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Encyclopedia > Astronaut
Astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit outside the U.S. Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984
Astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit outside the U.S. Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984

An astronaut or cosmonaut (Russian: космона́вт IPA: [kəsmʌˈnaft]) is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.[1] While generally reserved for professional space travelers, the term is sometimes applied to anyone who travels into space, including scientists, politicians, journalists, and tourists.[2][3] Astronaut can refer to: Astronaut, a person who travels in space Astronaut (album), an album by British band Duran Duran Astronauts (TV series), a British sitcom Astronaut (band), a British band The Astronaut, a 1972 science fiction film Category: ... Look up spaceman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3072x3072, 7575 KB) matthew is aaqwz NASA Photo ID: S84-27017 Program: Shuttle Mission: STS-41-B Date Taken: February 11, 1984 Film Type: 70mm Title: Views of the extravehicular activity during STS 41-B Description: Astronaut Bruce McCandless, mission specialist... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3072x3072, 7575 KB) matthew is aaqwz NASA Photo ID: S84-27017 Program: Shuttle Mission: STS-41-B Date Taken: February 11, 1984 Film Type: 70mm Title: Views of the extravehicular activity during STS 41-B Description: Astronaut Bruce McCandless, mission specialist... McCandless helped develop the MMU and was first to test it on STS-41-B in 1984 Captain Bruce McCandless II (born June 8, 1937 in Boston, Massachusetts) is a former naval aviator with the United States Navy and NASA astronaut. ... U.S. astronaut Bruce McCandless uses a manned maneuvering unit A Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) is a rocket pack (propulsion backpack that snaps onto the back of the spacesuit) which has been used on spacewalks (EVAs) from NASAs space shuttle, allowing an astronaut to move independently from the shuttle. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... Space Shuttle Challenger (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099) was NASAs second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service, Columbia being the first. ... This is a list of programs intended to send humans into space. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ...

Contents

Definition

Until 2003, astronauts were sponsored and trained exclusively by governments, either by the military, or by civilian space agencies. However, with the first sub-orbital flight of the privately-funded SpaceShipOne in 2004, a new category of astronaut was created: the commercial astronaut. With the rise of space tourism, NASA and the Russian Federal Space Agency agreed to use the term "spaceflight participant" to distinguish those space travelers from astronauts on missions coordinated by those two agencies. Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne SpaceShipOnes patch The Scaled Composites Model 316 SpaceShipOne is an experimental air-launched suborbital spaceplane that uses a hybrid rocket motor. ... Patricia G. Smith, Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation at the FAA, presents SpaceShipOne pilot Micheal Melvill the departments first commercial astronaut wings Commercial Astronaut Badge Commercial Astronaut is a title, awarded by United States Federal Aviation Administration to those civilian pilots and crew members on-board an FAA... The curvature of Earth seen from orbit provides one of the main attractions for tourists paying to go into space Space tourism is the recent phenomenon of individuals paying for space travel, primarily for personal satisfaction. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (IPA [ˈnæsə]) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... The Russian Federal Space Agency (Russian: Федеральное космическое агентство России, commonly known as Roskosmos) or RKA, formerly the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (Russian: Российское авиационно-космическое агентство, commonly known as Rosaviakosmos), is the government agency responsible for Russias space science programme and general aerospace research. ... The curvature of the Earth seen from orbit provides one of the main attractions for tourists paying to go into space Space tourism is the recent phenomenon of individuals paying for space travel, primarily for personal satisfaction. ...


The criteria for what constitutes human spaceflight vary. The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) defines spaceflight as any flight over 100 kilometers (62 mi). However, in the United States, professional, military, and commercial astronauts who travel above an altitude of 80 kilometers (50 mi) are awarded astronaut wings. Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission. ... Fédération Aéronautique Internationale The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) is a standard setting and record-keeping body for aeronautics and astronautics. ... An Astronaut Badge is a military badge of the United States, awarded to military aviation pilots who have completed Astronaut training with NASA and performed a successful space flight. ...


