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History of Japan ImageMetadata File history File links Satsuma-samurai-during-boshin-war-period. ... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ...

Glossary The Japanese Paleolithic ) covers a period from around 100,000 [citation needed] to 30,000 BCE, when the earliest stone tool implements have been found, to around 12,000 BCE, at the end of the last Ice-age, which corresponds to the beginning of the Mesolithic Jomon Period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Jomon Period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yayoi Period. ... The Kofun period ) is an era in the history of Japan from around 250 to 538. ... The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Kamakura Period. ... The Kemmu Restoration (建武の新政; Kemmu no shinsei) was a period of Japanese history that occurred from 1333 to 1336 AD. It marks the three year period between the fall of the Kamakura shogunate and the rise of the Ashikaga shogunate, when Emperor Go-Daigo attempted to re-established Imperial control (but... The Muromachi period (Japanese: 室町時代, Muromachi-jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Muromachi bakufu, the Ashikaga era, the Ashikaga period, or the Ashikaga bakufu) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. ... The Nanboku-chō period , South and North courts period, also known as the Northern and Southern Courts period), spanning from 1336 to 1392, was a period that occurred during the early years of the Muromachi period of Japans history. ... “Sengoku” redirects here. ... The Azuchi-Momoyama period (Japanese: 安土桃山時代, Azuchi-Momoyama-jidai) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1568 to 1600. ... The Nanban trade (Japanese: 南蛮貿易, nanban-bōeki, Southern barbarian trade) or the Nanban trade period (Japanese: 南蛮貿易時代, nanban-bōeki-jidai, Southern barbarian trade period) in Japanese history extends from the arrival of the first Europeans to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1641, under... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... The Late Tokugawa Shogunate (Japanese: Bakumatsu) is the period between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. ... The Meiji period ), or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July 1912. ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... The Taishō period (Japanese: 大正時代, Taishō-jidai, period of great righteousness) is a period in the history of Japan dating from 30 July 1912 to 25 December 1926. ... Japan participated in World War I ) from 1914-1917, as one of the major Entente Powers, played an important role in securing the sea lanes in South Pacific and Indian Oceans against the Kaiserliche Marine. ... The Shōwa period (Japanese: 昭和時代, Shōwa-jidai, period of enlightened peace) was the time in Japanese history when Emperor Hirohito reigned over the country, from December 25, 1926 to January 7, 1989. ... During the first part of the Shōwa era, Japan, with the Great Depression turned to military totalitarianism, like some occidental countries. ... Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Military Governor  - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur  - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway Emperor  - 1926-1989 Hirohito Historical era Post-WWII  - Surrender of Japan August 15, 1945  - San Francisco Treaty April 28, 1952 At the end of the Second World War, Japan was occupied... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei Following the end of the Allied occupation in 1952... Heisei (Japanese: 平成) is the current era name in Japan. ... The Eco history of Japan is one of the most studied for its spectacular growth, first in the period from the late twentieth century that saw Japan become a world power and then again after the devastation of the Second World War when the island nation rose to become the... The history of education in Japan dates back at least to the sixth century, when Chinese learning was introduced at the Yamato court. ... The military history of Japan is characterised by a long period of feudal wars, followed by domestic stability, and then foreign conquest. ... The naval history of Japan can be said to begin in early interactions with states on the Asian continent in the early centuries of the 1st millennium, reaching a pre-modern peak of activity during the 16th century, a time of cultural exchange with European powers and extensive trade with... This is the glossary of Japanese history including historical figures, events, places, policies and others. ...

The Asuka period (飛鳥時代 asuka jidai?), was a period in the history of Japan lasting from 538 to 710, although its beginning could be said to overlap with the preceding Kofun period. The Yamato state evolved much during the Asuka period, which is named after the Asuka region, about 25 km south to the modern city of Nara. Numerous imperial palaces were established in the area during this period. The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ... The Kofun period ) is an era in the history of Japan from around 250 to 538. ... Ishibutai Kofun, believed to be burial site of Soga no Umako Asuka ) was one of the Imperial capitals of Japan during the Asuka period (538 A.D. - 710 A.D.), which takes its name from this place. ... Nara ) is the capital city of Nara Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan. ...


The Asuka period is also known for its significant artistic, social, and political transformations, having their origins in the late Kofun period, but largely affected by the arrival of Buddhism to Japan. The introduction of Buddhism has marked a change in Japanese society. The Asuka period is also distinguished by the change in the name of the country from Wa (?) to Nippon (日本?). A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Chinese character for Wō or Wa, formed by the person radical 亻and a wÄ›i or wa 委 phonetic element Japanese Wa Japan, Japanese, from Chinese Wō 倭), is the oldest recorded name of Japan. ... Chinese character for Wō or Wa, formed by the person radical 亻and a wÄ›i or wa 委 phonetic element Japanese Wa Japan, Japanese, from Chinese Wō 倭), is the oldest recorded name of Japan. ... The true name of Japan as said in Japanese ... The true name of Japan as said in Japanese ...


Artistically, the period can be further divided into two periods, the Asuka period (up to the Taika Reforms), where early Buddhist culture imports and infuences are seen from Northern Wei and Baekje, and Hakuhō period (after Taika Reform), in which more Sui and Tang influences appears.[1][2] The Taika Reforms ) were a set of doctrines established by Emperor Kōtoku in the year 646. ... The Northern Wei Dynasty (北魏 386-534) is most noted for the unification of northern China in 440, it was also heavily involved in funding the arts and many antiques and art works from this period have survived. ... Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... SUI can be the IOC country code or the FIFA country code for Switzerland SUI can be an acronym for sonic user interface (similar to GUI for graphical user interface). ... Look up Tang in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Naming

The term "Asuka period" was first used to describe a period in the history of Japanese fine-arts and architecture. It was proposed by fine-arts scholars Sekino Tadasu (関野貞 Sekino Tadasu?) and Okakura Kakuzo (岡倉覚三 Okakura Kakuzo?) around 1900. Sekino dated the Asuka period as ending with the Taika Reform of 646. Okakura, however, saw it as ending with the transfer of the capital to the Heijō Palace (平城京?) of Nara. Although historians generally use Okakura's dating, many historians of art and architecture prefer Sekino's dating, and use the term "Hakuhō period (白鳳時代 hakuhō jidai?)" to refer to the successive period. Okakura Tenshin (岡倉 天心, February 14, 1863 - September 2, 1913) was a Japanese scholar who contributed the development of arts in Japan. ... The Taika Reforms ) were a set of doctrines established by Emperor Kōtoku in the year 646. ... Events Byzantines reconquer Alexandria from the Muslims. ... The restored Suzakumon (gate) of Heijo Palace Heijo Palace ) in Nara, was the Imperial Palace of Japan during the Nara Period (710-784 CE). ... The restored Suzakumon (gate) of Heijo Palace Heijo Palace ) in Nara, was the Imperial Palace of Japan during the Nara Period (710-784 CE). ...


