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Encyclopedia > Atahualpa
Lifetime portrait of Atahuallpa, the last sovereign Inca emperor
Lifetime portrait of Atahuallpa, the last sovereign Inca emperor

Atahualpa or Atawallpa (c. 1502August 26, 1533 Quito, Ecuador), was the last sovereign emperor of the Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire. He became emperor upon defeating his younger half-brother Huáscar in a civil war sparked by the death of their father, Inca Huayna Capac, from an infectious disease thought to be malaria or smallpox. During the civil war, the Spaniard Francisco Pizarro crossed his path, captured Atahualpa, and used him to control the Inca empire. Eventually, the Spanish executed Atahualpa, ending the Inca Empire (although several successors claimed the title of Sapa Inca and led a resistance against the invading Spaniards). Atahualpa was son of Huayna Capac with a Shyri (Quito Kingdom) princess named Pacha. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (533x660, 113 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Atahualpa Battle of Chimborazo War of the two brothers ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (533x660, 113 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Atahualpa Battle of Chimborazo War of the two brothers ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... Capital Cusco 1197-1533 Vilcabamba 1533-1572 Language(s) Quechua, Aymara, Jaqi family, Mochic and scores of smaller languages. ... Huáscar, in full Inti Cusi Huallpa Huáscar (“Sun of Joy”) (died 1532). ... Huayna Capac (Quechua Wayna Qhapaq splendid youth) was the eleventh Sapa Inca (1493 - 1527) of the Inca Empire, and sixth of the Hanan dynasty. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ... Francisco Pizarro Francisco Pizarro (c. ...

Contents

History

On the death of their father, Huayna Capac, and their older brother, Ninan Cuyochi, who had been the heir, the empire was divided between the two surviving brothers, Huáscar and Atahualpa. Huascar got the major part of it, containing the capital Cusco, and Atahualpa the northern parts, including Quito (now the capital of Ecuador), his mother's family's ancestral home. For a couple of years, the two brothers reigned without problems. But Huascar, who considered himself to be the real Sapa Inca (emperor) because he was a legitimate son of Huayna Capac and his sister, demanded that Atahualpa swear an oath to him. Atahualpa refused, and the civil war began. Huayna Capac (Quechua Wayna Qhapaq splendid youth) was the eleventh Sapa Inca (1493 - 1527) of the Inca Empire, and sixth of the Hanan dynasty. ... Ninan Cuyochi, born 149?, died 1527, the oldest son of Sapa Inca Huayna Capac and first in line to inherit the Inca Empire, but he however died shortly before his father by smallpox, inflicting a civil war. ... Nickname: Location in Peru Coordinates: , Country Peru Region Cusco Province Cusco Founded 1100 A.D. 1st Government  - Type Democracy  - Mayor Carlos Valencia Miranda Elevation 3,310 m (10,859. ... Nickname: Luz de América Map of Ecuador showing location of Quito Coordinates: Country Ecuador Province Pichincha Canton Quito  - Mayor Paco Moncayo Area approx    - City 290 km²  - Land 290 km²  - Water 0 km² Elevation 2,800 m Population (2005, estimation)  - City 1,865,541 (canton)  - Density ~4,800/km² Time...


Huascar invaded the north with a great army and soon captured Atahualpa. Atahualpa fled from captivity with the help of a small girl, and united himself with the generals Chalicuchima and Quizquiz. He gathered an army and defeated Huascar in the battle of Chimborazo. Atahualpa pressed onward and began to capture the rest of the empire, including the town of Tumebamba, whose citizens he punished in gruesome ways because they had been on Huascar's side in the beginning of the civil war. Chalicuchima (alternatively spelled Challcuchima or Chalkuchimac) was, along with Quizquiz (Quisquis), one of Atahualpas two leading generals. ... Quizquiz was, along with Challcuchima, one of Atahualpas two leading generals. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Tumebamba or Tomebamba, former city-state in the Inca federation, belonging etnically to the Canaris faction. ...

Emperor Atahuallpa during the Battle of Cajamarca
Emperor Atahuallpa during the Battle of Cajamarca

The final battle took place at Quipaipan, where Huascar was captured and his army disbanded. Atahualpa had stopped in the city of Cajamarca in the Andes with his army of 80,000 troops on his way to the south and Cusco to claim his throne. Image File history File links Inca-Spanish confrontation in Cajamarca This work is presumed to be copyrighted, but its source has not been determined. ... Image File history File links Inca-Spanish confrontation in Cajamarca This work is presumed to be copyrighted, but its source has not been determined. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the city of Cajamarca. ... Nickname: Location in Peru Coordinates: , Country Peru Region Cusco Province Cusco Founded 1100 A.D. 1st Government  - Type Democracy  - Mayor Carlos Valencia Miranda Elevation 3,310 m (10,859. ...


