FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Astroturfing" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Astroturfing

Astroturfing is a neologism for formal public relations campaigns in politics and advertising that seek to create the impression of being spontaneous, grassroots behavior. Hence the reference to the artificial grass AstroTurf. This article is about artificial grass. ... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... // The term Public Relations was first used by the US President Thomas Jefferson during his address to Congress in 1807. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Advert redirects here. ... A grassroots political movement is one driven by the constituents of a community. ... This article is about artificial grass. ...


The goal of such a campaign is to disguise the efforts of a political or commercial entity as an independent public reaction to some political entity—a politician, political group, product, service or event. Astroturfers attempt to orchestrate the actions of apparently diverse and geographically distributed individuals, by both overt ("outreach," "awareness," etc.) and covert (disinformation) means. Astroturfing may be undertaken by anything from an individual pushing their own personal agenda through to highly organized professional groups with financial backing from large corporations, non-profits, or activist organizations. Disinformation, in the context of espionage, military intelligence, and propaganda, is the spreading of deliberately false information to mislead an enemy as to ones position or course of action. ...

Contents

Word origin

The term, said to have been used first in this context by former U.S. Senator Lloyd Bentsen, is wordplay based on "grassroots democracy" efforts, which are truly spontaneous undertakings largely sustained by private persons (not politicians, governments, corporations, or public relations firms). "AstroTurf" refers to the bright green artificial grass used in some sports stadiums, so "astroturfing" refers to imitating or faking populous ("grassroots") opinion or behaviour. Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Lloyd Millard Bentsen Jr. ... Grassroots democracy is a tendency towards designing political processes where as much decision-making authority as practical is shifted to the organizations lowest geographic level of organization. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... // The term Public Relations was first used by the US President Thomas Jefferson during his address to Congress in 1807. ... This article is about artificial grass. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Athens Olympic Stadium Typical stadium seating consists of terraces, such as shown here at Sarajevos Stadium Kosevo. ... A grassroots political movement is one driven by the constituents of a community. ...


This practice is specifically prohibited by the Code of Ethics of the Public Relations Society of America, the national association for members of the public relations professionals in the United States. Due to First Amendment free speech issues the most significant punishment PRSA can hand out to members who engage in Astroturfing is revocation of membership in the association. Although not specifically mentioned in the Code of Ethics of the International Association of Business Communicators (IABC), honest communication is also required by the IABC Code of Ethics.

From the Public Relations Society of America Member Code of Ethics 2000 [excerpt]:

DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION

Core Principle Open communication fosters informed decision making in a democratic society.

Intent: To build trust with the public by revealing all information needed for responsible decision making.

Guidelines - A member shall:

Be honest and accurate in all communications.
Act promptly to correct erroneous communications for which the member is responsible.
Investigate the truthfulness and accuracy of information released on behalf of those represented.
Reveal the sponsors for causes and interests represented.
Disclose financial interest (such as stock ownership) in a client's organization.
Avoid deceptive practices.

Examples of Improper Conduct Under this Provision:

Front groups: A member implements "grass roots" campaigns or letter-writing campaigns to legislators on behalf of undisclosed interest groups.

Lying by omission: A practitioner for a corporation knowingly fails to release financial information, giving a misleading impression of the corporation's performance.

A member discovers inaccurate information disseminated via a Web site or media kit and does not correct the information.

A member deceives the public by employing people to pose as volunteers to speak at public hearings and participate in "grass roots" campaigns.

[1]


Techniques

A form of propaganda, astroturfing attempts to affect selectively the emotions of the public, whether trying to win a campaign, be the top music record seller, be the top book seller, or gain political support. For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ...


Astroturfing techniques usually consist of a few people discreetly posing as mass numbers of activists advocating a specific cause.


