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Encyclopedia > Asturian art

Pre-Romanesque art in Asturias is framed between the years 718 and 910, the period of the rise, extension and disappearance of the kingdom of Asturias. Pre-Romanesque art is the roughly 400 year period in Western European art from about the Carolingian Renaissance in the 8th century, to the beginning of the 12th century Romanesque period. ... Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian have special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ... Flag Motto: Hoc Signo Tuetur Pius, Hoc Signo Vincitur Inimicus (English: With this sign thou shalt defend the pious, with this sign thou shalt defeat the enemy) Capital Cangas de Onis, San Martín, Pravia, Oviedo Language(s) Asturian, Latin Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King  - 718-737 Pelayo of...

Contents

Historical introduction

In the 5th century, the Goths, a Christianized tribe of Eastern European origin, arrived in the Iberian peninsula after the fall of the Roman empire, and dominated most of the territory, attempting to continue Roman order by the so called Ordo Gothorum. Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ...


In the year 710, the Visigothic king Witiza died, and instead of being succeeded by the eldest of his three sons, Agila, the throne was usurped by the duke of Baetica, Roderic. The young heir sought support to recover the throne, and apart from local backing, he approached the Muslim Kingdom in northern Africa. Tarik, the caliph of Damascus governor in Tangier, received permission to offer his army and disembark in Spain, ready to face the Visigothic army of King Roderic. Witiza was son of Egica, king of the Visigoths in Hispania, and ruled jointly with him from 693 to 701. ... Agila (Agil or Akhila) was king of the Visigoths in Hispania (549–554). ... Roman province of Hispania Baetica, 120 AD In Hispania, which in Greek is called Iberia, there were three Imperial Roman provinces, Hispania Baetica in the south, Lusitania, corresponding to modern Portugal, in the west, and Hispania Tarraconensis in the north and northeast. ... Roderic (Roderick; Rodrigo in Spanish and Portuguese, see Rurik for etymology. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... Tarik is the transliteration of an Arabic given name, writen in script as طارق. // Tarek Tareq Tariq The name Tarik has two meanings: First there is the meaning in the arabic language. ... Damascus ( transliteration: , also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ... Roderic (Roderick; Rodrigo in Spanish and Portuguese, see Rurik for etymology. ...


On July 19, 711, the battle of Guadalete took place near Gibraltar, where supporters of Witiza's heir, backed by Tarik's Muslim army, killed King Roderic and destroyed the Visigothic army. Tarik and his troops then took advantage of their military superiority, and marched on the Visigothic capital, Toledo, taking it almost without opposition. July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... See also: phone number 711. ... Combatants Visigoths Muslim forces of the Ummayad Commanders Roderic Tariq ibn Ziyad Strength 20,000-30,000 7,000-9,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Guadalete took place July 19, 711, at the Guadalete River (or La Janda Lake) in the southern extreme of the Iberian peninsula. ... Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain, about 70 kilometers south of Madrid. ...


According to the chronicles, Asturian mercenaries, who had already been recruited by the Romans for their courage and fighting spirit, fought alongside King Roderic. These warriors, together with the rest of the retreating Gothic army, sought refuge in the mountains of Asturias, where they also tried to safeguard some of the sacred relics from Toledo cathedral, the most important of which was the Holy Ark, containing a large number of relics from Jerusalem. Asturian, Astur-Leonese or Bable (Asturianu in Asturian) is a Romance language spoken in some parts of the provinces of Asturias and León in Spain, and in the area of Miranda de Douro in Portugal (where it is officially recognized as Mirandese). ... Roderic (Roderick; Rodrigo in Spanish and Portuguese, see Rurik for etymology. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...

Monument in memory of Pelayo in Covadonga

The kingdom of Asturias arose exactly seven years later, in 718, when the Astur tribes, rallied in assembly, decided to appoint Pelayo as their leader, a person of uncertain origin, since for some chroniclers he was a Visigothic nobleman who fled from the Muslim conquerors and for others he was an indigenous nobleman associated with the Visigothic kingdom. Whatever the case, Pelayo joined the local tribes and the refuged Visigoths under his command, with the intention of progressively restoring Gothic Order, based on the kingdom of Toledo's political model. Image File history File links Title es: Estatua de Don Pelayo en: Statue of Don Pelayo Description es: Pelayo fue un noble visigodo. ... Image File history File links Title es: Estatua de Don Pelayo en: Statue of Don Pelayo Description es: Pelayo fue un noble visigodo. ... Covadonga (Asturian: Cuadonga), from Latin Cova dominica, Cavern of the Lady, is a village in Asturias, northwestern Spain, among the Picos de Europa mountains where Spanish Christians won a battle over the Muslim Moors around 718 and 725. ... Pelayo (690–737) was the first King of Asturias, ruling from 718 until his death. ... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the Windows of the Lodge of the Heralds. ...