By this time the Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro had established the city of Piura, the first Spanish settlement in Peru on July of 1532. After two months on the march, Pizarro had arrived at Cajamarca with just 168 men under his command and sent Hernando de Soto, friar Vicente de Valverde and native interpreter Felipillo to speak with Atahualpa about the Spanish presence. Conquistadors (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) were Spanish soldiers, explorers and adventurers who invaded and conquered much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 17th centuries, starting with the 1492 settlement by Christopher Columbus in what is now the Bahamas // Hernán Cort... Francisco Pizarro Francisco Pizarro (c. ... Piura: Plaza de Armas Piura is a city in northwestern Peru. ... Hernando de Soto. ... A friar is a member of a religious mendicant order of men. ... Vicente de Valverde was a Spanish bishop. ... Felipillo (or Felipe) was a native Peruvian who accompanied Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro on their various expeditions to Peru. ...


Through the interpreter, Valverde delivered the "Requirement," indicating that Atahualpa and his people must convert to Christianity, and if he refused he would be considered an enemy of the Church and of Spain. Atahualpa refused the Spanish presence in his land by saying he would "be no man's tributary". A document that Spanish conquistadors in Central and South America read to native populations before attacking them. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch...

"Be advised that I, being free, do not have to pay tribute to anyone, nor do I believe there is a king greater than I. However, I will have the pleasure to be the friend of your emperor, since he should be a great prince to send his armies throughout the world. But this Pope does not interest me; much less will I obey him, I being in the kingdom of my father and our religion being good and I and my subjects are happy. However, despite my being a son of Huayna Capac I cannot discuss anything so wise and old. The Christ that you speak of died, the Sun and Moon never die, besides how do you know your god created the world?"[1]

The Spanish envoys returned to Pizarro, who prepared a surprise attack against Atahualpa's army in what became the Battle of Cajamarca on November 16, 1532. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 45 days remaining. ... Events May 16 - Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. ...

The seizure of Atahualpa at Cajamarca

According to Spanish law, Atahualpa’s refusal of the Requirement allowed the Spanish to officially declare war on the Inca people. When Atahualpa coldly asked the priest Valverde by what authority he and his people could say such things, Valverde offered him a Bible, saying that the authority derived from the words in it. He examined it and then asked why did it not speak to him. He then threw it to the ground. That gave the Spaniards the excuse they needed to wage war on the Incas. They opened fire, and over the course of two hours more than two thousand Inca soldiers were killed. The Spanish then imprisoned Atahualpa in the Temple of the Sun. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (678x930, 189 KB)The seizure of Atahualpa at Cajamarca / J.M. Moreau junior, inv. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (678x930, 189 KB)The seizure of Atahualpa at Cajamarca / J.M. Moreau junior, inv. ...


Atahualpa still could not believe the Spanish intended to take control of his kingdom. He thought that if he gave them the gold and silver they sought they would leave. In exchange for his release, he agreed to fill a large room with gold and promised the Spanish twice that amount in silver. Although he was stunned by the offer, Pizarro had no intention of releasing the Inca because he needed the ruler's influence over the native people to maintain order in the surrounding country or, more to the point, he meant to depose Atahualpa, placing the entire empire under the rule of Spain's King Charles I (Holy Roman Emperor Charles V), with himself as viceroy. The Ransom room from the outside El Cuarto del Rescate (The Ransom Room) is a small room located in Cajamarca, Peru. ... Charles (February 24, 1500 – September 21, 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V) from 1519-1558; he was also King of Spain from 1516_1556, officially as Charles I of Spain, although often referred to as Charles V (Carlos Quinto or Carlos V) in Spain and Latin America. ...

Spaniards executing Tupac Amaru in 1572, drawing by Guaman Poma de Ayala
Spaniards executing Tupac Amaru in 1572, drawing by Guaman Poma de Ayala

Still outnumbered and fearing an imminent attack from the Inca general Rumiñahui, after several months the Spanish saw Atahualpa as too much of a liability and chose to have him executed. Pizarro staged a mock trial and found Atahualpa guilty of revolting against the Spanish, practicing idolatry and murdering Huáscar, his own brother. Atahualpa was sentenced to execution by burning. He was horrified, since the Inca believed that the soul would not be able to go on to the afterlife if the body were burned. Friar Vicente de Valverde, who had earlier offered the Bible to Atahualpa, intervened again, telling Atahualpa that if he agreed to convert to Christianity he would convince the rest to commute the sentence. Atahualpa agreed to be baptized into the Christian faith. He was given the name Juan Santos Atahualpa and, in accordance with his request, was strangled with a garrote instead of being burned. Atahualpa was succeeded by his brother, the puppet Inca Tupac Huallpa, and later by another brother Manco Inca Yupanqui. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (542x842, 21 KB) [edit] Beschreibung Hinrichtung des Inka-Königs Atawallpa 1533 durch die Spanier. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (542x842, 21 KB) [edit] Beschreibung Hinrichtung des Inka-Königs Atawallpa 1533 durch die Spanier. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Vicente de Valverde was a Spanish bishop. ... U.S. Army Combatives instructor Matt Larsen uses a chokehold to strangle an opponent in hand to hand combat training. ... A garrote (a Spanish word; alternative spellings include garotte and garrotte) is a handheld weapon, most often referring to a ligature of chain, rope, scarf, or wire used to strangle someone to death. ... Tupac Huallpa (? - October 1533) was a puppet Inca Emperor of the conquistadors during the Spanish conquest of Peru, led by Francisco Pizarro. ... Manco Inca Yupanqui (b. ...