It has become easier to structure an astroturfing campaign in the electronic era because the cost and effort to send an e-mail (especially a pre-written, sign-your-name-at-the-bottom e-mail) is so low. Companies may use a boiler room full of telephones and computers where hired activists locate people and groups that create enthusiasm for the specified cause. Also, the use of psychographics allows hired supporters to persuade their targeted audience. The term boiler room is used to describe a high pressure telemarketing operation, often cold calling individuals at home (during non-business hours) in an attempt to persuade them to invest in high-risk products, usually Stock (company shares). ... In marketing, demographics, opinion research, and social research in general, psychographic variables are any attributes relating to personality, values, attitudes, interests, or lifestyles. ...


The online volunteer-edited encyclopedia Wikipedia has also become a tool for astroturfing.[1] The creation of Wikiscanner, for example, has revealed attempts at manipulating Wikipedia's content by a large number of business, government, and special interest groups.[2] Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... WikiScanner (also known as Wikipedia Scanner) is a tool created by Virgil Griffith and released on August 14, 2007,[1] which consists of a publicly searchable database that links millions of anonymous Wikipedia edits to the organizations where those edits apparently originated, by cross-referencing the edits with data on...


Examples

Early examples

At the turn of the 20th century, it was common to have newspapers in major American cities sponsored by local political parties. Some were open about this practice, but many of these relationships were hidden. Other examples include political "clubs" which front for voter fraud and intimidation, letter-writing campaigns organized by local ward bosses, and some union-organized political activities. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ...


In one case, documented in the book All the President's Men, the Committee to Re-Elect the President orchestrated several campaigns of "public support" for decisions made by President Nixon in the period preceding the 1972 election, including telegrams to the White House and an apparently independent advertisement placed in The New York Times. All the Presidents Men is a 1974 non-fiction book by Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, the two journalists investigating the Watergate first break-in and ensuing Watergate scandal for the Washington Post. ... The Committee to Re-elect the President, often abbreviated to CRP or CREEP, was a Nixon White House fundraising organization. ... Nixon redirects here. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...


King Léopold II of Belgium used extensive astroturf lobbying in the US and Europe to facilitate his economic exploitation of the Congo. (Adam Hochschild, 1999) Leopold II (Léopold Louis Philippe Marie Victor (French) or Leopold Lodewijk Filips Marie Victor (Dutch) (April 9, 1835 – December 17, 1909) was King of the Belgians. ...


Another case is that of Bolivian dictator General Luis Garcia Meza Tejada, who at the end of his promised one-year rule staged a televised rally and declared "Bueno, me quedo," or in English: "All right, I'll stay." Luis García Meza Tejada (b. ...


Manipulation of public opinion was also used in the Soviet Union. Political decisions were often preceded by massive campaigns of orchestrated 'letters from workers' (письма трудящихся, (pisma trudyashchikhsya)) which were quoted and published in newspapers and radio.[citation needed] In Stalin's era, massive "public demonstrations" were organized against "the enemies of the people"; those attending were often forced or intimidated into doing so.


Examples from the 1990s

In 1991 a memo from PR firm van Kloberg & Associates to Zairian ambassador Tatanene Tanata referring to the "Zaire Program 1991" was leaked. The memo outlines steps the firm was taking to improve the image of Mobutu Sese Seko's regime, including placing dozens of letters to the editor, op-ed pieces, and articles in the American press praising the Zairian government. [2] Edward von Kloberg III (January 9, 1942 - May 1, 2005) was an American lobbyist, infamous for his representation of some of the most notorious dictators of the 20th century. ... For other uses, see Zaire (disambiguation). ... Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga (October 14, 1930 – September 7, 1997), known commonly as Mobutu, or Mobutu Sese Seko, born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) for 32 years (1965–1997), in which he rose to power... An Op-Ed is a piece of writing expressing an opinion. ...