The kingdom of Asturias disappeared with King Alfonso III, who died in December of the year 910. In barely two hundred years, the 12 kings of the dynasty founded by Pelayo were to gradually recover territory from the Muslims (León, Galicia and Castile), a process which finally required the court to be moved south, to León, for its strategic position in the struggle that culminated 800 years after it had started (1492) with the taking of Granada and the expulsion of the last Arabic king from the Iberian Peninsula. The symbol of the flag of Asturias, a golden cross (significantly called "La Victoria"), and a blue background with the Latin motto Hoc signo, tvetvr pivs, Hoc signo vincitvr inimicvs (With this sign the pious is protected, With this sign you shall defeat the enemy), sums up the unified character that Christianity gave the armed struggle. Alfonso III (c. ... The city of León was founded by the Roman Seventh Legion (for unknown reasons always written as Legio Septima Gemina (twin seventh legion). It was the headquarters of that legion in the late empire and was a center for trade in gold which was mined at Las Médulas... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Limits of the Kingdom of Castile in 1210 The Kingdom of Castile was one of the medieval kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. ... Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous community Andalusia Settled since 7th century BC Area  - City 88 km²  (34 sq mi) Elevation 738 m (2,421. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... The flag of Asturias shows the Cruz de la Victoria (Victory Cross). ...


Pre-Romanesque as the Asturian monarchy's artistic expression

Asturian Pre-Romanesque is a singular feature in all Spain, which, while combining elements from other styles (Visigothic, Mozarabic and local traditions), created and developed its own personality and characteristics, reaching a considerable level of refinement, not only as regards construction, but also in terms of decoration and gold ornamentation. This last aspect can be seen in such relevant works as the Cross of the Angels, the Victory Cross, the agate Box (housed in the Holy Chamber of Oviedo Cathedral), the Reliquary in Astorga Cathedral and the Cross of Santiago. As court architecture, the situation of Pre-Romanesque monuments followed in the wake of the various locations of the kingdom's capital; from its original site in Cangas de Onís (Eastern Asturias), through Pravia (west of the central coast), to its final location in Oviedo, the region's geographical centre. The Visigoths, originally Tervingi, or Vesi (the noble ones), one of the two main branches of the Goths (of which the Ostrogothi were the other), were one of the loosely-termed Germanic peoples that disturbed the late Roman Empire. ... Mozarabic was a continuum of closely related Iberian Romance dialects spoken in Muslim dominated areas of the Iberian Peninsula during the early stages of Romance languages development in Iberia. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Cathedral of San Salvador tower The Cathedral of San Salvador is a large cathedral situated in the centre of Oviedo, in the Asturias region of northern Spain. ... Episcopal Palace of Astorga Astorga (Latin Asturica Augusta) is a small city located in the province of León of Spain. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Cangas de Onís is a town in the eastern part of the province and autonomous community of Asturias in the northwest of Spain. ... Principality of Asturias Demonym  â€¢ Spanish Capital Pravia Coordinates Judicial district Pravia Parishes 15 Population (2005)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density  â€¢ % of Asturias Rank: 22 9,200 inhabitants 89. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


As regards its evolution, from its appearance, Asturian Pre-Romanesque followed a "stylistic sequence closely associated with the kingdom's political evolution, its stages clearly outlined". Five stages are distinguished; a first period (737–791) belonging to the reigns of the kings Fáfila, Alfonso I, Fruela I, Aurelio, Silo, Mauregato and Vermudo I. A second stage comprises the reign of Alfonso II (791–842), entering a stage of stylistic definition, and third comprises the reigns of Ramiro I (842–850) and Ordoño I (850–866); a fourth belongs to the reign of Alfonso III (866–910) and a fifth and last which coincides with the transfer of the court to León, the disappearance of the kingdom of Asturias, and simultaneously, of Asturian Pre-Romanesque. Favila (Favilac or Fáfila) was the second king of Asturias from 737 to 739. ... Alfonso I was a King of Asturias (739-757) He is said to have married Ormesinda, daughter of Pelayo, who was raised on the shield in Asturias as king of the Visigoths after the Moorish conquest. ... Fruela I (d. ... Aurelius (Spanish: ) (c. ... Silo may mean: SILO, is a powerful polygonand subdivision surface 3D modeling application developed by Nevercenter Storage silo, structure used for storing bulk materials Missile silo, to store or launch missiles Mario Rodríguez Cobos (pen name, Silo), an Argentine writer Silo (genus), a genus of pterygot insects of the... Mauregatus the Usurper (Spanish: ) was the king of Asturias from 783 to 788 or 789. ... Bermudo I (Vermudo or Veremund) was king of Asturias from 788 to 791. ... Alfonso II (759-842, king 791), Alfonso Is reputed grandson, bears the name of the Chaste. ... Ramiro I (790?-850), became king of Asturias in 842. ... Ordoño I (830?-May 27, 866), became king of Asturias in 850. ... The city of León (Llión in the Leonese language), located at 42. ...