The Yamato state

The Yamato polity, which had emerged by the late 5th century, was distinguished by powerful great clans or extended families, including their dependents. Each clan was headed by a patriarch who performed sacred rites for the clan's kami (?) to ensure the long-term welfare of the clan. Clan members were the aristocracy, and the kingly line that controlled the Yamato court was at its pinnacle. The local chieftainship of Yamato arose to become the Imperial dynasty from the beginnings of Asuka period, at latest.[3] For other uses, see Polity (disambiguation). ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... “Megami” redirects here. ... “Megami” redirects here. ...


The actual start of Yamato rule is disputed. Its paramountcy in Japan presumably starts only in the end of Kofun period or with the advent of Asuka period. The Kofun period ) is an era in the history of Japan from around 250 to 538. ...


The Asuka period, as a sub-division of the Yamato period (大和時代 Yamato-jidai?), is the first period of Japanese history when the Japanese imperial court ruled relatively uncontested from modern-day Nara Prefecture, then known as Yamato Province. The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ... Nara Prefecture ) is a prefecture in the Kinki region on HonshÅ« Island, Japan. ... Yamato () was a province of Japan. ...


The Yamato court, concentrated in the Asuka region, exercised power over clans in Kyūshū and Honshū, bestowing titles, some hereditary, on clan chieftains. The Yamato name became synonymous with all of Japan as the Yamato rulers suppressed the clans and acquired agricultural lands. Based on Chinese models (including the adoption of the Chinese written language), they developed a central administration and an imperial court attended by subordinate clan chieftains but with no permanent capital. By the mid-seventh century, the agricultural lands had grown to a substantial public domain, subject to central policy. The basic administrative unit of the Gokishichidō (五畿七道?) system was the county, and society was organized into occupation groups. Most people were farmers; other were fishers, weavers, potters, artisans, armorers, and ritual specialists.[3] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Various styles of Chinese calligraphy. ... Provincial Map of Japan in the 8th Century AD Gokishichidō , Gokishichidō, lit. ... Provincial Map of Japan in the 8th Century AD Gokishichidō , Gokishichidō, lit. ...


The Yamato court had ties to the Gaya confederacy of the Korean peninsula, called Mimana (任那?) in Japanese. There is archaeological evidence from the Kofun tombs, which show similarities in form, art, and clothing of the depicted nobles. A second source is the Nihon Shoki. For a time, many Japanese historians[citation needed] claimed Gaya to be a colony of the Yamato state[citation needed], a theory that is now widely rejected. More likely all these Korean and Japanese states were tributaries to the Chinese Sui and T'ang dynasties to some extent. Gaya was a confederacy of chiefdoms in the Nakdong River valley of southern Korea, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy of the Samhan period. ... Nihonshoki (日本書紀) is the second oldest history book about the ancient history of Japan. ... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ...


The Soga clan and Shōtoku Taishi

The Soga clan (蘇我氏 Soga-shi?) intermarried with the imperial family, and by 587 Soga no Umako, the Soga chieftain, was powerful enough to install his nephew as emperor and later to assassinate him and replace him with the Empress Suiko (r. 593-628). The Soga clan was one of the most powerful clans in Yamato Japan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Events End of the Nan Liang Dynasty in China. ... Soga no Umako (蘇我馬子; 551? - 20 May 626), the son of Soga no Iname and the strongest member of Soga clan of Japan, conducted politicial reforms with Prince Shotoku during the rules of Emperors Bidatsu and Suiko, and established Soga clans stronghold in the governemt by having his daughter married... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... Empress Suiko , 554–April 15, 628[1]) was the 33rd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, and the first known woman to hold this position. ... Aethelfrith succeeds Hussa as king of Bernicia (traditional date). ... Events Khusro II of Persia overthrown Pippin of Landen becomes Mayor of the Palace Brahmagupta writes the Brahmasphutasiddhanta Births Deaths Empress Suiko of Japan Theodelinda, queen of the Lombards Categories: 628 ...

Sculpture of Prince Shotoku depicted as a bodhisattva in Asuka-dera, Asuka, Nara.
Sculpture of Prince Shotoku depicted as a bodhisattva in Asuka-dera, Asuka, Nara.

Suiko, the first of eight sovereign empresses, was merely a figurehead for Umako and Prince Regent Shōtoku Taishi (聖徳太子?) (574-622). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (542x1387, 221 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Prince Shotoku User:Chris 73/Gallery 001 ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (542x1387, 221 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Prince Shotoku User:Chris 73/Gallery 001 ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... For other temples named Hōkō-ji, see Hōkō-ji. ... Ishibutai Kofun, believed to be burial site of Soga no Umako Asuka (明日香村; -mura) is a village located in Takaichi District, Nara, Japan. ... Prince Shōtoku (聖徳太子 c. ... Prince Shōtoku (聖徳太子 c. ... Events Emperor Justin II retires, choosing Tiberius II Constantine as his heir. ... Events Hijra - Muhammad and his followers withdraw from Mecca to Medina - year one of the Islamic calendar. ...


Shōtoku, recognized as a great intellectual of this period of reform, was a devout Buddhist, and well-read in Chinese literature. He was influenced by Confucian principles, including the Mandate of Heaven, which suggested that the sovereign ruled at the will of a supreme force. Under Shōtoku's direction, Confucian models of rank and etiquette were adopted, and his Seventeen-article constitution (憲法十七条 Kenpō jushichijō?) prescribed ways to bring harmony to a society chaotic in Confucian terms. A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Chinese literature spans back thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the matured fictional novel arising in the medieval period to entertain the masses of literate Chinese. ... Mandate of Heaven (天命 PÄ«nyÄ«n: Tiānmìng) was a traditional Chinese sovereignty concept of legitimacy used to support the rule of the kings of the Zhou Dynasty and later the Emperors of China. ... The Seventeen-article constitution (十七条憲法 JÅ«shichijō kenpō) is a document originating in 604 and said to be authored by Prince Shōtoku. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Japanese_values. ...