As of October 4, 2007, a total of 463 humans from 34 countries—415 men and 48 women—have reached Low Earth orbit or beyond.[4][5] Of these, 24 people have traveled beyond Low Earth orbit, to either lunar or trans-lunar orbit or to the surface of the moon; two of the 24 did so twice.[6] According to the FAI guideline, 466 people qualify under the U. S. definition as having reached orbit.[7] Space travelers have spent over 30,400 person-days (or a cumulative total of over 83 years) in space, including over 100 person-days of spacewalks.[7][8] As of 2007, the man with the longest time in space is Sergei K. Krikalev, who has spent 803 days, 9 hours and 39 minutes, or 2.2 years, in space.[9][10] Sunita L. Williams holds the record for most time in space by a woman, with 195 days spent in space.[11][12] is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of countries whose citizens have flown in space Since the first spaceflight by the Soviet Union, astronauts who were citizens of 35 countries have flown into space. ... A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... Sergei Krikalevs official NASA photo Sergei Krikalevs official RSA photo Expedition 11 Commander Sergei Krikalev dons a training space suit. ... Sunita Williams (born September 19, 1965 in Euclid, Ohio) is a United States Naval officer and a NASA astronaut. ...


Terminology

See also: Astronaut ranks and positions
Countries whose citizens have flown in space as of 2006
Countries whose citizens have flown in space as of 2006

In the United States and many other English-speaking nations, a professional space traveler is called an astronaut. The term derives from the Greek words ástron (star) and nautes (sailor). The first known use of the term "astronaut" in the modern sense was by Neil R. Jones in his short story The Death's Head Meteor in 1930. The word itself had been known earlier. For example, in Percy Greg's 1880 book Across the Zodiac, "astronaut" referred to a spacecraft. In Les Navigateurs de l'Infini (1925) of J.-H. Rosny aîné the word astronautique (astronautic) was used. The word may have been inspired by "aeronaut", an older term for an air traveler first applied (in 1784) to balloonists. Astronauts hold a variety of ranks and positions, and each of these roles carries unique responsibilities which are integral to the successful operation of a spacecraft. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1356x658, 31 KB) Map showing Astronauts by country as listed on w:Timeline of astronauts by nationality. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1356x658, 31 KB) Map showing Astronauts by country as listed on w:Timeline of astronauts by nationality. ... Map of countries whose citizens have flown in space Since the first spaceflight by the Soviet Union, astronauts who were citizens of 35 countries have flown into space. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Neil R(onald) Jones (29 May 1909 - 15 Feb 1988) was an American author who worked for the state of New York. ... Percy Greg (1836-1889), son of William Rathbone Greg, was an English writer. ... J.-H. Rosny aîné was the pseudonym of Joseph Henri Honoré Boex (February 17, 1856 - February 11, 1940), a French author of Belgian origin who is considered one of the founding figures of modern science fiction. ... A hot air balloon is prepared for flight by inflation of the envelope with propane burners. ...


NASA applies the term astronaut to any crew member aboard NASA spacecraft bound for Earth orbit or beyond. NASA also uses the term as a title for those selected to join its Astronaut Corps.[13]


Russia

Main article: Soviet space program
Yuri Gagarin, first person in space (1961) (USSR)
Yuri Gagarin, first person in space (1961) (USSR)

By convention, an astronaut employed by the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (or its Soviet predecessor) is called a cosmonaut in English texts.[13] The word is an anglicisation of the Russian word космонавт (transliteration: kosmonavt, IPA [kəsmʌˈnaft]), which in turn derives from the Greek words kosmos (universe) and nautes (sailor). For the most part, "cosmonaut" and "astronaut" are synonyms in all languages, and the usage of choice is often dictated by political reasons. Soviet Soyuz rockets like the one pictured above were the first reliable means to transport objects into Earth orbit. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... “Gagarin” redirects here. ... The Russian Federal Space Agency (Russian: Федеральное космическое агентство России, commonly known as Roskosmos) or RKA, formerly the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (Russian: Российское авиационно-космическое агентство, commonly known as Rosaviakosmos), is the government agency responsible for Russias space science programme and general aerospace research. ... Soviet Soyuz rockets like the one pictured above were the first reliable means to transport objects into Earth orbit. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...


On March 14, 1995, astronaut Norman Thagard became the first American to ride to space on board a Russian launch vehicle, arguably becoming the first "American cosmonaut" in the process. is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Norman Earl Thagard (born July 3, 1943) is an astronaut for NASA. Early life He was born in Marianna, Florida, but considers Jacksonville, Florida, to be his hometown. ...


