No explanation was given by the Indian government for the External Affairs minister personally escorting the terrorists. The crisis also worsened the relationship between India and Pakistan, as the hijacked plane was allowed to re-fuel in Lahore, and all the hijackers, except one, were Pakistanis. Executive class cabin of an Indian Airbus A320 Indian Airlines Limited or Air India (Hindi: ) is Indias state owned primarily domestic airline, under the federal Union Ministry of Civil Aviation and based in New Delhi. ... Indian Airlines Flight 814 was a flight that flew from Kathmandu, Nepal to Delhi, Indias Indira Gandhi International Airport // The hijack The Indian Airlines flight 814 was hijacked on Christmas Eve,December 24, 1999, shortly after takeoff by from Kathmandu airport in Nepal and entered Indian airspace. ... The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim Pashtun movement that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1995 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the United States, United Kingdom and the Northern Alliance. ... Maulana Masood Azhar is a former clergyman from Bahawalpur, Pakistan. ... Jaswant Singh (left) with Donald Rumsfeld Jaswant Singh (born January 3, 1938) is an Indian politician. ...

A.B.Vajpayee meeting President Bush in the White House in 2003
A.B.Vajpayee meeting President Bush in the White House in 2003

Image File history File links Vajpayee_Bush. ... Image File history File links Vajpayee_Bush. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...

National Highways Development Project

Vajpayee oversaw his National Highway Development Project begin construction, in which he took a personal interest. The National Highways Development Project is a project to upgrade major roads in India to a higher standard. ...


In March 2000 Bill Clinton, the President of the United States made the second visit by any American President to India and thus gave a fillip to the government. Since the visit followed barely two years after the Pokhran tests, and one year after the Kargil invasion and the subsequent coup in Pakistan, it was read to reflect a major shift in the post-Cold War U.S. foreign policy. The Indian Prime Minister and the U.S. President discussed strategic issues, but the chief achievement was a significant expansion in trade and economic ties. William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... President of the United States, George W. Bush (right) at Camp David in March 2003, hosting the British Prime Minister Tony Blair. ...


Domestically, the BJP led government was under constant pressure from its ideological mentor, the RSS, and the hard-line VHP to enact the Hindutva agenda. But owing to its dependence on coalition support, it was impossible for the BJP to push items like building the Ram Janmabhoomi Mandir in Ayodhya, repealing Article 370 which gave a special status to the state of Kashmir, or enacting a uniform civil code applicable to adherents of all religions. The BJP was however accused of saffron-ising (saffron is the color of the flag of the RSS, symbol of the Hindu nationalism movement) the official state education curriculum and apparatus. Home Minister L.K. Advani and Education Minister Murli Manohar Joshi were indicted in the 1992 Babri Mosque demolition case for inciting the mob of activists. The RSS also routinely criticized the government for free-market policies which introduced foreign goods and competition at the expense of home industries and products. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Ayodhya   (Hindi: अयोध्या, Urdu: ایودھیا IAST Ayodhyā) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ... Article 370 of the Indian constitution, which is of a temporary nature grants special status to Jammu and Kashmir. ... Saffron is a shade of yellow resembling the spice saffron. ... Lal Krishna Advani (born November 8, 1927/1929, Karachi) is an Indian politician. ... Murli Manohar Joshi was the Union Human Resources Development minister of India in the NDA government. ... A view of the Babri Mosque, pre-1992. ...


Vajpayee's administration earned the ire of many unionized workers groups and government workers for their aggressive campaign to privatize government owned corporations. Vajpayee promoted pro-business, free market reforms to reinvigorate India's economic transformation and expansion that were started by former PM Narasimha Rao but stalled after 1996 due to unstable governments and the 1997 Asian financial crisis. Increased competitiveness, extra funding and support for the information technology and high-tech industries, improvements in infrastructure, deregulation of trade, investments and corporate laws - all increased foreign capital investment and set in motion an economic expansion. Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao (June 28, 1921 - December 23, 2004) was the ninth Prime Minister of the Republic of India. ... The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ...