Monuments of interest

First Period (737 to 791)

From this period, of the young kingdom's rise and consolidation, the existence of two churches have been registered. The Church of Santa Cruz (737) at the court's original location, Cangas de Onís, of which we only have written references, because it was destroyed in 1936. The present-day one dates from 1950 and, like the original, is built over a barrow covering a dolmen. The legend goes that the name Santa Cruz ("Holy Cross") comes from the oaken cross carried by King Pelayo in the battle of Covadonga, the first "little-big victory" against the Arabs, which was later to be covered in gold and precious stones (reign of Alfonso III), coming to be called La Victoria, and emblem of the Asturian flag. Chronicles state that the Church of Santa Cruz was built in stone masonry, one nave with a barrel vault and a main chapel on one side. Poulnabrone dolmen in County Clare, Ireland For the French TV miniseries, see Dolmen (TV miniseries). ... Combatants Kingdom of Asturias Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Pelayo of Asturias Munuza † Alqama † Strength 300[1] 800 Casualties 289 dead 600 dead The Battle of Covadonga was the first major victory by a Christian military force in Iberia following the Muslim Moors conquest of that region in 711. ... For the Gemstone as a mineral see Gemstone. ...

Santianes de Pravia
Santianes de Pravia

The second of these constructions is the Church of Santianes, the result of moving the royal court from Cangas de Onís to Pravia, an old Roman settlement (Flavium Navia) and crossroads. The church, built between the years 774 and 783, already showed a number of elements anticipating Asturian Pre-Romanesque; eastward-facing, basilica ground plan (central nave and two side aisles), separated by three semicircular arches, transept facing the central nave with the same length as the width of the three aisles. It also had a single, semicircular apse, and an external entrance vestibule, with a wooden ceiling over the nave. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1840 × 1224 pixel, file size: 412 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Asturian art Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1840 × 1224 pixel, file size: 412 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Asturian art Metadata This file contains... St. ... Links to full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are also found at the entry Cathedral diagram. ... In a modern church an aisle is a row down the middle of the church with a set of pews on each side. ... It has been suggested that Voussoir, Keystone (architecture) be merged into this article or section. ... Cathedral ground plan. ... In a modern church an aisle is a row down the middle of the church with a set of pews on each side. ... This article is about an architectural feature; for the astronomical term see apsis. ... A floorplan with a modern vestibule shown in red. ... This intricate ceiling is part of the Capitol Theatre in Melbourne, Australia, designed by architect Walter Burley Griffin. ...


Several sculptural decorative elements showing floral and geometric designs (something habitual in what were to be the characteristics of subsequent Pre-Romanesque), are on public display in the sacristy, where there is a museum. A sacristy is a room for keeping vestments (such as the cassock and chasuble) and other church furnishings, sacred vessels and church treasures. ... The Louvre Museum in Paris, one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ...


Second Period (791 to 842)

Alfonso II, known as "the Chaste" (maybe for this reason he never had descendants), was a decisive king in the Asturian monarchy. From a military point of view, he definitively established the kingdom against the Muslims (in the famous battle of Lutos he gained a significant victory), in administration he moved the court to its final site in Oviedo, and in politics he set up cordial, stable relationships with the emperor Charlemagne, as demonstrated by the following quote by Eginardo (Vita caroli): "...the emperor (Charlemagne) was so closely united with Alfonso, king of Asturias and Galicia, that each time he sent a letter or ambassador, he ordered that he be given no treatment other than that of his client". A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ...


As regards patronage of art, Alfonso II promoted the largest number of Pre-Romanesque buildings defining what were to be this style's characteristics. With the royal architect, Tioda, he built the churches of San Tirso, San Julián de los Prados, Santa María de Bendones and San Pedro de Nora, in addition to the palace complex in Oviedo, now disappeared, consisting of the churches of San Salvador, Santa María and its adjoining palace and chapel (now the Holy Chamber of Oviedo Cathedral, the only one remaining), containing relies such as the Holy Ark and jewels, like the Cross of the Angels,which he donated himself to the Church of San Salvador. Outside Asturias, with the legend of the discovery of the apostle St. James' tomb in Galicia, in a place known as campus stellae (Compostela), Alfonso II had the first church built in the saints honour (year 892). Saint James can refer to the following: Several men mentioned in the New Testament, whose various epithets and euphemisms cause some uncertainties: James, son of Zebedee, an apostle, brother of John the Apostle; also called Saint James the Great. ... Location map of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia Santiago de Compostela (also Saint James of Compostela) is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia. ...

Santullano
Santullano

When the Church of San Julián de los Prados, or Santullano, was built (approx. between the years (812 and 842), it formed part of a series of royal buildings. The church had a basilica ground plan [central nave and two side aisles), separated by three semicircular arches on impost capitals and square columns. It is worth noting the existence of a transept or transversal aisle located between the aisles and the sanctuary, exceeding the central nave in height. Image File history File linksMetadata Santullano. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Santullano. ... San Julián de los Prados San Julián de los Prados, also known as Santullano, is a Pre-Ramirense church from the beginning of the ninth century in Oviedo, the capital city of the Principality of Asturias, Spain. ... Cathedral ground plan. ...


