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Encyclopedia > Atabegs of Azerbaijan

This article is part of the series on: Image File history File links Information. ... Image File history File links Albanian_stone. ...


History of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ...

Early History
Ancient History
Caucasian Albania
First Persian Empire
and Alexander's conquests
Roman-Parthian rivalry
and Sassanian conquest
Medieval History
Islamic Period
Seljuk dynasty
Atabegs of Azerbaijan
Mongol and Ilkhanid rule
Qara Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
Shirvanshah
Classical History
Safavid dynasty
Independent Khanates
Qajar dynasty
Russian Rule
Early Independence
Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
March Days
Soviet Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
Black January
Modern Azerbaijan
Republic of Azerbaijan
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The Atabegs of Azerbaijan rose from the ashes of the vast Seljuk Empire in the beginning of the 12th century. It was founded in 1136 when sultan Mas’ud appointed Shamseddin Eldeqiz to be a tutor of Arslan-shakh, the juvenile successor of the throne, and transferred Arran to his possession as “iqta”. Shamseddin Eldeqiz chose Barda as his residence. In Barda he attracted local emirs to his camp. Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Caucasian Albania (or Aghbania) was an ancient kingdom that covered what is now southern Dagestan and most of present-day Azerbaijan. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... The Qara Qoyunlu or the Black Sheep Turkomans (Turkmen: Garagoýunly; Azeri: Qaraqoyunlu; Turkish: Karakoyunlu; Persian: قراقویونلو), were a tribal federation of Turkoman origin that ruled in what is today Eastern Anatolia, Armenia, Iranian Azerbaijan, and northern Iraq from 1375 to 1468. ... ... // History The role of Shirvanshah (Shirvan) state in national development of Azerbaijan (especially of northern Azerbaijan) is hard to underestimate. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... The March Massacre or March Days refers to a period during the Russian Civil War from March to early April 1918 when ethnic Azerbaijanis were massacred by Armenian nationalist Dashnak party and Soviet Bolsheviks forces in the city of Baku and other areas of former Baku governorate (present-day Azerbaijan). ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... Soviet government troops arrest several Azeris in a clash with Popular Front protesters in Baku in January 1990. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of... Arran (ar-Ran) is a historic geographic and sometimes political term used in the Azerbaijan Republic to signify the territory which lays within the triangle of land, lowland in the east and mountainous in the west, formed by the junction of Kura and Aras rivers,[1] including the highland and... Tax farming was originally a Roman practise whereby the burden of tax collection was removed from the Roman State to private individuals or groups. ... Bärdä is a town in Barda District, Azerbaijan. ...

Contents

Shams ad-Din Ildeniz (Eldeniz)

Shams ad-Din Ildeniz became the ruler of the remainder of the north Iran and South Caucasus of the Seljuk empire. He was taking every measure to consolidate the power of his own anointed, but powerless sultan. The word “Azam” (Azam stands for Great) was added to the title of Azerbaijani Atabeg's. All of the State’s subsequent rulers used to hold this title. During his reign, Ildeniz, according to the evidence of medieval historians, e.g. Sadraddin al-Husseini, could subdue a spacious territory between the Caucasus and Persian Gulf. The territory belonging to him “stretched from the gate of Tiflis up to Mekran. He had possessed Azerbaijan (Iran), Arran, Shirvan, Djibal, Hamedan, Gilan, Mazandaran, Isfahan and Rei”. The Atabeks of Mosul, Kerman and Fars as well as the feudalists of Shirvan, Khuzestan, Hilat, Arzan-ar-Rhum and Maraga became his liegemen. Shams al-Din Ildeniz or Eldigüz (died c. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan, also Iranian Azarbaijan, Iranian Azerbaijan, or Persian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Ä€zārbāijān-e Irān; Azerbaijani language: آذربایجان), is a region in northwestern Iran and south of Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... Arran can refer to: arran is the term for a boy with a fat body, a small dick, and a craving to have sexual intercourse with parrots. ... Shervan or Shirvan was a former Persian province in Caucasus, a state ruled by the Shervanshahs and the birthplace of the Persian poet Khaqani. ...