These couple of years of reform however were accompanied by infighting in the administration and confusion regarding the direction of government. Cabinet portfolios were created and shuffled every six months apparently to pacify restless coalition partners. Vajpayee's weakening health was also a subject of public interest, and he underwent a major knee-replacement surgery at the Breach Candy Hospital in Mumbai to relieve great pressure on his legs. , “Bombay” redirects here. ...


In 2000, the Tehelka group released incriminating videos of the BJP President Bangaru Laxman, senior army officers and NDA members accepting bribes from journalists posing as agents and businessmen. While the scandals were not linked to Vajpayee's personally, the Defence Minister George Fernandes was forced to resign following this Barak Missile Deal Scandal, another scandal involving the botched supplies of coffins for the soldiers killed in Kargil, and the finding of an inquiry commission that the Government could have prevented the Kargil invasion. These developments as well as an ambiguous response of the economy to the reforms, reduced the Vajpayee administration's popularity and undermined its future. Tehelka is an Indian weekly newspaper under the editorship of Tarun Tejpal. ... George Fernandes (born 3 June 1930) is a member of the 14th Lok Sabha of India. ... The Barak Missile Deal Scandal pertains to an ongoing investigation by Indian authorities of allegations of corruption in the purchase of Barak Missile Systems by India from Israel. ...


Vajpayee again broke the ice in the Indo-Pak relations by inviting Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf to Delhi and Agra for a joint summit and peace talks. His second-major attempt to move beyond the stalemate tensions involved inviting the man who had planned the Kargil invasions, but accepting him as the President of Pakistan, Vajpayee chose to move forward. But after three days of much fanfare, which included Musharraf visiting his birthplace in Delhi, the summit failed to achieve a breakthrough as President Musharraf declined to leave aside the issue of Kashmir. For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... , stop erasing thisAgra   (Hindi: , Urdu: ), (IPA: ) is a city on the banks of the Yamuna River in Uttar Pradesh, India. ... The President of Pakistan (UrdÅ«: صدر مملکت Sadr-e-Mamlikat) is Head of State of Pakistan. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...


Attack on Parliament

On December 13, 2001, a group of masked, armed men with fake IDs stormed the Parliament building in Delhi. The terrorists managed to kill several security guards, but the building was sealed off swiftly and security forces cornered and killed the men, who were later proven to be Pakistan nationals. Coming just three months after the September 11 terrorist attacks upon the United States, this fresh escalation instantly enraged the nation. Although the Government of Pakistan officially condemned the attack, Indian intelligence reports pointed the finger at a conspiracy rooted in Pakistan. Prime Minister Vajpayee ordered a mobilization of India's military forces, and as many as 500,000 servicemen amassed along the international boundary bordering Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Kashmir. Pakistan responded with the same. Vicious terrorist attacks and an aggressive anti-terrorist campaign froze day-to-day life in Kashmir, and foreigners flocked out of both India and Pakistan, fearing a possible war and nuclear exchange. For as long as two years, both nations remained perilously close to a terrible war. is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Parliament House, New Delhi The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is bicameral. ... The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ... Government of Pakistan (Urdu: حکومتِ پاکستان)The Constitution of Pakistan provides for a Federal Parliamentary System of government, with a President as the Head of State and an indirectly-elected Prime Minister as the chief executive. ... This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...


The Vajpayee administrations passed the Prevention of Terrorist Act against vigorous opposition of non-NDA parties. Under the law, several radical Islamic organizations that preached the conversion of Hindus and an Islamic state in India were banned and its leaders and members arrested. The Prevention of Terrorism Act (abbreviated as POTA) is an Indian Act of Parliament passed in 2002, to assign powers to the police and security forces in order to handle the threat of terrorism to the nation. ...


