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Encyclopedia > Astronautics

Astronautics is the branch of engineering that deals with machines designed to work outside of Earth's atmosphere, whether manned or unmanned. In other words, it is the science and technology of space flight. Layers of Atmosphere (NOAA) Air redirects here. ...


Astronautics was coined by analogy with aeronautics. As with aeronautics, the restrictions of weight, heat and external forces require that applications in space survive extreme conditions, whether the heat of reentry, the radiation bombardment of interplanetary space, or the magnetic belts of orbit, space vessels must be designed to withstand forces almost unknown on Earth. Moreover, because of the extreme constraints on weight, astronautic engineering is constantly faced with the need to reduce the mission payload, in order to save propellant that powers the impulse engine. Earth (often referred to as the Earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth in order of size. ... In cargo transport, the payload is the valuable contents of the vehicle. ... A propellant is a material that is used to move an object by applying a motive force. ... In classical mechanics, the impulse of a force is the product of the force and the time during which it acts. ...


The early history of astronautics is theoretical; long before it was possible to send vessels into space, the question of space flight interested such figures as Jules Verne and HG Wells. The practical history of astronautics begins with liquid-fueled rockets. Jules Verne. ... H. G. Wells at the door of his house at Sandgate Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 - August 13, 1946) was an English writer best known for his science fiction novels such as The War of the Worlds and The Time Machine. ... A rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving exhaust from within a rocket engine. ...


Branches of astronautics are space mathematics, astrodynamics, space environment, spacecraft design, rocketry, attitude dynamics and control, navigation. The purpose of this article is to introduce non-scientists, non-engineers, and other laymen to the basic mathematics of space exploration. ... Astrodynamics is the study of the motion of rockets, missiles, and space vehicles, as determined from Sir Isaac Newtons laws of motion and his law of universal gravitation. ... Space environment is a branch of astronautics and aerospace engineering that seeks to understand and address conditions existing in space that would impact the operation of spacecraft, such as radiation, space debris, upper atmospheric drag, and the solar wind. ... The design of spacecraft covers a broad area to include satellite design, planetary probe design, and manned spaceship design. ... A rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving exhaust from within a rocket engine. ... Attitude dynamics and control is a term used in rocketry and spacecraft. ... Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ...


See also

Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Atmospheric reentry is the process by which vehicles that are outside the atmosphere of a planet can enter that atmosphere and reach the planetary surface intact. ... Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (Konstanty Ciołkowski), (Константин Эдуардович Циолковский; September 5, 1857 new style – September 19, 1935) was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist and pioneer of cosmonautics who spent most of his life in a log-house at the outskirts of the Russian town of Kaluga. ... For other uses, see Space Race (disambiguation). ... Robert Goddard Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was one of the pioneers of modern rocketry. ... Wernher von Braun stands at his desk in the Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama in May 1964, with models of rockets developed and in progress. ... Term used to describe societies or nations capable of building, launching and retrieving a manned space vessel. ... The word astrogation, used by science fiction writers beginning in the first half of the 20th century, denotes navigation of spacecraft, either in interplanetary travel or in interstellar travel. ... The purpose of this article is to introduce non-scientists, non-engineers, and other laymen to the basic mathematics of space exploration. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Astronaut Scholarship Foundation: Scholarship Program (370 words)
Astronauts, ASF Board Members, and Astronaut Scholars at the 2006 Astronaut Hall of Fame Induction weekend.
The Astronaut Scholarship is awarded only to students during their junior or senior year, or to Master's students.
The Astronaut Scholarship Foundation was created to ensure that the United States would maintain its leadership in science and technology in the future by supporting promising students in science and engineering.
Astronaut - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1238 words)
On March 14, 1995 astronaut Norman Thagard became the first American to ride to space on board a Russian launch vehicle, arguably becoming the first American cosmonaut in the process.
As of 2005, the most spaceflights by an individual astronaut was seven, a record held by both Jerry L. Ross and Franklin Chang-Diaz.
The first astronauts, both in the U.S. and USSR, tended to be jet fighter pilots, often test pilots, from military backgrounds.
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