In addition, Shōtoku adopted the Chinese calendar, developed a system of trade roads (the aforementioned Gokishichidō), built numerous Buddhist temples, had court chronicles compiled, sent students to China to study Buddhism and Confucianism, and sent Ono no Imoko (小野妹子 Ono-no-Imoko?) to China as an emissary (遣隋使 Kenzuishi?).[3] The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. ... Buddhist temples in Japan are varied, yet there are certain generalizations that can be made, and general rules or guidelines that are followed. ... Ono no Imoko (小野妹子) was a Japanese clan leader during the late 6th and early 7th century. ... Imperial embassies to China were missions to China for importing the technologies and culture of China to Japan. ...


Numerous official missions of envoys, priests, and students were sent to China in the seventh century. Some remained twenty years or more; many of those who returned became prominent reformers. The sending of such scholars for learning Chinese political systems showed significant change from envoys in the Kofun period, in which Five kings of Wa (倭の五王 Wa no Go-ō?) sent envoys for approval of their domains. The five kings of Wa are kings of Japan who sent envoys to China during the 5th century to strengthen the legitimacy of their claims to power by gaining the recognition of the Chinese emperor. ...


In a move greatly resented by the Chinese, Shōtoku sought equality with the Chinese emperor by sending official correspondence, which was addressed

"From the Son of Heaven in the Land of the Rising Sun to the Son of Heaven of the Land of the Setting Sun."

Some would argue that Shōtoku's bold step set a precedent -- Japan never again accepted a "subordinate" status in its relations with China,[3] except for Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, who accepted certain relationship with China in the 15th century.[4] As a result, Japan at this period was a state which received no title from Chinese dynasties while they did send tributes (有貢無封 yūkō-mufū). From the Chinese point of view, the class or position of Japan was demoted from previous centuries in which the kings received titles. On the other hand, Japan loosened political relationships with China and consequently established extraordinary cultural and intellectual relationships.[5][6] Kinkaku, the Golden Pavilion at Kinkaku-ji, originated as the villa of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. ...


Taika Reform and ritsuryo system

Taika Reform

Main article: Taika Reform

About twenty years after the deaths of Shōtoku Taishi (in 622), Soga no Umako (in 626), and Empress Suiko (in 628), court intrigues over succession led to a palace coup in 645 against the Soga clan's monopolized control of the government. The revolt was led by Prince Naka no Ōe (中大兄皇子 Naka no Ōe no Ōji?) and Nakatomi no Kamatari (中臣鎌足?) (Fujiwara no Kamatari), who seized control of the court from the Soga family and introduced the Taika Reform (大化の改新 Taika no Kaishin?).[3] The Japanese era corresponding to the years 645-649 was thus named Taika (大化?), referring to the Reform, and meaning "great change." The revolt leading to the Taika Reform is commonly called the Isshi Incident (乙巳の変 Isshi no hen?), referring to the Chinese zodiac year in which the coup took place, 645. The Taika Reforms ) were a set of doctrines established by Emperor Kōtoku in the year 646. ... Events July 2 - In the early morning, Li Shimin, the future Emperor Tang Taizong of China, eliminated two of his brothers, Li Yuanji and the crown prince Li Jiancheng in a coup détat at the Xuanwu Gate in Changan. ... Events End of the reign of Empress Kogyoku of Japan Emperor Kotoku ascends to the throne of Japan Byzantines recapture Alexandria from the Arabs Births Empress Jito of Japan Categories: 645 ... The Soga clan was one of the most powerful clans in Yamato Japan. ... Emperor Tenji (From Ogura Hyakunin Isshu) Tomb of Emperor Tenji, Kyoto Emperor Tenji (天智天皇 Tenji Tennō) (626-672), also known as Prince Naka no ÅŒe (中大兄皇子, Naka no ÅŒe no ÅŒji) and Emperor Tenchi, was the 38th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Fujiwara no Kamatari (藤原鎌足, 614–669 A.D.) was the founder of the Fujiwara clan in Japan. ... Fujiwara no Kamatari (藤原鎌足, 614–669 A.D.) was the founder of the Fujiwara clan in Japan. ... The Taika Reforms ) were a set of doctrines established by Emperor Kōtoku in the year 646. ... Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... The Taika Reforms ) were a set of doctrines established by Emperor Kōtoku in the year 646. ... The Taika Reforms ) were a set of doctrines established by Emperor Kōtoku in the year 646. ... The tomb of Soga no Irukas head in Asuka-mura, Nara Prefecture. ... Chinese astrology (占星術 pinyin: zhan4 xing1 shu4; 星學 pinyin: xing1 xue2; 七政四餘 pinyin: qi1 zheng4 si4 yu2; and 果老星宗 pinyin: guo3 lao3 xing1 zong1) is related to the Chinese calendar, particularly its 12-year cycle of animals (aka Chinese Zodiac), and...


Although it did not constitute a legal code, the Taika Reform mandated a series of reforms that established the ritsuryō (律令?) system of social, fiscal, and administrative mechanisms of the seventh to tenth centuries. Ritsu (?) was a code of penal laws, while ryō (?) was an administrative code. Combined, the two terms came to describe a system of patrimonial rule based on an elaborate legal code that emerged from the Taika Reform.[3] Ritsuryo (律令) is the historical law system based on the philosophies of Confucianism and Chinese Legalism in Japan. ... Ritsuryo (律令) is the historical law system based on the philosophies of Confucianism and Chinese Legalism in Japan. ...


The Taika Reform, influenced by Chinese practices, started with land redistribution, aimed at ending the existing landholding system of the great clans and their control over domains and occupational groups. What were once called "private lands and private people" became "public lands and public people" (公地公民 Kōchi-kōmin?), as the court now sought to assert its control over all of Japan and to make the people direct subjects of the throne. Land was no longer hereditary but reverted to the state at the death of the owner. Taxes were levied on harvests and on silk, cotton, cloth, thread, and other products. A corvée (labor) tax was established for military conscription and building public works. The hereditary titles of clan chieftains were abolished, and three ministries were established to advise the throne: Corvée, or corvée labor, is a term used in feudal societies. ...