But the biggest political disaster hit between December 2001 and March 2002: the VHP held the Government hostage in a major standoff in Ayodhya over the Ram temple. At the 10th anniversary of the destruction of the Babri mosque, the VHP wanted to perform a sheela daan, or a ceremony laying the foundation stone of the cherished temple at the disputed site. Tens of thousands of VHP activists amassed and threatened to overrun the site and forcibly build the temple. A grave threat of not only communal violence, but an outright breakdown of law and order owing to the defiance of the government by a religious organization hung over the nation. [citation needed]


Just a week following the standoff, a train carriage carrying hundreds of VHP activists returning from Ayodhya was attacked by a Muslim mob in Godhra, Gujarat and the bogey was set afire, killing 59 activists. The result was an episode of communal violence in which over 1,000 people were killed and displaced. Three fourths of the killed were Muslims while the rest were Hindus. Organizations such as VHP affiliated with the ruling BJP, as well as the State government led by BJP leader and Chief Minister Narendra Modi, were accused of fomenting the violence, though this only remained to be an allegation. Vajpayee visited the state and publicly criticized the Chief Minister for not doing his moral duty to protect the people; he also spoke at a national party convention in Goa in June, 2002 allegedly attacking Muslims for having tolerated the Godhra attackers, and not doing enough to counter Islamic terrorism entering the country. In a Cabinet reshuffle, his long-time and close associate Lal Krishna Advani was designated Deputy Prime Minister of India, and increased power in the party and the Cabinet, and more credibility with the RSS and the conservative Hindu base. In September 2002, Narendra Modi led the BJP to a major victory, and thus vindication through the state assembly elections. His defiant victory was seen standing right against the moral criticism handed down by the Prime Minister. (See also:2002 Gujarat violence) , Godhra is a city and the Orginally the name came from Gou means Cow and Dhara means Flow. The Cow are Flowing in the Panchmahal District, a municipality in Panchmahal district in the Indian state of Gujarat. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Narendra Dāmodardās Modī (Gujarātī: નરેંદ્ર દામોદરદાસ મોદી, born September 17, 1950) has been the Chief Minister of the Indian state of Gujarat since October 7, 2001. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... In the parliamentary system a cabinet shuffle is an informal term for an event that occurs when a Head of Government rotates or changes the composition of ministers in his or her cabinet. ... The Deputy Prime Minister of India is a member of the Indian cabinet in the Indian government. ... The skyline of Ahmedabad filled with smoke as buildings and shops are set on fire by rioting mobs. ...


In late 2002 and 2003 the government pushed economic reforms, and the country's GDP growth accelerated at record levels, exceeding 6-7%. Increasing foreign investment, modernization of public and industrial infrastructure, the creation of jobs, a rising high-tech and IT industry and urban modernization and expansion improved the nation's national image. Good crop harvests and strong industrial expansion also helped the economy. The Government reformed the tax system, increased the pace of reforms and pro-business initiatives, major irrigation and housing schemes and so on. The political energies of the BJP shifted to the rising urban middle-class and young people, who were positive and enthusiastic about the major economic expansion and future of the country.


In August 2003, Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee announced before Parliament his "absolute last" effort to achieve peace with Pakistan. Although the diplomatic process never truly set-off immediately, visits were exchanged by high-level officials and the military stand-off ended. The Pakistani President and Pakistani politicians, civil and religious leaders hailed this initiative as did the leaders of America, Europe and much of the world.


In November-December 2003, the BJP won three major state elections, fought mainly on development issues, without ideological campaigns. A major public relations campaign was launched to reach out to Muslims and stop the 2002 controversies from haunting the party's future. But the attention of the media and of millions now moved from Vajpayee to his more possible successor, L.K. Advani, although the question was never directly raised or contested in any way. Vajpayee's age, failing health and diminished physical and mental vigor were obvious factors in such speculations. Advani assumed greater responsibilities in the party, and although no perceivable conflict has been known to arise between the longtime friends and political colleagues, several embarrassing statements were made. Once Vajpayee said "Advani would lead the BJP in the elections," prompting Advani to clarify that he would merely lead the election campaign, not the party. And then the BJP President Venkiah Naidu used mythological references to depict Vajpayee as a Vikas Purush, (Man of Progress), comparing him toBhishma Pitamah of the Mahabharata epic, a man respected by all political outfits and hundreds of millions of people. Advani was called the "Loh Purush" (Iron Man), a more potent reference suggestive of future developments. For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...


As the BJP prepared for general elections in 2004, either early or late, Vajpayee was still the choice of the BJP, and crucially of the wider NDA for the prime minister's job.