In 1998, Paul Reitsma, former member of the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia, was accused of writing letters to newspapers under assumed names praising himself and attacking his political opponents. A Parksville newspaper had asked a former RCMP handwriting expert to compare a sample of Reitsma's handwriting to that of letters to the editor submitted by a "Warren Betanko", and then ran a story entitled "MLA Reitsma is a liar and we can prove it". For this, Reitsma was expelled from the caucus of the British Columbia Liberal Party and then compelled to resign his seat after it became obvious that an effort to recall him would succeed. [3] Paul Reitsma, former member of the legislative assembly of British Columbia for Parksville-Qualicum. ... Expulsion is one of words used to describe expulsions after World War II, indicating condemnation of the events. ... A caucus is most generally defined as being a meeting of supporters or members of a political party or movement. ... The British Columbia Liberal Party (usually referred to as the BC Liberals) is the governing political party in British Columbia, Canada. ... A recall election is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office. ...


Recent examples

  • In July 2004, RealNetworks tried to press Apple Inc. to open up their FairPlay DRM for the iPod with the Harmony plug-in. The work-around allows users to purchase songs from RealNetworks' Rhapsody and then convert it for use for the iPod. They also set up an internet petition "Hey Apple! Don't break my iPod" (www.freedomofmusicchoice.org) and slashed the prices of its songs to below that of iTunes. It backfired, as many posters reacted negatively and accused RealNetworks of astroturfing.
  • In March 2006, a supposed environmental group called the Save Our Species Alliance was exposed as a front group that was created by a timber lobbyist to weaken the Endangered Species Act. The campaign director for this group is Tim Wigley, the Executive Director of Pac/West Communications. Wigley was also the campaign director for Project Protect, another front group that spent $2.9 million to help pass President Bush's Healthy Forests legislation which has been criticized for its pro-industry bias. [4] The Save Our Species Alliance web site portrays itself as a grassroots organization against the Endangered Species Act (the word "grassroots" is mentioned no less than five times on their "Take Action Now" page), but is criticized by environmentalists for being a front group for wealthy cattle and timber interests which consider Federal environmental legislation an impediment to profit.
  • In March 2006 video game manufacturers faced over seventy anti-games bills across the country. Embattled, they established the Video Game Voters Network, “a new grassroots political network for gamers” which publicly portrayed itself as a populist effort to lobby State and Federal legislators against supporting violent video game-related legislation. In April 2007 in an interview on video game news website, GameDaily, consumer advocate and founder of the Entertainment Consumers Association (ECA), Hal Halpin, stated that “The Videogame Voters Network is very needed and wanted by the industry, but it's supported by the industry, so it's called "astroturfing" where our organization is grassroots and the difference in the two pieces of terminology is significant when it comes to legislators because they'll look at an astroturf organization as one that's backed by the industry; funded by them, run by them, organized by them.” The following day ESA (Entertainment Software Association) spokesperson Caroyln Rauch responded in a written statement, "...calling the VGVN 'astroturf' is not only counterproductive and just not correct, but it also demeans the passion and energy of its members."[citation needed]
  • Since 2006, an organisation calling itself the Palm Oil Truth Foundation [5]and claiming to be ‘an international network of social conscience and cooperation among peoples in industry, government, academia and the ordinary global consuming public’ has been campaigning to promote the use of palm oil in food, rubbishing negative health claims against the oil and pouring scorn on environmental concerns about the impact of the industry’s expansion. Oil Palm is an extremely lucrative tropical crop which has been accused by many NGOs as being responsible for the rapid destruction of rainforests and orangutan habitat in Malaysia and Indonesia [6]. The Foundation claims no industry links but is connected to the Malaysian Oil Palm Council (MPOC) [7] through their website. The Foundation’s operations are curiously coincidental with a large PR contract tendered by the Malaysian Palm Oil Council to counter the negative image of the industry in Europe [8]. The same group runs Deforestation Watch [9], another astroturfing website.