The country was divided into provinces headed by governors appointed by the court, and the provinces were further divided into districts and villages.[3] Sadaijin (左大臣), most commonly translated as Minister of the Left, was a government position in Japan in the late Nara and Heian periods. ... Udaijin (右大臣), most commonly translated as Minister of the Right, was a government position in Japan in the late Nara and Heian periods. ... The Daijō daijin ) or Chancellor of the Realm was the head of the Daijō-kan, or Department of State in Heian Japan and briefly under the Meiji Constitution. ...


Naka no Ōe assumed the title of Crown Prince, and Kamatari was granted a new family name—Fujiwara (藤原?)—in recognition of his great service to the imperial family. Fujiwara no Kamatari (藤原鎌足?) became the first in a long line of court aristocrats. Another, long-lasting change was the use of the name Nihon (日本?), or sometimes Dai Nippon (Great Japan) in diplomatic documents and chronicles. In 662, following the reigns of Naka no Ōe's uncle and mother, Naka no Ōe assumed the throne as Emperor Tenji (天智天皇 Tenji Tennō?), taking the additional title Emperor of Japan (天皇 Tennō?) (heavenly sovereign). This new title was intended to improve the Yamato clan's image and to emphasize the divine origins of the imperial family in the hope of keeping it above political frays, such as those precipitated by the Soga clan. Within the imperial family, however, power struggles continued as the emperor's brother and son vied for the throne. The brother, who later reigned as Emperor Temmu, consolidated Tenji's reforms and state power in the imperial court.[3] A Crown Prince or Crown Princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. ... The Fujiwara family (藤原氏 Fujiwara-uji) was a powerful family of regents in Japan who had a sort of monopoly to the Sekkan positions, Sesshō and Kampaku. ... The Fujiwara family (藤原氏 Fujiwara-uji) was a powerful family of regents in Japan who had a sort of monopoly to the Sekkan positions, Sesshō and Kampaku. ... Events The regent Grimuald usurps the kingship of the Lombards, driving Perctarit into exile and killing Godepert Births Kakinomoto no Hitomaro, Japanese poet (approximate date) Deaths Maximus the Confessor, Byzantine theologian Godepert, king of the Lombards Categories: 662 ... Emperor Tenji (From Ogura Hyakunin Isshu) Tomb of Emperor Tenji, Kyoto Emperor Tenji (天智天皇 Tenji Tennō) (626-672), also known as Prince Naka no ÅŒe (中大兄皇子, Naka no ÅŒe no ÅŒji) and Emperor Tenchi, was the 38th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... Emperor Temmu (天武天皇 Tenmu Tennō) (c. ...


Ritsuryō system

The ritsuryō system was codified in several stages. The Ōmi Code (近江令?), named after the provincial site of Emperor Tenji's court, was completed in about 668. Further codification took place with the promulgation by Empress Jito in 689 of the Asuka Kiyomihara Code (飛鳥浄御原令?), named for the location of the late Emperor Temmu's court. The ritsuryō system was further consolidated and codified in 701 under the Taihō Code (大宝律令 Taihō Ritsuryō?), which, except for a few modifications and being relegated to primarily ceremonial functions, remained in force until 1868.[3] The ÅŒmi code (近江令) refers to a collection of governing rules compiled in 668, hence being the first collection of Ritsuryo laws in classical Japan. ... The ÅŒmi code (近江令) refers to a collection of governing rules compiled in 668, hence being the first collection of Ritsuryo laws in classical Japan. ... Events Childeric II succeeds Clotaire III as Frankish king Constantine IV becomes Byzantine Emperor, succeeding Constans II Theodore of Tarsus made archbishop of Canterbury. ... Empress Jito (From Ogura Hyakunin Isshu) Tomb of Emperor Temmu and Empress Jitō Empress Jitō (持統天皇 Jitō Tennō) (645 – December 22, 702[1]) was the 41st imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Battle of Coronate: The army of Cunincpert, king of the Lombards, defeat the followers of the usurper Alahis on the Adda River. ... The Asuka Kiyomihara Code (飛鳥浄御原令, Asuka Kiyomihara ryo) refers to a collection of governing rules compiled and promulgated in 689, one of the first, if not the first collection of Ritsuryo laws in classical Japan. ... The Asuka Kiyomihara Code (飛鳥浄御原令, Asuka Kiyomihara ryo) refers to a collection of governing rules compiled and promulgated in 689, one of the first, if not the first collection of Ritsuryo laws in classical Japan. ... Events September 30 - John VI succeeds Sergius I as Pope. ... The Code of Taihō ) was an administrative reorganization enacted in 702, at the beginning of Japans Taihō era, the end of Asuka Period. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Though Ritsu of the code was adopted from the Chinese system, Ryō was arranged in a local style. Some scholars argues that the it was to certain extent based on Chinese models.[7]


The Taihō Code provided for Confucian-model penal provisions (light rather than harsh punishments) and Chinese-style central administration through the Jingi-kan (神祇官?) (Department of Rites), which was devoted to Shinto and court rituals, and the Daijō-kan (太政官?) (Department of State), with its eight ministries (for central administration, ceremonies, civil affairs, the imperial household, justice, military affairs, people's affairs, and the treasury). Although the Chinese-style civil service examination system was not adopted, the college office (大学寮 Daigaku-Ryō?) was founded for training future bureaucrats based on the Confucian classics. Tradition circumvented the system, however, as aristocratic birth continued to be the main qualification for higher position, and titles were soon hereditary again. The Taihō Code did not address the selection of the sovereign. Several empresses reigned from the fifth to the eighth centuries, but after 770 succession was restricted to males, usually from father to son, although sometimes from ruler to brother or uncle.[3] The Jingi-kan (神祇官) was the Department of Worship, one of the two main governing departments instaured by the Ritsuryo legal system in 8th century Japan. ... The Jingi-kan (神祇官) was the Department of Worship, one of the two main governing departments instaured by the Ritsuryo legal system in 8th century Japan. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... The Daijō-kan ) was the Department of State in Nara and Heian period Japan and briefly under the Meiji Constitution. ... The Daijō-kan ) was the Department of State in Nara and Heian period Japan and briefly under the Meiji Constitution. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... The Imperial examinations (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the states bureaucracy. ... Emperor Kōnin ascends to the throne of Japan, succeeding Empress Shōtoku. ...