Criticism

Vajpayee is criticized for his reluctance to intervene in Gujarat government’s handling of the Gujarat riots. Within the RSS, he was often criticized for being moderate, and straying from the core ideology of the RSS. For other meanings of RSS, see RSS (disambiguation). ...


Life and legacy, praise and criticism, after the 2004 elections

A.B. Vajpayee's BJP and the National Democratic Alliance were expected to pick up more seats and score a major victory in the 2004 elections. The parliament was dissolved earlier than necessary in order to capitalize on the national economic boom and improved security and cultural atmosphere. The National Democratic Alliance is a name used by at least two groups India - National Democratic Alliance (India) Iraq - National Democratic Alliance (Iraq) Sudan - National Democratic Alliance (Sudan) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


A vigorous BJP campaign did its best to highlight the major progress achieved, and win the votes of the traditionally averse Muslims for the BJP candidates. Controversial and ideological issues were side-stepped in favor of bread-butter economic issues. But by the time the first three phases of voting were over, it was clear that the BJP was losing too many important seats to retain a formidable position in Parliament. The BJP and its flagship coalition, the NDA, lost almost half their seats in parliamentane several prominent cabinet ministers were defeated, and regional, socialist and Communist parties quickly grouped round the resurgent Indian National Congress led by Sonia Gandhi to form a left-of-center United Progressive Alliance, which formed the government under Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh. Sonia Gandhi (Hindi: , IPA: ), born Sonia Antonia Maino on December 9, 1946, is an Italian-born Indian politician, the President of the Indian National Congress and the widow of former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi. ... United Progressive Alliance (UPA) is the present ruling coalition of political parties in India. ... This article is about the Prime Minister of India. ...


The fact that Vajpayee attended the swearing-in of the new government despite his party's decision to boycott it symbolized the growing acrimony to come. Many criticized Vajpayee for sacrificing core issues like Hindutva and the Ram Temple, and going overboard to woo Muslims (the BJP lost the Muslim vote by a heavy margin), and even moving too early to elections. The pro-Vajpayee activists accused Narendra Modi's controversial regime in Gujarat and the obstructiveness of the Hindu hard-right VHP and RSS for the defeat. A possible factor behind the defeat was the widespread disenchantment amongst hundreds of millions of farmers, labourers and workers who were on the bottom-rung of society, mired in poverty, illiteracy and debt, and yet to cash in any benefit from the boom. While the BJP pandered to the rising middle-class of the cities, India's villages and small towns rallied behind pro-poor, socialistic political forces like the Congress and left parties.


A.B. Vajpayee expressed his anger and frustration with repeated signals of resignation and retirement. But at a high-level party meeting, he decided to give up the position of the Leader of the Opposition to his long-time friend, second-in-command and successor, Lal Krishna Advani, who also became BJP President. Always a figure of consensus, Vajpayee became Chairman of the National Democratic Alliance. It is a widespread feeling with critics, journalists and many people that Vajpayee's time at the pinnacle of national politics and the BJP, and his position as the obvious BJP choice for Prime Minister is steadily fading. Vajpayee himself is taking more backseat roles and responsibilities, and his health ailments limit his ability to deal with the premier position in national life. Lal Krishna Advani (Sindhi: लाल कृष्ण आडवाणी, لال ڪرشنا آڏواڻي) ( ਲਾਲ ਕ੍ਰਿਸ਼ਨ ਆਡਵਾਨੀ ), also known as Lal Kishenchand Advani (Sindhi: लाल किशेन्चन्द आडवाणी, لال ڪشن چند آڏواڻي) (b. ...


Atal Bihari Vajpayee's six years at the Prime Minister's Office led to a major transformation and expansion of the national economy. In the 1999 Kargil War, his leadership defended the country's integrity and security, while his broad-minded statesmanship in 1999, 2001 and 2004 kept the country's safety, peace and future on the high-course despite many discouraging events, failures and threats. During his 50 years as Member of Parliament, Vajpayee has established impeccable and virtually infallible credentials as a man of principle, integrity and commitment in the world of Indian politics, and as a leading visionary and statesman of the world. Combatants India Pakistan, Kashmiri secessionists, Islamic militants (Foreign Fighters) Strength 30,000 5,000 Casualties Indian Official Figures: 527 killed,[1][2][3] 1,363 wounded[4] 1 POW Pakistani Estimates: 357–4,000+ killed[5][6] (Pakistan troops) 665+ soldiers wounded[5] 8 POWs. ...