  • In May 2006, SanDisk launched a site called iDon't, appearing to be a blog started by individuals opposed to Apple's domination of the portable music player market. It was actually an advertisement mechanism for their own device, the Sansa e200. The website now redirects to the company's own lilmonsta.com domain. [citation needed]
  • During the second half of 2006, American Airlines received frequent accusations of astroturfing due to its acknowledged support (including some financial backing) of Stop and Think, which was a Dallas-based organization that advocated the retention of the federal Wright Amendment ban on most long haul commercial passenger airline service at Dallas Love Field. Many opponents of the Wright Amendment believed that American, the dominant passenger airline at nearby Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, had an overly cozy relationship with the management of DFW Airport and/or used highly aggressive competitive tactics against other airlines that serve DFW, and that for airline competition in North Texas to increase substantively, the federal government must repeal the Wright Amendment and let Love Field be an alternative to DFW for airlines flying long haul routes to and from North Texas. Therefore, these critics said that the Wright Amendment unduly limits the competition that American faces in the North Texas commercial aviation market and that American used Stop and Think to try to manipulate the public into backing the law – and, by extension, the airline's commercial interests – under a pretense of broad-based community support. Stop and Think has since been disbanded after the Wright Amendment Reform Act of 2006 was signed into law by President Bush, which is based on a compromise between American, Southwest Airlines, the Cities of Dallas and Fort Worth, and DFW Airport. Since then, a group co-sponsored by Southwest and American advocating Love Field improvements called the Love Field Initiative has replaced Stop and Think.
  • In December 2006, the "All I want for Xmas is a PSP" marketing campaign by Zipatoni and Sony sparked outrage from the gaming community when it was discovered that the fake blog was in fact assembled by a marketing team.[10] (See PlayStation Portable#Controversial advertising campaigns)
  • In January 2007, it was revealed that an anonymous website that attacked critics of Overstock.com, including media figures and private citizens on message boards, was operated by an official of Overstock.com.[11]
  • In January 2007, an Australian writer revealed that a Microsoft employee had offered to pay him to edit Wikipedia articles regarding Microsoft products.[12] While not specifically asking him to promote those products, the intent was to improve their image while concealing Microsoft's involvement.
  • In May 2007, comments appeared on Forbes.com's Digital Download blog defending Iolo System Mechanic 7, a piece of software which had received a poor review. Those comments were later revealed as written by an Iolo employee.[13]
  • Wake Up Wal-Mart is an organization run by the United Food and Commercial Workers International Union, which seeks to pressure Wal-Mart to yield to the Union's demands.[14] The group's website pages are clearly marked as copyrighted by the UFCW Union, but public statements emphasize instead its "grassroots" nature and don't disclose that the UFCW runs the group.[15]
  • Wal-Mart Watch is an organization that is mainly funded by Five Stones, a 501(c)(3) organization that received $2,775,000 in 2005 from the SEIU.[16] On their web site, Wal-Mart Watch discloses their association with Five Stones and notes that Andy Stern, the President of the United Food and Commercial Workers International Union, is a member of its board of directors.[17] The SEIU reportedly gave Five Stones $1 million in 2004 to start Wal-Mart Watch.[18]
  • Working Families for Wal-Mart portrays itself as a grassroots organization, but was really started and funded by Walmart Corporation.[19] It paid former Atlanta mayor Andrew Young to head the organization. Young created a significant controversy, when asked by a California newspaper about Walmart hurting independent businesses, he said that, "But you see, those are the people who have been overcharging us -- selling us stale bread and bad meat and wilted vegetables... I think they've ripped off our communities. First it was Jews, then it was Koreans and now it's Arabs. Very few black people own these stores"[20]
  • In August 2007 Comcast Corporation's public relations representatives were accused of astroturfing by posing as fans on internet college team message boards in an effort to spread their negative views about the newly created Big Ten Network. At that time Comcast and the Big Ten Network were involved in very public and acrimonious negotiations.[citation needed]