Legacy

Atahualpa's disastrous handling of the Spanish invasion notwithstanding, his actions previous to the actual invasion also contributed to the fall of the empire. One could see the parallel with Harold Godwinson's feud with his brother Tostig, which led to the civil war and the Battle of Stamford Bridge as well as the Battle of Hastings, as it severely weakened their positions in a time of crisis. Harold II of England (Harold Godwinson; c. ... Tostig Godwinson (~1026- September 25, 1066), Earl of Northumbria, was son to Godwin, Earl of Wessex and his second wife Gytha Thorkelsdóttir. ... Combatants Norwegians, Northumbrian rebels, Scots Anglo-Saxon England Commanders Harald HardrÃ¥de† Tostig Godwinson† Harold Godwinson Strength Uncertain, possibly 7500 men or more Unknown Casualties Unknown, reportedly very heavy Unknown The Battle of Stamford Bridge in England is often considered to mark the end of the Viking era in England. ... Combatants Normans supported by: Bretons (one third of total), Aquitanians, Flemings Anglo-Saxons Commanders William of Normandy, Odo of Bayeux Harold Godwinson † Strength 7,000-8,000 7,000-8,000 Casualties Unknown, thought to be around 2,000 killed and wounded Unknown, but significantly higher than the Normans The...


However, given that there were fewer than 200 Spaniards and 1000 Native allies, it is easy to understand why Atahualpa did not immediately sense the threat. Atahualpa quickly recognised them as human beings and intruders to be dealt with. For all their weapons and horses he knew he had more than enough soldiers to handle Pizarro. In fact, Atahualpa was planning to speak with them and then arrest them. He planned to put Pizarro and his officers to death and retain the needed specialists, such as the horsebreaker, blacksmith, and gunsmith to equip his army. Francisco Pizarro ( 1475–June 26, 1541) was a Spanish conquistador, conqueror of the Inca Empire and founder of the city of Lima. ...

Preceded by
Huáscar
Sapa Inca
15321533
Succeeded by
none (Tupac Huallpa de facto)

Huáscar, in full Inti Cusi Huallpa Huáscar (“Sun of Joy”) (died 1532). ... The ruler of the Inca Empire (quechua: Inka Qhapaq) used the title of Sapa (the only one) and Apu (divinity). ... Events May 16 - Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... Tupac Huallpa (? - October 1533) was a puppet Inca Emperor of the conquistadors during the Spanish conquest of Peru, led by Francisco Pizarro. ...

See also

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The so-called ransom room, located in Cajamarca, Peru The Ransom Room (El Cuarto del Rescate) is a small room located in Cajamarca, Peru. ... There lies Peru with its riches; Here, Panama and its poverty. ... Combatants Inca Empire apart from northern territories, allied city-state Tumebamba, conservatives Confederate Northern Inca Empire (1527-1532), separatists Commanders Huascar, Inca emperor and claimant to the northern regions Atahualpa, Northern Inca emperor (legitimate) Strength ~200,000, with another 2 million reservists +50,000, later expanded up to 250,000...

References

William Hickling Prescott (May 4, 1796 - January 29, 1859) was a historian. ... Original London production at the National Theatre The Royal Hunt of the Sun is a 1964 play by Peter Shaffer that portrays the destruction of the Inca empire by conquistador Francisco Pizarro. ... // Sir Peter Levin Shaffer (born May 15, 1926) is an English dramatist, author of numerous award-winning plays, several of which have been filmed. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Atahualpa
  • Capture of an Inca King

  Results from FactBites:
 
Capture of an Inca King: Francisco Pizarro (1496 words)
Atahualpa did not know how to open it, and the priest was extending his arm to do so, when Atahualpa, in great anger, gave him a blow on the arm, not wishing that it should be opened.
Atahualpa stood up on the top of the litter, addressing his troops and ordering them to be prepared.
Atahualpa feared that the Spaniards would kill him, so he told the Governor that he would give his captors a great quantity of gold and silver.
Atahualpa, Pizarro and the Fall of the Inca Empire (2899 words)
Upon his capture, Atahualpa was not treated badly but with respect and was allowed to communicate with his people, including his troops (228).
With all due haste, Pizarro decided to execute Atahualpa that night, fearing that the rest of his men may learn that there was no insurrection, and that Atahualpa had been falsely accused.
The death of Atahualpa at Cajamarca was the beginning of the end for the Inca people.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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