Finally, there was a straight sanctuary, divided into three chapels, and over the main one, only accessible from outside, there was a room whose function is still open to conjecture. As for the roof, the church had an interesting oaken ceiling carved with a variety of geometric designs. A chapel is a private church, usually small and often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ...


As elements outside the ground plan, there was a vestibule (to the east) and two sacristies adjoining the north and south facades, communicating directly with the transept.The Church of Santullano is the largest of the pre-romanesque churches.


From an ornamental point of view, the murals covering the walls and ceilings of this church are the best-conserved upper medieval paintings in Spain. the technique used is al fresco painting (applied with the plaster still wet), arranged in three well-defined areas. Decorative designs show clear influence of mural painting from the Roman period, recreating a certain atmosphere typical of the "theatrical style" (1st century B.C.). Decorative elements are numerous; marble imitation, rectangles, bands, weaving, squares, imitation channelling and columns, medallions decorated with plant motifs, architectural designs, curtains, though totally lacking in any portrayal of biblical or religious scenes, with the single exception of the Anastasis Cross (alpha and omega), as a symbol of royal power. This lack of figurative representation is known as aniconism and was not maintained in later Pre-Romanesque churches. Salle des illustres, ceiling painting, by Jean André Rixens. ... Fresco by Dionisius representing Saint Nicholas. ... // Gypsum plaster Plaster of Paris, or simply plaster, is a type of building material based on calcium sulfate hemihydrate, nominally (CaSO₄)₂*H₂O. It is created by heating gypsum to about 150 ℃, 2(CaSO₄ · 2H₂O) → (CaSO₄)₂ · H₂O + 3 H₂O (released as steam). ... Venus de Milo, front. ... Aniconism is the absence of representations, in a restricted sense that of God and living beings, and more generally of any type of artificial production of substitutes. ...


The church of San Tirso, located beside Oviedo cathedral, only conserves the end wall of the apse from its original construction, because it was destroyed by fire in the 16th century. The section remaining shows the original construction in stone blocks, and in the centre, there is the characteristic three-point window of Asturian Pre-Romanesque, with semicircular arches made of brick. The central opening, larger that the side ones, is supported by free-standing columns.


The Holy Chamber was built as a palace chapel for Alfonso II and the church of San Salvador (both demolished in the 14th century to build the present Gothic cathedral). The Chamber, adjoining the pre-romanesque Tower of San Miguel, also had the function of housing relies brought from Toledo after the fall of the Visigothic kingdom. It consists of two overlapping aisles with a barrel vault; the crypt or lower floor has a height of 2.30 metres, and is dedicated to St. Leocadia, containing several tombs of other martyrs. Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... Saint Leocadia ( Sainte Locaie; Santa Leocadia) is a Spanish saint. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The upper floor, dedicated to St. Michael, was extended in the 12th century, elongating the central section to six metres, a reconstruction that also provided it with its current decoration, a masterpiece of Spanish Romanesque. From an architectural point of view, the Holy Chamber's construction solved one orthe greatest problems of Asturian Pre-Romanesque: the vaulting of two overlapping spaces, later used in the buildings of Ramiro I. Guido Renis archangel Michael (in the Capuchin church of Sta. ... Interior of the Saint-Saturnin church St-Sernin, Toulouse, 1080 – 1120: elevation of the east end Romanesque sculpture, cloister of St. ...


As mentioned above, a from acting as royal chapel, the Holy Chamber was built to house the jewels and relies of the cathedral of San Salvador in Oviedo, a function it continues to have 1,200 years later. Some of these jewels were donated by the Kings Alfonso II and Alfonso III, and represent extraordinary gold artefacts of Asturian Pre-Romanesque.


The first of them is the Cross of the angels, created in the year 808 in Gauzón (the left bank of the estuary of Avilés) on the instructions of Alfonso II, who donated the precious stones necessary to make it from his personal treasury. The Cross of the Angels takes its name from the legend that it was made and given to Alfonso II by angels, who appeared to him in the form of pilgrims. The Greek cross (equal arms) has a core of cherry wood and in the centre there is a circular disk acting as connection for the four arms. The anverse is covered with a filigreed mesh of gold thread and bands of geometric decoration with a total of 48 precious stones (agates, shapir,esamethysts, rubies and opals) of great beauty.The reverse is covered with fine sheet of gold held by silver nails. Decoration on this side shows, mounted on the central disk, a large elliptical agate cameo, and a large stone at the end of each arm. Capital Avilés Area  - total  - % of Asturias Ranked 71st 25. ... A Gothic angel in ivory, c1250, Louvre An angel is a supernatural being found in many religions. ... Monument to pilgrims in Burgos, Spain This article is on religious pilgrims. ... “Cherry tree” redirects here. ... Agate is a term applied not to a distinct mineral species, but to an aggregate of various forms of silica, chiefly chalcedony. ... Sapphire (from Hebrew: ספיר Sapir) is the single-crystal form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3), a mineral known as corundum. ... Amethyst (SiO2) is a violet or purple variety of quartz often used as an ornament. ... Ruby is a red gemstone. ... For other articles with similar names, see Opal (disambiguation). ...