Fujiwara Fuhito (藤原不比等?), son of Nakatomi no Kamatari, was among those who produced the Taihō Ritsuryō. According to history book Shoku Nihongi (續日本紀?), two of the 19 members of the committee drafting the Taiho Code were Chinese priests (Shoku-Shugen and Satsu-Koukaku).[8][9] Chinese priests took an active part as a linguistic specialist, and received the reward of two times from the Empress Jito. Fujiwara no Fuhito Fujiwara no Fuhito (藤原不比等: 659–720) was a powerful member of the imperial court of Japan during the Asuka and Nara periods. ... Fujiwara no Fuhito Fujiwara no Fuhito (藤原不比等: 659–720) was a powerful member of the imperial court of Japan during the Asuka and Nara periods. ... Fujiwara no Kamatari (藤原鎌足, 614–669 A.D.) was the founder of the Fujiwara clan in Japan. ... The Shoku Nihongi(続日本紀)is an imperially commissioned history of Japan written in the early Heian period. ... The Shoku Nihongi(続日本紀)is an imperially commissioned history of Japan written in the early Heian period. ... The Taihō Code or Code of Taihō ) was an administrative reorganization enacted in 702 in Japan, at the end of the Asuka period. ... Empress Jito (From Ogura Hyakunin Isshu) Tomb of Emperor Temmu and Empress Jitō Empress Jitō (持統天皇 Jitō Tennō) (645 – December 22, 702[1]) was the 41st imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ...


Exchange with mainland Asia

Since the 7th century, the Yamato government sent envoys directly to the Chinese court, from which it obtained a great wealth of philosophical and social structure. In addition to ethics of government, it also adopted the Chinese calendar and many of China's religious practices, including Confucianism and Taoism. Prince Shotoku prescribed a new constitution for Japan based on the Chinese model. The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and Republic of China (Taiwan) For other meanings, see China (disambiguation). ... The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ...


Japan had been very positive in the Kofun period, towards the introduction of Chinese culture and immigration of population. However, the Asuka period shows a marked change in the attitude: Japan started to be a national state with its own population and culture. It focused on assimilating earlier waves of immigrants into a single people. Kofun period (Japanese: 古墳時代, Kofun-jidai) is an era in the history of Japan from around AD 250 to 538. ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ...


Torai-jin

Chinese and Korean immigrants who became naturalized in ancient Japan were called torai-jin (渡来人?). They introduced many aspects of their language, culture, and traditions to their adoptive country. Japan gave preferential treatment to these torai-jin because the Yamato Court valued their knowledge and culture.


According to the record of Shinsen-shōjiroku (新撰姓氏録?), an aristocratic list of names that the Yamato Imperial Court officially compiled in 815, one-third of the noble families on the list had their origins in China or Korea. 163 of the 1182 listed were from China, and more than 240 were from the Korean peninsula (104 form Baekje, 41 from Goguryeo, and 9 from Silla).[10] Events An iconoclastic synod is held. ... Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... Chinese name Russian name Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria, southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ... For other uses, see Silla (disambiguation). ...


Buddhism and the Confucianism had a huge influence on Japanese philosophy. Japan also absorbed many other elements of Chinese technology and culture, including the writing system, architecture, and methods of producing steel. In addition, many Chinese scholars (続守言 , 薩弘恪) were on committees that drew up legal codes, thus having a strong influence on the emerging Japanese legal system.


However, these immigrants are generally treated as lower class in Kabane systems which classifies the various clan members of the court. They are generally ranked as "Atai", "Miyatsuko", or "Fubito", while members of ruling clans such as Soga, Mononobe, and Nakatomi are ranked as "Omi" or "Muraji". Kabane (姓) were hereditary titles used in ancient Japan to denote rank and political standing. ...


Immigrants from China

An example of a typical descendant clan is the Yamatonoaya clan (東漢氏), which is descended from Emperor Ling of Han. This clan's leader was Achi-no-Omi (阿智使主). He introduced many elements of Chinese culture to Japan. According to the Nihongi, during Emperor Kimmei's reign the Hata clan (秦氏), descendants of Qin Shi Huang, introduced sericulture (silk production). The Kawachino-Fumi clan (西文氏), descendants of Gaozu of Han, introduced Chinese writing to the Yamato court, according to the Shinsen-shōjiroku. The Takamoku clan is a descendant of Cao Pi.[11][12] Takamuko no Kuromaro (高向玄理?) was a central member of the committee which wrote the Taika Reform. Tori Busshi (止利仏師?), also from China, was one of the most active artists in the Asuka period. Emperor Ling of Han, trad. ... Nihonshoki (日本書紀) is the second oldest history book about the ancient history of Japan. ... The Hata clan (秦氏) was an immigrant group active in Japan during the Yamato period, according to the epic history Nihonshoki. ... The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (259 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE),[1] personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty), and... Sericulture is the rearing of silkworms for the production of raw silk. ... Emperor Gao (256 BC or 247 BC–June 1, 195 BC), commonly known inside China as Gaozu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ), personal name Liu Bang, was the first emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling over China from 202 BC until 195 BC, and one of only a few dynasty founders who... Cáo PÄ« (曹丕, 187-June 29, 226[1]), formally Emperor Wen of (Cao) Wei (曹魏文帝), courtesy name Zihuan (子桓), was born in Qiao County, Pei Commandery (modern Bozhou, Anhui). ... Takamuko no Kuromaro no Genri (高向玄理)(d. ... Takamuko no Kuromaro no Genri (高向玄理)(d. ... The Taika Reforms ) were a set of doctrines established by Emperor Kōtoku in the year 646. ... The Shaka image of Asukadera, 606 CE Tori Busshi was a Japanese sculptor. ... The Shaka image of Asukadera, 606 CE Tori Busshi was a Japanese sculptor. ...


Refugees from the Korean peninsula

In 660, one of the three kingdoms of Korea, Baekje, fell to Silla and T'ang China. Subsequently, quite a large number of refugees from Baekje migrated to Japan. Events Childeric II proclaimed king of Austrasia. ... Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... For other uses, see Silla (disambiguation). ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ...

This five-storied pagoda (五重塔, five-storied pagoda?) in Hōryū-ji temple is the oldest such wooden tower in the world.
This five-storied pagoda (五重塔?) in Hōryū-ji temple is the oldest such wooden tower in the world.