This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ... This article is about anti-competitive business behavior. ... Americans for Technology Leadership is a coalition of technology professionals, companies and organizations that advocates limited government regulation of technology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Apple Inc. ... FairPlay is a digital rights management (DRM) technology created by Apple Inc. ... The acronym DRM can stand for: Digital Rights Management - Technologies to give content providers control over redistribution and access to material. ... iPod is a brand of portable media players designed and marketed by Apple and launched in October 2001. ... FairPlay is a digital rights management (DRM) technology created by Apple Inc. ... Rhapsody is an online music service run by RealNetworks. ... For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ... Save Our Species Alliance, Inc. ... The Endangered Species Act (, et seq. ... Tim Wigley is Executive Vice President of Pac/West Communications Prior to joining Pac/West, Tim served as the president of the Oregon Forest Industries Council (OFIC) - a Salem-based, statewide trade association representing the interests of Oregons forest products industry. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The Healthy Forests Initiative (or HFI), officially the Healthy Forests Restoration Act of 2003, is a law originally proposed by President George W. Bush in response to the widespread forest fires during the summer of 2002. ... The Endangered Species Act (, et seq. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the European Space Agency. ... The Video Game Voters Network is a newly formed lobbying organization designed to defend the rights of the video gaming industry and video gaming consumer. ... Palm oil from Ghana with its natural dark color visible, 2 litres Palm oil block Palm oil is a form of edible vegetable oil obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. ... Species Elaeis guineensis Elaeis oleifera The oil palms (Elaeis) coomprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization that is not part of a government and was not founded by states. ... This article is about the primate. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... SanDisk Corporation (NASDAQ: SNDK), formerly SunDisk, is an American multinational corporation which designs and markets flash memory card products. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Apple Inc. ... iPod is a brand of portable media players designed and marketed by Apple and launched in October 2001. ... The SanDisk Sansa is a line of flash memory-based digital audio players produced by SanDisk. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ... YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ... DCI Group is a American lobbying and public relations firm. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... For other uses, see Exon (disambiguation). ... General Motors Corporation, also known as GM or The General, an American multinational conglomerate corporation, is the worlds largest auto company by annual production volume for 2006, and the second largest by sales volume as of the first half of 2007, behind Toyota Motor Corporation. ... Al Gores Penguin Army is a video spoofing An Inconvenient Truth, the documentary film about Al Gores efforts to raise awareness of global warming. ... YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ... This article is about the corporation. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... American Airlines, Inc. ... Dallas redirects here. ... The Wright Amendment of 1979 was a federal law which originally limited traffic from Dallass Love Field airport to points within Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. ... Dallas Love Field (IATA: DAL, ICAO: KDAL, FAA LID: DAL) is a public airport located five miles (8 km) northwest of the central business district (CBD) of the City of Dallas, in Dallas County, Texas, USA. The airport covers 1,300 acres and has three runways. ... DFW redirects here. ... This article is about the American airline. ... Vladimir Socor (b. ... The Jamestown Foundation (founded 1984) is an American think tank whose mission is to inform and educate policy makers about events and trends which are current strategic importance to the United States. ... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ... In politics and advertising, the term astroturfing describes formal public relations (PR) campaigns which seek to create the impression of being a spontaneous, grassroots behavior. ... Disinformation, in the context of espionage, military intelligence, and propaganda, is the spreading of deliberately false information to mislead an enemy as to ones position or course of action. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... Zipatoni is an American marketing company that provides clients zany and off-beat marketing services, mainly through buzz marketing or viral marketing. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... The PlayStation Portable , officially abbreviated as PSP) is a handheld game console released and currently manufactured by Sony Computer Entertainment. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Wake Up Wal-Mart is a campaign of the United Food and Commercial Workers International Union launched April 5, 2005. ... The United Food and Commercial Workers International Union is a labor union representing approximately 1. ... Wal-Mart Watch, formed in the spring of 2005, is a joint project of The Center for Community and Corporate Ethics, a non-profit organization studying the impact of large corporations on society and its advocacy arm, Five Stones. ... Service Employees International Union (SEIU) is the largest and fastest growing labor union in the United States and Canada, representing 1. ... The United Food and Commercial Workers International Union is a labor union representing approximately 1. ... Service Employees International Union (SEIU) is the largest and fastest growing labor union in the United States and Canada, representing 1. ... Working Families for Wal-Mart, a national non-profit organization which announced its formation on December 20, 2005 to counter crticism from groups, such as Wake Up Wal-Mart and Wal-Mart Watch. ...