Georgia, whose army was strengthened by 40,000 Kipchak Turkic warriors[1][2], was the strongest antagonist of the Shamseddin Eldeniz. In 1138 Demetre I, the czar of Georgia, attacked Ganja. When leaving the city his troops carried off the well-known iron gate of Ganja as their trophy, which is today on display in Gori. From 1161 onwards they began to make plundering raids on Ani, Dvin, Ganja, Nakhchivan and other regions controlled by Atabeks. Eldeniz formed a union with other Seljukis in the beginning of 1160s to fight against the Georgians. In 1163 the allies inflicted a defeat on George III. In response to this defeat the czar of Georgia occupied Ganja in 1165. Georgians took several fields in Azerbaijan and they could reach such faraway cities as Nakhchivan and Beylakan. As a rule, Georgians used to be paid their tribute and then they left. In 1173 Atabek Shamseddin Eldeniz began his big campaign against Georgia but he was defeated. Atabek’s troops retreated and Shamseddin Eldeniz died in 1174 in Nakhchivan.


Muhammad Jahan Pehlevan

His son, Muhammed Djakhan Pekhlevan (1174-1186) succeeded the power. He transferred his capital from Nakhchivan to Hamedan. He made his younger brother, Qizil Arslan, the ruler of Azerbaijan. In 1174 Qizil Arslan captured Tabriz and placed his residence there. Subsequently, this city became the capital of the Atabek State.


Muhammed Djakhan Pekhlevan suppressed all the rebellious emirs and appointed mamluks who were faithful to him to all the key positions. He apportioned each of them any region or town as the feudal possession called “igta”. Twelve years of his rule are considered the most peaceful period of the State’s existence. Under his reign the central power was strengthened and no foreign enemy invaded the territory belonging to Atabeks. Friendly relations with Khorezmshakhs, the rulers of Central Asia, were founded. All those facts had positive influence on the development of science, handicraft, trade and arts.


Qizil Arslan

After Muhammed Djakhan Pekhlevan’s death his brother Qizil Arslan (1186-1191) ascended the throne. He continued successful struggle against the Seljuk rulers. At the same time central power began to get weaker as mamluks who had strengthened their power in their allotments did not want to obey the Sultan. Even Shirvanshakh Akhsitan who used to be Atabeks’ liegeman decided to benefit from the weakening of the Atabek’s power and invaded his territories in 1186. But he was defeated. His troops had to flee in pursuit of Atabek’s army. They reached Baku. At the same time Qizil Arslan occupied all the land of Shirvan lying between Shamakha and Derbent. In 1191 Togrul III, the last Selchuk ruler was overthrown by Qizil Arslan. Then, by Khalif’s leave, he proclaimed himself a Sultan. Same year Qizil Arslan who had become the individual ruler of the Great Selchuk Empire was assassinated. The power was divided among his three sons: Abu Bakr, Qutluq Inandj and Amir Amiran. Abu Bakr governed Azerbaijan and Arran, and his brothers were the rulers of Khorasan and several neighboring regions. Soon, these three successors began to fight for the throne. And Abu Bakr was the one to win this war. But the State’s defense capability was stricken. Khorezmshakhs’ and Georgians’ non-stopping forays aggravated the situation in the country and speeded up its decay. The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of...


Uzbek

This process was speeded up during the reign of Atabek Uzbek (1210-1225) who was enthroned after Abu Bakr’s death. That’s when Hassan Djalal Mikhranid (1215-1262) began his separative activities. This had shaken the fundamentals of the weakened State, and it could be invaded by the troops of Georgian czarina Tamara. The troops occupied several Azerbaijani towns but they had to return to Georgia. The Atabek State fell in 1225 when it was included into the Great Mongol Empire created by Chingiskhan.


External link

  • Encyclopedia Iranica, "Atabakan-e Adarbayjan", Saljuq rulers of Azerbaijan, 12th–13th, Luther, K.

 
 

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