China

In China, the term "yǔhángyuán" (宇航员) or "hángtiānyuán" (航天员) has long been used for astronauts. The phrase "tàikōng rén" (太空人, literally "space person") is often used in Taiwan and Hong Kong. Official English texts issued by the Chinese government use astronaut while texts in Russian use cosmonaut.[14][14] The term taikonaut is used by some English-language news media organizations for professional space travelers from China. The origin of the term is unclear; as early as May 1998, Chiew Lee Yih (赵里昱) from Malaysia, used it in newsgroups, while Chen Lan, almost simultaneously, used it in Western media.[citation needed] A newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system, for messages posted from many users at different locations. ...


Other terms

While no nation other than Russia (formerly the Soviet Union), the United States, and China has launched a manned spacecraft, several other nations have sent people into space in cooperation with one of these countries. Inspired partly by these missions, other synonyms for astronaut have entered occasional English usage. For example, the term spationaut (French spelling: spationaute) is sometimes used to describe French space travelers, from the Latin word spatium or "space". For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


The term "Angkasawan" is used in Malaysia to describe participants of the Angkasawan program. It is translated as astronaut or cosmonaut. The Angkasawan program is an initiative by the Malaysian government to send a Malaysian to the International Space Station on board Soyuz TMA-11. ...


Space travel milestones

See also: Spaceflight records and Timeline of space travel by nationality
Valentina Tereshkova, first woman in space (1963) (USSR)
Alan Shepard aboard Freedom 7

The first human in space was Russian Yuri Gagarin, who was launched into space on April 12, 1961 aboard Vostok 1. The first woman was Russian Valentina Tereshkova, launched into space in June 1963 aboard Vostok 6. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Map of countries whose citizens have flown in space Since the first human spaceflight by the Soviet Union, citizens of 37 countries have flown in space. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... 1963 USSR postage stamp depicting Valentina Tereshkova Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova (Russian: ; born March 6, 1937), is a retired Soviet cosmonaut and was the first woman to fly in space, aboard Vostok 6 on the 16th of June 1963. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 466 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,333 × 3,000 pixels, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 466 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,333 × 3,000 pixels, file size: 3. ... // Crew Alan Shepard (flew on Mercury 3 & Apollo 14) Backup Crew John Glenn Mission parameters Mass: 1,295 kg (apogee) Maximum Altitude: 187. ... “Gagarin” redirects here. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vostok 1 (Russian: , meaning Orient-1 or East-1) was the first human spaceflight. ... 1963 USSR postage stamp depicting Valentina Tereshkova Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova (Russian: ; born March 6, 1937), is a retired Soviet cosmonaut and was the first woman to fly in space, aboard Vostok 6 on the 16th of June 1963. ... A joint flight with Vostok 5, Vostok 6 carried the first woman into space, cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova. ...


Alan Shepard became the first American and second person in space on May 5, 1961, while the first American woman in space was Sally Ride, during Space Shuttle Challenger's mission STS-7, on June 18, 1983.[15] For other persons named Alan Shepard, see Alan Shepard (disambiguation). ... Sally Kristen Ride (born May 26, 1951) is an American former astronaut who in 1983 became the first American woman to reach outer space. ... Space Shuttle Challenger (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099) was NASAs second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service, Columbia being the first. ... STS-7 was a space shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Challenger, launched June 18, 1983. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ...


The first mission to orbit the moon was Apollo 8, which included William Anders who was born in Hong Kong, making him the first Asian-born astronaut in 1968. On 15 October 2003, Yang Liwei became China's first astronaut on the Shenzhou 5 spacecraft. Apollo 8 was the second successful manned mission of the Apollo space program, in which Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot James Lovell and Lunar Module Pilot William Anders became the first humans to orbit around the Moon. ... William Alison Anders (born October 17, 1933) is a former United States Air Force officer and National Aeronautics and Space Administration astronaut. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Yang Yáng Lìwěi (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ) (born June 21, 1965) is an astronaut of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Shenzhou 5 (神舟五号) was the first manned space mission launched by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) on October 15, 2003. ...