Atal Bihari Vajpayee sowed the seeds and rose with the growing nationalist movement in Indian politics. For four decades he was the flag-bearer, icon and undisputed leader of the Hindu nationalist political movement, working steadily through years of defeat and desolation to foster a major national movement, broad support amongst hundreds of millions and the leadership of the world's largest democracy and most diverse nation.


Vajpayee's government is criticized over its ignorance of the issues and concerns of India's poor millions, over the famous corruption scandals, and the episodes of communal violence and rise of both Hindu and Muslim radicalism in politics. While praised for his leadership during the Kargil War and for his peace efforts with Pakistan, the Vajpayee administration is blamed for not being able to detect and prevent two serious terrorist attacks on the country, and an incursion into Indian sovereign territory. Combatants India Pakistan, Kashmiri secessionists, Islamic militants (Foreign Fighters) Strength 30,000 5,000 Casualties Indian Official Figures: 527 killed,[1][2][3] 1,363 wounded[4] 1 POW Pakistani Estimates: 357–4,000+ killed[5][6] (Pakistan troops) 665+ soldiers wounded[5] 8 POWs. ...


In addition, his opponents in the Congress have accused Vajpayee of having turned an approver against freedom fighters during the British regime in 1942. They have circulated certain documents in support of this accusation, and solicited testimonies. Vajpayee has denied these accusations [2][3][4].


Vajpayee led a diverse, fractious coalition to complete a full five-year term in office, be the guiding light over a collage of political chaos. He gave stability and unity when the country was the least united, and security when the country was most susceptible. This included not only the security of the borders from invasion, but of the security of 100 million families with the provision of jobs and education in a solid, hopeful economic future, and the strategic national future security.


Despite the rejection of his party in 2004, Vajpayee has retained a position of esteem and respect amongst common people seldom offered to politicians in India. He was conferred Padma Vibhushan in 1992, Lokmanya Tilak Puruskar and the Pt. Govind Ballabh Pant Award for the Best Parliamentarian, both in 1994.


In December of 2005, Vajpayee announced his retirement, declaring that he would not participate in the next general election. At a rally in the western city of Mumbai, Vajpayee said "I will not participate in any electoral politics. There are many other leaders to take forward the work which I and other senior leaders have been doing. In a now famous statement at the BJP's silver Jubilee rally at Mumbai's historic Shivaji Park, Vajpayee announced that "from now onwards, Lal Krishna Advani and Pramod Mahajan would be the Ram-Laxman (the two godly brothers much revered and worshipped by Hindus) of the BJP."[5] Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


References

External links

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
  • J.N. Dixit India and Pakistan in War and Peace (2002-03)
  • Jonah Blank Arrow of the Blue Skinned God
  • BJP website
  • Govt. of India Website
  • Read few poems of Atal Bihari Vajpayee in Hindi Script
Preceded by
Yashwantrao Chavan
Minister for External Affairs of India
1977–1979
Succeeded by
Shyam Nandan Prasad Mishra
Preceded by
Inder Kumar Gujral
Minister for External Affairs of India
1998
Succeeded by
Jaswant Singh

  Results from FactBites:
 
Atal Bihari Vajpayee - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5640 words)
Atal Bihari Vajpayee (Hindi: अटल बिहारी वाजपेयी in Devanagari) (born December 25, 1924) was the Prime Minister of India in 1996 and again from October 13, 1998 until May 19, 2004.
Vajpayee is a native of Gwalior in Madhya Pradesh and has been active in Indian politics throughout his adult life (as a member of parliament, he has often resided in Delhi).
Atal Bihari Vajpayee, along with many BJS and RSS colleagues, especially his long-time and close friend Lal Krishna Advani, formed the Bharatiya Janata Party, the new home of Hindutva, right-wing social and economic ideas and nationalism.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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