Exactly one century later, in the year 908,to commemorate a hundred years of the Asturían kingdom's victories and conquests, Alfonso III donated Pre-Romanesque most important gold artifact to Oviedo Cathedral; the cross of la Victoria or Santa Cruz, a Latin cross (unequal arms) of 92 cm by 72 cm. The core is made of two pieces of oak with circular ends finished in three foils, and joined in the centre by a circular disk. The whole cross is coverd with gold leaf and filigree, and richly decorated especially the anverse, covered with coloured enamel, pearls, precious stones and gold thread. The reverse shows an inscription in soldered gold letters, mentioning the donors to the Church of San Salvador, King Alfonso III and Queen Jimena, and the place (Gauzón Castle again) and the year it was made. In a discussion of art technology, enamel (or vitreous enamel, or porcelain enamel in American English) is the colorful result of fusion of powdered glass to a substrate through the process of firing, usually between 750 and 850 degrees Celsius. ... For other things called pearl, see pearl (disambiguation). ...


The last of the Pre-Romanesque jewels on in the Holy Chamber of Oviedo Cathedral is the Agate Box, donated to the church by Frela II (son of Alfonso II), and his wife Nunilo, in the year 910, when he was still a prince. This extraordinary gold artifact in mozarabic style is a rectangular reliquary made from cypress with a semi-pyramidal shaped lid. The covered with gold plate, with 99 little arch shaped openings, framed in woven gold thread, containing agates. The most valuable part of this piece is the upper part of the lid, probably re-used from another, smaller reliquary of Carolingian origin, a hundred years older than the rest. This plaque is decorated with panels of enamel, in turn surrounded by 655 incrusted garnets. Species See text. ...


Continuing with the architectural works of the second period of Pre-Romanesque art, the last two are the churches of Santa María de Bedones and San Pedro de Nora. The first is located just fíve kilometres from the capital, in a south-east direction, towards the Nalón valley, and was a donation from King Alfonso III and his wife Jimena to San Salvador cathedral, on January 20, 905. Very similar to Santullano, although the ground plan is not the typical basilica of the Pre-Romanesque churches, but has three enclosures at the western end, the central one as an entrance vestibule and two side areas possibly to house parishioners or ecciesiastics. This entrance leads into a single nave with a wooden ceiling, covered by an interesting roof, the same length as the entrance enclosures. The nave adjoins two rectangular side areas, also with a wooden ceiling, whose use seems to associated with the liturgical rites of the period. this nave joined with the sanctuary by three semicircular brick arches, each of which leads into its corresponding chapel, of which only the main or central one is covered with a brick barrel vault, the other two with wooden ceilings. Nalón can refer to: Nalón (Asturian comarca) Nalón River, a river in the comarca Muros de Nalón, a municipality in the comarca Category: ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alternate meaning: Area code 905 Events Births Deaths Categories: 905 ...


Above the main chapel is the "typical" chamber, only accessible from outside, through a trefoil window with the standard Pre-Romanesque features; central arch larger that the side ones, resting on two free-standing capitals with rope moulding, and the upper rectangle framed by simple moulding.


Independent from the church structure, though close to its southern facade, stands the bell tower, on a rectangular ground plan.


San Pedro de Nora is located beside the River Nora, about tweive kilometres from Oviedo. This church has the construction style established in Santullano: facing eastwards, vestibule separate from the main structure, basilica-type ground plan, central nave higher than the side aisles, with intersecting wooden roof and lit by Windows with stone lattice. The straight sanctuary is divided into three apses with barrel vaults. As a differentiating element, the apses were joined to each other through the dividing walls by semicircular-arched doors. Like all the churches from this period, there was a room over the apse, only accessible from outside through a trefoil window. The bell tower, separate from the church like in Santa Maria de Bendones, does not belong to the original construction, and stems from an initiative in the seventies by the architect and great restorer of Asturian Pre-Romanesque, Luis Menéndez Pidal. Luis Menéndez Pidal (1860–1932) was a Spanish genre painter, brother of Juan and Ramón Menéndez Pidal. ...


Third period (842 to 866)

This period corresponds with the reigns of Ramiro I and Ordoño I. The first, son of Vermudo I, succeeded Alfonso II when he died without descendants, taking charge of a rapidly expanding kingdom. He was described by chroniclers as Virga justitiae (baton of justice) because he had to face two internal rebellions by noblemen and due to his enthusiasm in hunting down magic and the black arts, very widespread in Asturias at the time. He also fought the Normans successfully, defeating them in Gijón and La Coruña. Paradoxically, he enjoyed a time of peace with his traditional enemies, the Muslims, which from an artistic point of view allowed him to substantially renew Pre-Romanesque's architecture and decorative style, giving rise to the so-called Ramirian style. Norman conquests in red. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Torre de Hércules View from the Torre de Hércules A Coruña (Galician name, also known in English as Corunna; in Spanish as La Coruña) is a Galician city, in north-western Spain at 43° 22′ 0″ N 8° 22′ 60″ W. It is the capital of...