Fictional examples

  • Government astroturfing, as well as other sneaky tricks including an eleven-day war waged to distract from a sex scandal, are depicted in the film Wag the Dog.
  • The satirical newspaper The Onion had an opinion piece entitled "I'd Love This Product Even If I Weren't A Stealth Marketer," which is written as though by a young employee for Pepsi-Cola who is paid to astroturf.[21]

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Onion is a United States-based parody newspaper published weekly in print and daily online. ... Christopher Buckley Christopher Taylor Buckley (born 1952) is an American political satirist and author of several novels. ... Thank You for Smoking is a novel by Christopher Buckley, first published in 1994, which tells the story of the life of Nick Naylor, a tobacco lobbyist during the 90s. ... Nick Naylor is the protagonist in satirist Christopher Buckleys 1994 novel Thank You For Smoking: A Novel. ... Hispanic flag, not widely used. ...

See also

“False colors” redirects here. ... A front organization is any entity set up by and controlled by another organization, such as intelligence agencies, criminal organizations, banned organizations, religious or political groups, advocacy groups, or corporations. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A sock puppet, after which Internet sock puppets are named. ... Working Families for Wal-Mart, a national non-profit organization which announced its formation on December 20, 2005 to counter crticism from groups, such as Wake Up Wal-Mart and Wal-Mart Watch. ... Viral marketing and viral advertising refer to marketing techniques that use pre-existing social networks to produce increases in brand awareness, through self-replicating viral processes, analogous to the spread of pathological and computer viruses. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ "What To Do When Your Company Wikipedia Page Goes Bad".
  2. ^ "CIA and Vatican edit Wikipedia entries".
  3. ^ USA Today Microsoft funded 'grass roots' campaign
  4. ^ Robyn Weisman Phony 'Grassroots' Campaign Orchestrated by Microsoft August 23 2001
  5. ^ Thor Olavsrud Microsoft Supported by Dead People August 23 2001
  6. ^ "Where did that video spoofing Gore's film come from?", Wall Street Journal, 03-09-2006. 
  7. ^ Episode Two Fake Grass and the Cyber City. 23/09/2006. Retrieved 2006, September 29
  8. ^ Cooper, Jason. Megan Stephenson: "Western NGOs can make headway when governments can't" Tiraspol Times. 7/20/2006. Retrieved on 2006, 08-04
  9. ^ Disinformation The Economist. 8/3/2006. Retrieved on 2006, 08-03
  10. ^ http://blogs.guardian.co.uk/games/archives/2006/12/11/new_sony_viral_marketing_ploy_angers_consumers.html
  11. ^ Antilla, Susan. "Overstock Blames With Creepy Strategy", Bloomberg News Service, February 21, 2007. 
    Mitchell, Dan. "Flames Flare Over Naked Shorts", New York Times. 
    Boyd, Roddy. "Overstock.com Lashes Out at Critics on the Web", The New York Post, January 2, 2007. 
  12. ^ Jelliffe, Rick (January 22, 2007). An interesting offer: get paid to contribute to Wikipedia. OReilly XML.
  13. ^ David M. Ewalt, Forbes.com (May 26, 2007). Iolo Technologies' Astroturf Problem.
  14. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/01/13/AR2006011301861_pf.html The Washington Post, "Unions Hope Wal-Mart Bill Has Momentum" January 14, 2006; D01 By: Amy Joyce and Matthew Mosk
  15. ^ http://www.wakeupwalmart.com/about
  16. ^ http://online.wsj.com/article/SB116113323291895978.html
  17. ^ http://walmartwatch.com/about/ Wal-Mart Watch "About" page
  18. ^ http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_06/b3919049_mz011.htm Business Week , "Declaring War On Wal-Mart" February 7, 2005 By: Aaron Bernstein
  19. ^ http://www.ajc.com/search/content/shared/money/stories/coxnews/WALMART_YOUNG25_COX_W5015.html
  20. ^ http://www.workingforchange.com/article.cfm?ItemID=21284
  21. ^ http://www.theonion.com/content/node/43456