The Soviet Union, through its Intercosmos program, allowed people from other socialist countries to fly on its missions. An example is Vladimir Remek, a Czech, who became the first non-Soviet European in space in 1978 on a Russian Soyuz rocket.[16] On July 23, 1980, Pham Tuan of Vietnam became the first Asian in space when he flew aboard Soyuz 37.[17] Also in 1980, Cuban Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez became the first person of African descent to fly in space (the first person born in Africa to fly in space was Patrick Baudry, in 1985).[18][19] In 1988, Abdul Ahad Mohmand became the first Afghan to reach space, spending nine days aboard the Mir space station.[20] East German postage stamp The Intercosmos program was a program by the Soviet Union to allow fellow Socialist nations to participate in space exploration. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Categories: MEP stubs | 1948 births | Czech astronauts | Communists | Members of the European Parliament from the Czech Republic ... Soyuz rocket on launch pad. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Tuân Pham Tuân Pham (born February 14, 1947) was the first Vietnamese cosmonaut, and the first Asian in space. ... Asian people[1] is a demonym for people from Asia. ... Crew Launched: Viktor Gorbatko (3) Pham Tuan - Vietnam (1) Landed: Leonid Popov (1) Valery Ryumin (3) Mission Parameters Mass: 6800 kg Perigee: 197. ... Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez Cuban Mulatto Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez (born January 29, 1942) was the first Cuban cosmonaut and the first person from a country in the Western Hemisphere other than the U.S. to travel to space. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Patrick Baudry Patrick Baudry (born March 6, 1946 in Cameroon, then a French colony), retired Lieutenant Colonel, French Air Force, is a CNES Spationaut. ... Abdul Ahad Mohmand (b. ... For other uses, see Mir (disambiguation). ...


With the larger number of seats available on the Space Shuttle, the U.S. began taking international astronauts. In April 1985, Taylor Wang became the first Chinese-born person in space; later that year, Rodolfo Neri Vela became the first Mexican-born person in space.[21][22][23] In 1991, Helen Sharman became the first Briton to fly in space.[24] In 2002, Mark Shuttleworth became the first citizen of an African country to fly in space, as a paying spaceflight participant.[25] Taylor Wang - NASA photo (1984) Taylor Gun-Jin Wang (Traditional Chinese: 王贛駿; Simplified Chinese: 王赣骏; Hanyu Pinyin: ) (born June 16, 1940) is the first ethnic Chinese astronaut to go into space. ... Rodolfo Neri Vela, Ph. ... Helen Patricia Sharman OBE (born May 30, 1963), is a former British astronaut. ... Mark Richard Shuttleworth (born 18 September 1973) is a South African entrepreneur who was the second self-funded space tourist and first African national in space. ...


Age milestones

The youngest person to fly in space is Russian Gherman Titov, who was 25 years old when he flew Vostok 2. (Titov was also the first person to suffer space sickness).[26][27] The oldest person who has flown in space is John Glenn, who was 77 when he flew on STS-95.[28] The longest stay in space was 438 days, by Russian Valeri Polyakov.[7] As of 2006, the most spaceflights by an individual astronaut is seven, a record held by both Jerry L. Ross and Franklin Chang-Diaz. The furthest distance from Earth an astronaut has traveled was 401,056 km, during the Apollo 13 emergency.[7] Gherman Titov Gherman Stepanovich Titov (Russian: Герман Степанович Титов; September 11, 1935, Verkhnee Zhilino – September 20, 2000, Moscow) was a Soviet cosmonaut and the second person to orbit the Earth. ... Gherman Titov Vostok 2 was a Soviet space mission which carried cosmonaut Gherman Titov into orbit for a full day in order to study the effects of a more prolonged period of weightlessness on the human body. ... Space sickness is what astronauts go through when they adapt to zero gravity. ... For other persons named John Glenn, see John Glenn (disambiguation). ... This is a mission of the United States Space Shuttle. ... Valeri Polyakov Valeri Vladimirovich Polyakov (Russian: , Valeriy Vladmirovič Poljakov) (born April 27, 1942) is the Russian cosmonaut holding the record for the longest spaceflight in human history, staying aboard the Mir space station for more than 14 months during one trip. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jerry Ross Jerry L. Ross (January 20 1948, Crown Point, Indiana) is an American astronaut and a veteran of seven space shuttle missions. ... Franklin Ramón Chang Díaz, Sc. ... Original crew photo. ...