The Yamato Imperial Court accepted the royal family and the refugees of Baekje. The royal family of Baekje received the name "Kudara no Konikishi" (百済王, lit. kings of Baekje) from the emperor. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2142x3200, 1664 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Asuka period Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2142x3200, 1664 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Asuka period Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... A pagoda at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia This article is about the building style. ... A pagoda at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia This article is about the building style. ... Horyu-ji. ... The Kudara no Kinokishi (Japanese: ) was a Japanese clan whose founder was Zenkō ( or ), a son of the last kind of Baekje, King Uija. ...


Introduction of Buddhism

The introduction of Buddhism (仏教 Bukkyō?) to Japan is attributed to the Baekje king Seong in 538, exposing Japan to a new body of religious doctrine. The Soga clan, a Japanese court family that rose to prominence with the ascension of the Emperor Kimmei about 531, favored the adoption of Buddhism and of governmental and cultural models based on Chinese Confucianism. But some at the Yamato court—such as the Nakatomi family, which was responsible for performing Shinto rituals at court, and the Mononobe, a military clan—were set on maintaining their prerogatives and resisted the alien religious influence of Buddhism. The Soga introduced Chinese-modeled fiscal policies, established the first national treasury, and considered the kingdoms of Korea as trade partners rather than as objects of territorial expansion. Acrimony continued between the Soga and the Nakatomi and Mononobe clans for more than a century, during which the Soga temporarily emerged ascendant. In the Taika Reform, the Funeral Simplification Edict was proclaimed, and building of large kofun (tumuli) was banned. The edict also regulated size and shape of kofun by classes.[3] As a result, later kofun, though much smaller, were distinguished by elaborate frescoes. Paintings and decorations of those kofun indicate the spread of Taoism and Buddhism in this period. The Takamatsuzuka Kofun and Kitora Kofun are the most famous for their wall paintings.[citation needed] Download high resolution version (512x905, 268 KB)Bodhisattva, Asuka period, 7th century. ... Download high resolution version (512x905, 268 KB)Bodhisattva, Asuka period, 7th century. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Tokyo National Museum. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... Seong (d. ... March 12 - Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving the city in the hands of the victorious Byzantine general, Belisarius. ... The Soga clan was one of the most powerful clans in Yamato Japan. ... Emperor Kimmei (欽明天皇 Kinmei Tennō) (509-571) was the 29th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, and the first to whom contemporary historiography assigns clear dates. ... Events End of the reign of Northern Wei Chang Guang Wang, ruler of the Chinese Northern Wei Dynasty. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... The Nakatomi clan (中臣氏 Nakatomi-uji) was an influential clan in Ancient Japan. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... Mononobe clan (物部氏; mononobe-shi) was an old Japanese clan of Yamato period. ... The Taika Reforms ) were a set of doctrines established by Emperor Kōtoku in the year 646. ... A tumulus (plural tumuli, from the Latin word for mound or small hill, from the root to bulge, swell also found in ) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. ... The Takamatsuzuka Tomb ) or Tall Pine Tree Ancient Burial Mound in Japanese is an ancient tomb of circular shape located in Asuka village, Nara prefecture, Japan. ... The Kitora Tomb ) is an ancient tumulus (kofun in Japanese) located in the village of Asuka, Nara Prefecture, Japan. ...


With the dawn of the Asuka period the use of elaborate kofun tombs by the imperial family and other elite fell out of use because of prevailing new Buddhist beliefs, which put greater emphasis on the transience of human life. Commoners and the elite in outlying regions, however, continued to use kofun until the late seventh century, and simpler but distinctive tombs continued in use throughout the following period.[3] Daisenryo Kofun, the tomb of Emperor Nintoku, Sakai, 5th century. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Foreign relations

From 600 to 659, Japan sent seven emissaries to T'ang China. But for the next 32 years, during a period when Japan was formulating its laws based on Chinese texts, none were sent. Though Japan cut off diplomatic relations with China, Japan sent 11 emissaries to Silla, and Silla is also recorded in Nihon Shoki as sending embassies to Japan 17 times during the reigns of Emperor Temmu and Empress Jitō. The ruling classes of Yamato and Baekje were on amicable terms, and Yamato deployed its navy to aid Baekje, in 660-663, against an invasion by Silla and T'ang China (see battle of Baekgang). The population of the Earth rises to about 208 million people. ... Events Ealdormen in Mercia proclaim Wulfhere king, and throw off Northumbrian rule. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... For other uses, see Silla (disambiguation). ... Nihonshoki (日本書紀) is the second oldest history book about the ancient history of Japan. ... Emperor Temmu (天武天皇 Tenmu Tennō) (c. ... Empress Jito (From Ogura Hyakunin Isshu) Tomb of Emperor Temmu and Empress Jitō Empress Jitō (持統天皇 Jitō Tennō) (645 – December 22, 702[1]) was the 41st imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Childeric II proclaimed king of Austrasia. ... // Events Byzantine emperor Constans II invades south Italy (Part of) the city wall of Benevento is reconstructed The movement to restore Baekje is defeated by Silla and Tang Battle of Hakusukinoe An annonymous monk reaches the summit of mount Fuji Environmental change A brief outbreak of plague hits Britain Births... For other uses, see Silla (disambiguation). ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Combatants Silla and Tang Dynasty China Baekje and Japan Commanders Unknown Boksin, Buyeo Pung, Abe no Hirafu Strength 130,000 warriors; at least 170 ships 29,000 warriors; at least 170 ships Casualties Unknown 400 ships; Unknown number of warriors lost The Battle of Baekgang, also known as Battle of...


As an alternative to journeying to China, many priests from the Three Kingdoms of Korea were sent to Japan. As a result, This also created the incidental effect of Japanese military support for Baekje.[13] Some well-known priests who came from the Korean peninsula were Eji, Ekan, Eso, and Kanroku. Eji, who came from Goguryeo was a tutor to Prince Shotoku, and counseled him politically.[14] The Three Kingdoms Period of Korea (hangul: 삼국시대) featured the three rival kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. Historians claim that the Three Kingdoms period ran from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until... Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... Eji ) was a monk who came across the sea from Kokuryo to Japan at the Asuka period 595. ... Ekan ) was a monk who came across the sea from Kokuryo to Japan at the Asuka period 625. ... The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is an international astronomical organisation, composed and supported by ten countries from the European Union plus Switzerland and was created in 1962. ... Kanroku ) was a monk who came across the sea from Kudara to Japan at the Asuka period 602. ... Chinese name Russian name Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria, southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ... Sculpture of Prince Shotoku in Asuka Dera, Asuka, Nara Prince Shōtoku (聖徳太子 574-622) was a regent and a politician of the Imperial Court in Japan. ...