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

References

  • Anderson, Walter T. "Astroturf - The Big Business of Fake Grassroots Politics." Jinn 5 January 1996. [10]
  • Astroturf. 17 Oct. 2004. Sourcewatch. 6 Nov. 2005. [11]
  • Miller, Laura. "Powers Behinds the Throne." Center for Media and Democracy 21 February 2005. [12]
  • National Youth Advocacy Assembly. Teens from Across the Country Rally in Washington DC to call on the Beer Institute to Honor its Marketing Code and Stop Targeting Teens. National Youth Advocacy Assembly press release, 27 January 2003.
  • Odegard, Peter H. Pressure Politics: The Story of the Anti-Saloon League. NY: Columbia University Press, 1928.
  • Rampton, Sheldon and Stauber, John. "Keeping America Safe from Democracy." Center for Media and Democracy 30 October 2004. [13]
  • Shin, Annys. "FTC Moves to Unmask Word-of-Mouth Marketing." Washington Post 12 December 2006. [14]
  • "Playing on astroturf," The National Journal, April 19, 1986 - 'the "grass roots is AstroTurf in many cases, artificial turf," says Sen. Lloyd Bentsen, D-Texas.' - quoted in [15]
  • DISPATCHES: Undercover with New Labour, "The Dirty Tricks Election". Channel Four (Hardcash Productions) first broadcast 25th May 2005. [16]

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

External links

  • Primer on Grassroots Lobbying Disclosure from Center for Competitive Politics
  • Outside Lobbying, by Ken Kollman
  • Who Will Tell the People?, by William Greider
  • Letters From Iraq from Sourcewatch
  • Paul D. Thacker, "Hidden ties: Big environmental changes backed by big industry Lobbyists and industry officials who once pushed for the president’s Healthy Forests legislation now collaborate with Rep. [Richard] Pombo to alter the Endangered Species Act", Environmental Science & Technology, March 8, 2006.
  • Wolves in Sheeps Clothing: Telecom Industry Front Groups and Astroturf (.pdf) a special report prepared by the Common Cause Education Fund, March 2006.
  • Anti-Astroturfing campaign from the New PR Wiki
  • Political parties and their use of modern media in obtaining information superiority
  • StopRacismCa.com and FriendsOfST.com are two sites allegedly set up by The Home Depot corporation ( even though they deny involvement) to promote their proposed store in the Sunland-Tujunga community of CA. Both of these websites are very similar, are hosted by the same company, yet take starkly different approaches to advancing the business goals of Home Depot.
  • Berman and Company a PR firm; owner and creator of many "Competitive Research" sites. Accused of astroturfing for hire.
  • P.& G. Link in Amex Contest Raises Questions of Fairness, NY Times article on alleged astroturfing by Procter & Gamble in the American Express Members Project.

  Results from FactBites:
 
AstroTurf - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (314 words)
AstroTurf was invented in 1965 by employees of Monsanto, patented in 1967, and originally sold under the name "Chemgrass".
AstroTurf is being replaced in many stadiums with newer types of artificial turf – two common brands of this new generation being FieldTurf and Sport Grass.
Astroturf is the preferred surface for field hockey.
Astroturfing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1888 words)
A form of propaganda, astroturfing attempts to selectively affect the emotions of the public, whether trying to win a campaign, be the top music record seller, the top book seller, or gain political support.
Astroturfing techniques usually consist of a few people discreetly posing as mass numbers of activists advocating a specific cause.
Government astroturfing, as well as other sneaky tricks including an eleven-day war waged to distract from a sex scandal, are depicted in the film Wag the Dog.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m