Non-government milestones

The first non-governmental space traveler was Byron K. Lichtenberg, a researcher from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who flew on STS-9 in 1983.[29] In December 1990, Toyohiro Akiyama became the first paying space traveler as a reporter for Tokyo Broadcasting System, a visit to Mir as part of an estimated $12 million (USD) deal with a Japanese TV station, although at the time, the term used to refer to Akiyama was "Research Cosmonaut".[30][31][32] Akiyama suffered severe space-sickness during his mission, which affected his productivity.[31] Byron K. Lichtenberg, Sc. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... For the American instrumental rock band, see Sound Tribe Sector 9. ... Toyohiro Akiyama (秋山豊寛 Akiyama Toyohiro) (born July 22, 1942) is a Japanese TV journalist and cosmonaut. ... Image:Tokyo Broadcasting System(年末瑞穂第一小学校) in Akasaka . ... For other uses, see Mir (disambiguation). ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


The first self-funded space tourist was Dennis Tito onboard the Russian spacecraft Soyuz TM-3 on 28 April 2001. Space tourism is the recent phenomenon of space travel by individuals for the purpose of personal pleasure. ... Dennis Anthony Tito (born August 8, 1940 in Queens, New York) is a United States multimillionaire who gained celebrity status by becoming the first space tourist to pay for his own ticket, although he himself opposes being called tourist and asks to be called an independent researcher since he performed... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


Self-funded travelers

The first person to fly on an entirely privately-funded mission was Mike Melvill, piloting SpaceShipOne flight 15P on a sub-orbital journey, although he was a test pilot employed by Scaled Composites and not an actual paying space tourist.[33][34]. Five others have paid to fly into space: SpaceShipOne test pilot Mike Melvill Michael W. Melvill (born November 1941) is one of the test pilots for SpaceShipOne, the experimental spaceplane developed by Scaled Composites. ... Flight 15P of SpaceShipOne was the first privately-funded human spaceflight. ... Test pilots are aviators who fly new and modified aircraft in specific maneuvers, allowing the results to be measured and the design to be evaluated. ... Scaled Composites (often abbreviated as Scaled), formerly the Rutan Aircraft Factory, is located at the Mojave Spaceport, Mojave, California, United States and is headed by aircraft designer Burt Rutan. ...

  1. Dennis Tito (American): April 28May 6, 2001
  2. Mark Shuttleworth (South African / British): April 25May 5, 2002 (ISS)
  3. Gregory Olsen (American): October 1October 11, 2005 (ISS)
  4. Anousheh Ansari (Iranian / American): September 18September 29, 2006 (ISS)
  5. Charles Simonyi (Hungarian / American): April 7April 21, 2007 (ISS)

Dennis Anthony Tito (born August 8, 1940 in Queens, New York) is a United States multimillionaire who gained celebrity status by becoming the first space tourist to pay for his own ticket, although he himself opposes being called tourist and asks to be called an independent researcher since he performed... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Mark Richard Shuttleworth (born 18 September 1973) is a South African entrepreneur who was the second self-funded space tourist and first African national in space. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... To see the football player on the Miami Hurricanes see Greg Olsen (football player) Gregory Hammond Greg Olsen (b. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anousheh Ansari (Persian: , born 12 September 1966) is the Iranian-American co-founder and chairman of Prodea Systems, Inc and a spaceflight participant with the Russian space program. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles Simonyi (Hungarian: Simonyi Károly; born September 10, 1948, Budapest) is a computer software executive who, as head of Microsofts application software group, oversaw the creation of Microsofts flagship office applications. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Training

The first NASA astronauts were selected in 1959.[35] Early in the space program, jet aircraft and engineering training were prerequisites for selection as an astronaut at NASA, and candidates tended to have military backgrounds.[36] The earliest astronauts for both America and Russia tended to be jet fighter pilots, and were often test pilots. A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for attacking other aircraft, as opposed to a bomber, which is designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... Test pilots are aviators who fly new and modified aircraft in specific maneuvers, allowing the results to be measured and the design to be evaluated. ...