Influence of Taoism

Taoism was also introduced during the Asuka period. In the mid-7th century, Empress Saimei built a Taoist temple at Mt. Tōnomine (多武峯談山). Many stone turtles (亀石, kameishi), a form common among Taoist sites, have been discovered in Asuka and are assumed to have been created during Saimei's reign. The octagonal shape of monarchs' tombs of this age and the celestial maps drawn in Kitora and Takamatsuzuka also reflect the Taoist cosmology. Tennō (Emperor), the new title of the Japanese monarch in this period, could also be argued to derive from the name of the supreme God of Taoism, Tenko-Taitei(天皇大帝), the God of Polaris[citation needed]. Empress Kōgyoku (皇極天皇) or Saimei (斉明天皇) (594–661) was the 35th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... For other uses, see Polaris (disambiguation). ...


Taoist belief was eventually amalgamated with Shintō and Buddhism to establish new styles of rituals. Onmyōdō, a sort of Japanese geomancy and cosmology, is one of the fruits of those religious mixtures. While the Asuka period started with conflict of religious belief between clans, later in the period, the imported religions became syncetized with Japan's native folk beliefs. Onmyōdō (陰陽道, also Onyōdō) is a Chinese-influenced traditional Japanese cosmology, a mixture of natural science and occultism. ...


Art and architecture

Asuka culture

Korean architecture of the time was a stylistic link between classical Chinese architecture and later Japanese buildings. The construction of the original and reconstructed Hōryū-ji was also strongly influenced by Culture of silk road. For instance, the pillar in Hōryū-ji is similar to the pillar of Parthenon of ancient Greece, as seen in its entasis. After the tower in India (Stupa) had been converted by architectural technology of China, it became a five-storied pagoda (五重の塔) in Japan. Horyu-ji. ... The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till it reaches China. ... Horyu-ji. ... For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... schema of a Corinthian column In architecture, entasis is a design technique used to counteract a certain optical illusion. ... The Great Stupa at Sanchi. ...


The early Buddhist architectures in Japan having built with the aid of immigrants from Baekje, surviving buildings provide scholars with examples of how Chinese and Korean architecture of the same era looked.[citation needed]


The unusual lateral orientation of the main hall and pagoda of Hōryū-ji is, however, not found in sites in China or Korea.[15] The arrangement of buildings within the precinct of Hōryū-ji is similar to the buddhist temple style of Buyeo, Hōryū-ji style is called "Shitennōji-Garan (四天王寺伽藍)" or "Wakakusa-Garan(若草伽藍)".[16] A pagoda at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia This article is about the building style. ... Buyeo can mean: An ancient kingdom in Manchuria, also called Puyŏ or Fuyu. ...


Decorated tombs and painted tumuli which date from the fifth century and later found in Japan are generally accepted as Korean exports to Japan. The Takamatsuzuka tomb even features paintings of women in distinctive clothes also seen in Goguryeo wall painting.[17][18] Chinese name Russian name Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria, southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ...


The Japanese Buddhist sculpture art of this period is believed to have followed the style of the Six Dynasties of China. The characteristics of the sculptures of this age is also referred to as Tori Style, taken from the name of the prominent sculptor Kuratsukuri Tori, grandson of Chinese immigrant Shiba Tatto.[19] Some of the characteristics of the style include marked, almond-shaped eyes, and symmetrically arranged folds in the clothing. The most striking and distinguishing feature of these sculptures is an expression of the smile that is called Archaic smile. Asuka Daibutsu, the Shaka triad produced by Kuratsukuri Tori for the Hōryū-ji, is one of the best Buddha arts of that time. The Shaka image of Asukadera, 606 Tori Busshi (止利仏師) was a Japanese sculptor active in the late 6th and early 7th century. ... Head of a kouros in the Athens National Archaeological Museum bearing a typical archaic smile. ... The Shaka image of Asukadera, 606 Tori Busshi (止利仏師) was a Japanese sculptor active in the late 6th and early 7th century. ...


Hakuhō culture

The second stage of Buddhist art, coming after the Asuka (culture) period, is known as Hakuhō culture(白鳳文化) and is generally dated from the Taika Reform (646) until the moving of the capital to Nara in 710. During the latter half of the 8th century, a large number of songs and poems were composed and performed by various ranked people from warriors to the Emperor. The earliest collection of these poems is known as Man'yōshū. It includes works by several remarkable poets such as Nukatano Okimi (額田王) and Kakinomoto Hitomaro (柿本人麻呂). Waka, which literally means Japanese song, also emerged as a new form of poetry at this time. It was conceived as a term to distinguish native styles from those imported from China; within the umbrella of waka poetry, one of the more popular forms is known as tanka. It consists of a total of 31 syllables divided over five lines, in the syllabic pattern 5/7/5/7/7.[20] The Taika Reforms ) were a set of doctrines established by Emperor Kōtoku in the year 646. ... ManyōshÅ« , Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) is the oldest existing, and most highly revered, collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime in the Nara or early Heian periods. ... Nukata no Okimi or Princess Nukata (額田王; c. ... Kakinomoto no Hitomaro (柿本 人麻呂; c. ... Waka (和歌) or Yamato uta is a genre of Japanese poetry. ...


Events

  • 538: The Korean kingdom of Baekje dispatches a delegation to introduce Buddhism to the Japanese emperor.
  • 593: Prince Shotoku is assigned as regent of Empress Suiko and promotes Buddhism with Soga clan.
  • 600: Yamato state sends the first official Japanese mission to China since 478.
  • 604: Prince Shotoku issues a Chinese-style constitution (Seventeen-article constitution), based on Confucian principles, which de facto inaugurated the Japanese Empire.
  • 607: Prince Shotoku builds the Buddhist temple Hōryūji in Ikaruga.
  • 645: Soga no Iruka and his father Emishi are killed in the Isshi Incident. Emperor Kotoku ascends to the throne and strengthens imperial power over aristocratic clans (see Taika Reform), turning their states into provinces.
  • 663: Japanese navy was defeated by Silla-Tang allies in Battle of Baekgang, failing to restore Baekje.
  • 670: First Family registry (Kōgo-Nenjaku) was compiled.
  • 672: Prince Ōama, later Emperor Temmu usurped the throne by winning the civil war (Jinshin no Ran) against Emperor Kobun.
  • 689: Asuka Kiyomihara Code was proclaimed.
  • 701: Taihō code was proclaimed.