Ramiro I was succeeded by his son Ordoño I, who inherited a very solid kingdom from a military perspective, a condition that let him use subjects from the kingdom of Asturias to re-populate abandoned cities on the other side of the mountains, such as Tui, Astorga and León. He measured his military might against the Arabs with varying results; in the battle of Clavijo (year 859) he easily defeated them, though six years later, at Hoz de la Morcuera, his army, led by one of his generals, suffered a defeat, halting the intense re-population work of the first part of his reign. Tui can refer to: the Tui bird, endemic to New Zealand. ... Episcopal Palace of Astorga Astorga (Latin Asturica Augusta) is a small city located in the province of León of Spain. ... Battle of Clavijo a legendary battle in 844 AD in Spain between Christians forces led by Ramiro I of Asturias and Muslims, where Saint James is reputed to have aided the Christian Army. ...

Santa María del Naranco
Santa María del Naranco

The first of the works from this period, the Palace of Santa María del Naranco, involved a significant stylistic, morphological, constructive and decorative renovation of Pre-Romanesque, supplementing it with new, innovative resources, representing a leap forward with respect to immediately previous periods. Built as a recreational palace, it is situated on the southern side of Monte Naranco facing the city, and was originally part of a series of royal buildings located in the outskirts. Its character as a civil building changed in the 12th century when it was converted into a church dedicated to St. Mary. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (616x1025, 160 KB) Santa María del Naranco. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (616x1025, 160 KB) Santa María del Naranco. ... Santa María del Naranco Santa María del Naranco is an Asturian pre-Romanesque church situated 3 km (1. ...


This palace's innovations amazed chroniclers, who repeatedly mention it over time. A case in point is the Crónica Silense, written around the year 115, about 300 years after its construction, and which, on describing Ramiro I, states that "(...)he buiít many constructions, two miles away from Oviedo, with sandstone and marble in a vaulted work: (...) He also made (...), a palace without wood, of admirable construction and vaulted below and above,...".


What marvelled the chroniclers for so many centuries were its proportions and slender shapes, its rich, varied decoration and the introduction ofelongated barrel vaults thanks to the transverse arches, allowing support and eliminating wooden ceilings. This solution, timidly advanced in the Holy Chamber, fully matured in Santa Maria del Naranco.


The palace, on a rectangular ground plan, has two floors; the lower level, or crypt, quite low, has a central chamber and another two located on either side. The upper floor is accessed via a double exterior stairway adjoining the facade, leading into an identical layout as the lower floor; a central or noble hall with six blind semicircular arches along the walls, supported by columns built into the wall, and a mirador at each end. These are accessed via three arches, similar to those onto the wall, resting on columns with helicoidal rope moulding, typical of Pre-Romanesque. The barrel vault is made from tufa stone, and is held up by six transverso arches resting on consoles. Crypt is also a commonly used name of water trumpets, aquatic plants. ...


Santa Maria del Naranco represented a step forward from a decorative point of view by enriching the habitual standards and modeis with elements from painting, gold work and the textile arts. The rich decoration is concentrated in the hall and miradors of the upper floor, where it is especially worth noting the cubic-prismatic capitals (of Byzantine influence), decorated with reliefs framed by cord decoration (from local tradition) in trapezoid and triangular shapes, inside which there are sculpted forms of animals and humans. This kind of motif is repeated on the disks with central medallions located above the blind arches' intersections. The 32 medallions distributed around the building are similar in size and shape, varying the decorative designs and the interior figures (quadrupeds, birds, bunches of grapes, fantastic animáis), a style inherited from the Visigoth period, in turn descended from Byzantine tradition. Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. ... Look up Cord on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Cord has several meanings: String or Rope Cord Automobile Vibrating cord A measurement of the volume of firewood A power cord or extension cable In electronics, a cable Cord, a former American car marque founded by Errett Lobban Cord. ...


The medallions have decorative bands above them, again framed by rope moulding, inside which four figures are scuipted and arranged symmetrically; the upper two carrying loads on their heads and the lower two representing soldiers on horseback carrying swords. These figures seem to have some kind of symbolic social meaning; the warriors who defend and support the men of prayer (here offeres),or alternatively, the royal and ecclesiastic orders complementing each other.


Santa María del Naranco shows other, equally beautiful and important sculptural elements; for the first time, a Greek cross appears sculpted as emblem of the Asturian monarchy, at the same time protecting the building from all evil, something which was to become habitual in the popular architecture of towns and villages. Other sculptural elements, such as the capitals of Corinthian inspiration on the miradors' triple-arched Windows or the altar stone in the eastern mirador (originally from the neighbouring Church of San Miguel de Liño/Lillo), make this palace the most distinctive building in Pre-Romanesque, a singularity highlighted by being the only palace complex that has lasted until the present day with both Visigothic and Carolingian court structures. The Corinthian order as used for the portico of the Pantheon, Rome provided a prominent model for Renaissance and later architects, through the medium of engravings. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ...

San Miguel de Lillo
San Miguel de Lillo

The church of San Miguel de Lillo was consecrated by Ramiro I and his wife Paterna in the year 848. It was originally dedicated to St. Mary until, as mentioned above (and shown by the altar located in the eastern mirador of santa María del Naranco), this worship passed to the nearby palace in the 12th century, leaving this church dedicated to St. Michael. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 573 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (784 × 820 pixel, file size: 743 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) San Miguel de Lillo Iglesia de San Miguel de Lillo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 573 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (784 × 820 pixel, file size: 743 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) San Miguel de Lillo Iglesia de San Miguel de Lillo. ... Gabriel delivering the Annunciation to Mary. ...

Ground plan

It originally had a basilica ground plan, three aisles with a barrel vault, although part of the original structure has disappeared as the building fell into decay during the 12th or 13th century. Nowadays, it conserves its western half from that period, together with several elements in the rest of the church such as the fantastic jambs in the vestibule or the extraordinary lattice on the window of the southern wall, sculpted from one single piece of stone. Image File history File links Lillo_ground_plan. ... Image File history File links Lillo_ground_plan. ... The ordinary meaning of lattice is the basis for several technical usages A cherry lattice pastry A mathematical lattice that is a type of partially ordered set. ...


The last of the churches from this period is Santa Cristina de Lena , located in the Lena district, about 25 km south of Oviedo, on an old Roman road that joined the lands of the plateau with Asturias. The church has a different ground plan to Pre-Romanesque´s traditional basilica. It is a single rectangular space with a barrel vault, with four adjoining structures located in the centre of each facade. The first of these annexes is the typical Austrian Pre-Romanesque vestibule, with a royal tribune on the upper part, accessed via a stairway joined to one of the walls. To the east is the enclosure with the altar, with a single apse, foregoing the traditional Asturian pre-romanesque triple apse, and going back to Visigoth influences. To the north and south respectively, there are two other enclosures through semicircular arches and barrel vaults, whose use was associated with the Hispano-Visigothic liturgy practised in Spain up to the 11th century. The Lena River ( Russian: Ле́на) in Siberia is the 10th longest river in the world and has the 9th largest watershed. ... Image:NONE Monte Roraima In geology and earth science, a plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat rural area. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


One of the most particular elements of Santa Cristina de Lena is the existence of the presbytery elevated above floor level in the last section of the central nave, separated from the area intended for the congregation by three arches on marble columns. This separation, which appears in other Asturian churches, is not repeated in any other with a similar structure. Both the lattices over the arches and the wall enclosing the central arch were re-used from Visigothic origins in the 7th century.


On the outside of the church, it is worth noting the large number of buttresses (32) which seem in some cases to have a merely aesthetic function. Nearby this church is the Asturian Pre-Romanesque Information Centre, located in the old Norte de la Cobertoria Railway Station.


Fourth period (866 to 910)

This comprises the reign of Alfonso III, who came to the throne at the age of 18, on the death of his father, Ordoño I, marking the zenith of the kingdom of Asturias. Expansion against Islam led him to conquer Oporto and Coimbra in present-day Portugal, and he pushed the borders of the kingdom as far as the Douro, repopulating Zamora, Simancas, Toro and the whole area known as Campos Góticos. The idea of the Asturian kingdom as a continuation of the Visigoths in Toledo was fully assumed, involving the "obligation" to "re-conquer" all the territory occupied by Muslims. This idea was reflected in the historical chronicles, such as the Crónica Albeldense, written in Oviedo in the year 881, which tells the history of the Gothic kingdom (Ordo Gentis gothorum), followed by the Asturian monarchy (Ordo Gothorum Obetensium fíegnum)T he kingdom's moment of expansion and maturity was also reflected in a cultural revitalisation promoted from the court, involving architectural and artistic renewal. A modern view of the ancient city of Porto, the city that gave the name to the country. ... District Coimbra Mayor   - Party Carlos Encarnação PSD Area 316. ... The Douro at Oporto The Douro (Spanish Duero, Latin Durius, Portuguese Douro) is one of the major rivers of Spain and Portugal, flowing from its source near Soria across central Spain and Portugal to its outlet at Oporto. ... Zamora is a city in Castile-Leon, Spain, the capital of the province of Zamora. ... Simancas, a town of Spain, in the province of Valladolid; 8 miles SW of Valladolid, on the road to Zamora and the right bank of the river Pisuerga. ... Toro may refer to: Toro (company), an American manufacturer of lawn mowers and other lawn equipment. ...


The kingdom's progressive expansion and increasing power also kindled the ambition of Alfonso III's three sons (García I, Ordoño II and Fruela II), who, encouraged by a number of noblemen, dispossessed the king and confined him in the town of Boiges (Boides valley, present-day Valdediós). Even so, they allowed him to lead a final campaign against the Muslims in Zamora, where he was victorious once more. He died on his return, in December of the year 910. Described in the chronicles as "Great King and Emperor" [Magnus Imperatore ImpemtorNoster),the king who had achieved the kingdom's greatest expansion and consolidation since it was founded by Pelayo, could not prevent his since from splitting it into three parts, Asturias, Galicia and Castile-León, meaning the disappearance of the kingdom of Asturias.