Sculpture of Prince Shotoku in Asuka Dera, Asuka, Nara Prince Shōtoku (聖徳太子 574-622) was a regent and a politician of the Imperial Court in Japan. ... Empress Suiko , 554–April 15, 628[1]) was the 33rd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, and the first known woman to hold this position. ... The Seventeen-article constitution (十七条憲法 Jūshichijō kenpō) is a document originating in 604 and said to be authored by Prince Shōtoku. ... Sculpture of Prince Shotoku in Asuka Dera, Asuka, Nara Prince Shōtoku (聖徳太子 574-622) was a regent and a politician of the Imperial Court in Japan. ... The tomb of Soga no Irukas head in Asuka-mura, Nara Prefecture. ... Emperor Kōtoku (孝徳天皇 Kōtoku Tennō) (596? - November 24, 654)[1] was the 36th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... The Taika Reforms ) were a set of doctrines established by Emperor Kōtoku in the year 646. ... Combatants Silla and Tang Dynasty China Baekje and Japan Commanders Unknown Boksin, Buyeo Pung, Abe no Hirafu Strength 130,000 warriors; at least 170 ships 29,000 warriors; at least 170 ships Casualties Unknown 400 ships; Unknown number of warriors lost The Battle of Baekgang, also known as Battle of... A koseki (戸籍) is a family registry. ... Emperor Temmu (天武天皇 Tenmu Tennō) (c. ... The Jinshin War (壬申の乱, Jinshin no Ran) was a succession dispute in Japan which broke out in 672 following the death of Emperor Tenji. ... Emperor Kōbun (弘文天皇 Kōbun Tennō), also known as Prince Otomo (648 - 672) was the 39th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... The Asuka Kiyomihara Code (飛鳥浄御原令, Asuka Kiyomihara ryo) refers to a collection of governing rules compiled and promulgated in 689, one of the first, if not the first collection of Ritsuryo laws in classical Japan. ... The Code of Taihō ) was an administrative reorganization enacted in 702, at the beginning of Japans Taihō era, the end of Asuka Period. ...

References

  1. ^ Fred S. Kleiner, Christin J. Mamiya (2005). Gardner's art through the ages. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth, 222. ISBN 0-534-64095-8. 
  2. ^ Rowthorne, Chris (2003). Lonely Planet Japan. Hawthorn: Lonely Planet Publications, 34. ISBN 1740591623. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l L. Worden, Robert (1994), "Kofun and Asuka Periods, ca. A.D. 250-710", A Country Study: Japan (Federal Research Division, Library of Congress), <http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/jptoc.html>. Retrieved on 2007-04-06
  4. ^ L. Worden, Robert (1994), "Kamakura and Muromachi Periods, 1185-1573, Economic and Cultural Developments", A Country Study: Japan (Federal Research Division, Library of Congress), <http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/jptoc.html>. Retrieved on 2007-04-06 Yoshimitsu, in 1404, accepted the "King of Japan" title in his willingness to improve relations with China and to rid Japan of the wako threat, thus establishing trades with China. This was considered as tribute by the Chinese but the Japanese saw it as profitable trade. This relationship lasted for about 50 years.(see also Sinocentrism).
  5. ^ general editors, John W. Hall... [et al (1988). The Cambridge history of Japan. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 182-183. ISBN 0-521-22352-0. 
  6. ^ 隋唐使の赴倭とその儀礼問題 台湾大学歴史学系 高明士 [1]
  7. ^ William Wayne Farris, Sacred Texts and Buried Treasures: Issues on the Historical Archaeology of Ancient Japan, University of Hawaii Press, 1998. [2].
  8. ^ 續日本紀 卷第一 文武紀一[3]
  9. ^ 『続日本紀』国史大系版 [4]
  10. ^ Beasley, W. G. (Aug 31, 2000). The Japanese Experience: A Short History of Japan. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22560-0. 
  11. ^ "Shinsen-shōjiroku" shizoku ichiran 『新撰姓氏録』氏族一覧. transcribed by Kazuhide Kitagawa. Retrieved on 2006-10-16.
  12. ^ Nihon no myōji 7000 ketsu seishi ruibetsu taikan Takamuko uji 日本の苗字7000傑 姓氏類別大観 高向氏. Retrieved on 2006-10-16.
  13. ^ Sansom, George (1958). 'A History of Japan to 1334'. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. 47-49.
  14. ^ Encyclopedia of World Biography on Shotoku Taishi [5]
  15. ^ Banister Fletcher's A History of Architecture, 731. 
  16. ^ Nelson, Sarah Milledge. The Archaeology of Korea. Cambridge University Press, 236. ISBN 0-521-40783-4. 
  17. ^ Sacred Texts and Buried Treasures: Issues on the Historical Archaeology of Ancient Japan, 95. 
  18. ^ Complex of Koguryo Tombs. UNESCO World Heritage Centre.
  19. ^ Tori style. Britannica Concise. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  20. ^ Kurashige, Taku; Rie Yamada (2003). Asuka Period.

This period is part of the Yamato period of Japanese History. The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge&#8212;writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others&#8212;in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The Federal Research Division (FRD) is the research and analysis unit of the United States Library of Congress. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The Federal Research Division (FRD) is the research and analysis unit of the United States Library of Congress. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... The Sinocentric World: The area of usage of Chinese characters at its maximum extent (to a considerable extent following the borders of the Qing dynasty). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ...


< Kofun period | History of Japan | Nara period > The Kofun period ) is an era in the history of Japan from around 250 to 538. ... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ... The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Asuka (1141 words)
During this period, the Japanese palaces of the Royal Family (Tenno clan) remained in the Asuka region, located inside the current Nara prefecture.
During the Asuka Period, various factors contributed to the enhancement of Japanese politics and culture.
The Asuka Period came to an end when the capital was moved to another area under Empress Genmei.
Asuka period - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3667 words)
The Yamato state evolved much during the Asuka period, which is named after the Asuka region, near the center of the modern Nara Prefecture, the site of numerous temporary imperial capitals established during the period.
The Asuka period is also known for its significant artistic, social, and political transformations, which had their origins in the late Kofun period.
With the dawn of the Asuka period the use of elaborate kofun tombs by the imperial family and other elite fell out of use because of prevailing new Buddhist beliefs, which put greater emphasis on the transience of human life.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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