San Salvador de Valdediós and Santo Adriano de Tuñón are the two churches built by this monarch, in addition to the Foncalada fountain (fonte incalata) in the centre of Oviedo, and the already-mentioned gold artefacts of the Victoria Cross and the Agatha Box.

San Salvador de Valdediós monastery
San Salvador de Valdediós monastery

San Salvador de Valdediós stands in the Boides valley (Villaviciosa), the place where Alfonso III was detained when he was dispossessed by his sons, and where there used to be an old convent governed by the Benedictine Order, substituted in the 13th century by the Cistercians. The church known as the "Bishops' Chapel" was consecrated on September 16, 893, with seven bishops in attendance, and stands on a classic basilica ground plan with a triple sanctuary, separating the central nave from the side aisles with four semicircular arches. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 597 pixelsFull resolution (1136 × 848 pixel, file size: 164 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) San Salvador de Valdediós San Salvador de Valdediós - Vista de conjunto I took this picture myself File links The following pages on the English... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 597 pixelsFull resolution (1136 × 848 pixel, file size: 164 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) San Salvador de Valdediós San Salvador de Valdediós - Vista de conjunto I took this picture myself File links The following pages on the English... Monastery of St. ... // 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr declared Prince of Wales by his followers. ... Events Simeon I succeeds Vladimir as king of Bulgaria. ...


At the western end, there are three enclosures, the central one used as an access vestibule, and two located on the left and right which may have been used to house pilgrims. The vault over the central nave, like the one over the apses, is barrelled with a brick ceiling and decorated with al fresco wall painting, alternating a variety of geometric designs.

Valdediós ground plan

The royal tribune is located above the vestibule, separate from the area intended for the congregation (spatium fidelium) in the central nave, and this from the area devoted to the liturgy by iron grilles, now disappeared. Particular elements of this church include the covered gallery annexed to the southern facade at a later date or Royal Portico, the 50 cm square columns on the central naves arches, the triple-arched window open in the central apse, and the room above it, exclusively accessed from the exterior by a window which here has two openings, compared with the habitual three. Image File history File links Planta_valdedios. ... Image File history File links Planta_valdedios. ...


Santo Adriano de Tuñón is located on the bank of the River Trubia, next to an old Roman road. Founded on January 24, 891, it stands on a classic basilica ground plan, although in the 17th and 18th centuries it was extended with a nave structure at the western end, and a bell gable. The al fresco paintings in this church are the only remains of Mozarabic painters' work in an Asturian art workshop. January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events October 6 - Election of Pope Formosus Arnulf of Carinthia defeats the Normans at the Battle of Leuven Births Abd ar-Rahman III, emir and first caliph of Córdoba. ...


Finally, the Foncalada fountain, the only upper medieval civil construction conserved in Spain, was built on the outside of Oviedo city walls, with stone blocks and an intersecting roof, barrel vault and rectangular ground plan. The intersection of the roof is topped with a triangular pediment, sculpted with the VictoriaCross, characteristic of Alfonso III, under which runs the inscription Hocsigno tvetvr pivs, hoc signo vincitvr inimicvs, also typical of the kingdom of Asturias.


Fifth period (866 to 910)

With Alfonso III dead and the kingdom of Asturias divided among his sons, Asturian Pre-Romanesque entered its last stage with two constructions. The first of them is the Church of San Salvador de Priesca (a few kilometres from Valdediós), consecrated on September 24, 921, which has the architectural and decorative reference of the model laid down by Santullano, and not subsequent works. In the 17th and 18th centuries, it underwent several reconstructions, altering especially the structures adjoining the vestibule, by communicating them with the side aisles. September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Embassy of Ahmad ibn Fadlan from Baghdad to the king of the Volga Bulgars on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph al-Muqtadir Henry the Fowler invades Bavaria and obtains fealty from Arnulf the Bad Births King Edmund I of England Onmyoji Abe no Seimei Deaths September 1 - Richard of...


The Church of Santiago de Gobiendes, located near Colunga, next to the sea and the Sueve mountain range, is the last of the Pre-Romanesque churches, and like the previous one, follows the Santullano construction model. In the 17th and 18th centuries, it underwent significant reform, altering the entrance, facade, main and side chapels. Principality of Asturias Demonym  â€¢ Spanish Capital Colunga Coordinates Judicial district Villaviciosa Parishes 13 Population (2005)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density  â€¢ % of Asturias Rank: 37 3,882 inhabitants 40. ...


See also

Folio 220v of the La Cava Bible The La Cava Bible or Codex Cavensis (Cava de Tirreni, Biblioteca della Badia, Ms. ... The world map called St. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Asturian pre-Romanesque art
  • [1] World Cultural Heritage described on Postage Stamps.
  • (Spanish) [2] Arte Prerrománico en Asturias.
  • [3] Photo gallery.
  • [4] Pre-Romanesque in Oviedo.

 
 

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