Once selected, NASA astronauts go through 20 months of training in a variety of areas, including training for extra-vehicular activity in a facility such as NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory.[2][36] Astronauts-in-training may also experience short periods of weightlessness in aircraft called the "vomit comet", the nickname given to a pair of modified KC-135s (retired in 2000 and 2004 respectively, and replaced in 2005 with a C-9) which perform parabolic flights.[35] Astronauts are also required to accumulate a number of flight hours in high-performance jet aircraft. This is mostly done in T-38 jet aircraft out of Ellington Field, due to its proximity to the Johnson Space Center. Ellington Field is also where the Shuttle Training Aircraft is maintained and developed, although most flights of the aircraft are done out of Edwards Air Force Base. Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... An astronaut training in the NBL The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory or NBL is a training facility for astronauts maintained by NASAs Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. ... Astronauts on the International Space Station display an example of weightlessness. ... Project Mercury astronauts on C-131 flying as Vomit Comet, 1959 Weightlessness inside the Vomit Comet Vomit Comet is a nickname for any airplane that briefly provides a nearly weightless environment in which to train astronauts, conduct research, and film motion pictures. ... The Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker is an aerial refueling tanker aircraft, first manufactured in 1956 and expected to remain in service into the 2020s. ... A C-9 Skytrain II offloading on the ramp at Naval Air Station Brunswick. ... A parabola A parabola (from the Greek: παραβολή) is a conic section generated by the intersection of a cone, and a plane tangent to the cone or parallel to some plane tangent to the cone. ... The Northrop T-38 Talon is a widely used US-built supersonic jet trainer. ... NASAs fleet of T-38 Talons sitting on the flightline at Ellington. ... An aerial view of the Johnson Space Center facility of Houston in 1989 The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations center for human spaceflight activities. ... The Shuttle Training Aircraft positioned in a downward trajectory like the Space Shuttle. ... Edwards Air Force Base (IATA: EDW, ICAO: KEDW) is a United States Air Force airbase located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County, California in the Antelope Valley, 7 miles (11 km) due east of Rosamond. ...


NASA candidacy requirements

  • Be citizens of the United States.[37][35]
  • Pass a strict physical examination, and have a distant visual acuity no greater than 20/50 uncorrected, correctable to 20/20. Blood pressure, while sitting, must be no greater than 140 over 90.

Commander and Pilot

A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... This article is about academic degrees. ...

Mission Specialist

  • Bachelor's degree in engineering, biological science, physical science or mathematics, as well as at least three years of related professional experience.
  • Applicant's height must be 5 ft 2 in to 6 ft 4 in (1.57 to 1.93 m).

Mission Specialist Educator

Mission Specialist Educators Lindenberger, Arnold, and Acaba during a parabolic flight.
Main article: Educator Astronaut Project
  • Bachelor's degree with teaching experience, including work at the kindergarten through 12th grade level. Advanced degree not required, but is desired.[38]

Mission Specialist Educators, or "Educator Astronauts", were first selected in 2004, and as of 2007, there are three NASA Educator astronauts: Joseph M. Acaba, Richard R. Arnold, and Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger.[39][40] Barbara Morgan, selected as back-up teacher to Christa McAuliffe in 1985, is considered to be the first Educator astronaut by the media, but she trained as a mission specialist.[41] The Educator Astronaut program is a successor to the Teacher in Space program from the 1980s.[42][37] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Educator Astronaut Project is a NASA program designed to educate students and spur excitement in math, science, and space exploration. ... The Educator Astronaut Project is a NASA program designed to educate students and spur excitement in math, science, and space exploration. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph M. Acaba Joseph Michael Acaba a. ... For other people of the same name, see Richard Arnold. ... Dorothy Marie Dottie Metcalf-Lindenburger was born on May 2, 1975 in Colorado Springs, Colorado and married Jason Metcalf-Lindenburger, a 7th grade teacher at the time, in 2000. ... For other persons named Barbara Morgan, see Barbara Morgan (disambiguation). ... Sharon Christa Corrigan McAuliffe (September 2, 1948 – January 28, 1986) was an American teacher from Concord, New Hampshire who was selected from among more than 11,000 applicants to be the first teacher in space. ... Logo of the Teacher in Space Project The Teacher in Space Project (TISP) was a NASA program designed to educate students and spur excitement in math, science, and space exploration. ...


Insignia

At NASA, people who complete astronaut candidate training receive a silver lapel pin. Once they have flown in space, they receive a gold pin. U.S. astronauts who also have active-duty military status receive a special qualification badge, known as the Astronaut Badge, after participation on a spaceflight. The United States Air Force also presents an Astronaut Badge to its pilots who exceed 50 miles (80 km) in altitude. An Astronaut Badge is a United States, awarded to military aviation pilots who have completed Astronaut training with NASA and performed a successful space flight. ... An Astronaut Badge is a military badge of the United States, awarded to military aviation pilots who have completed Astronaut training with NASA and performed a successful space flight. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ...


Deaths

Main article: Space disaster
The crew of STS-51-L. Front row L-R: Michael J. Smith, Dick Scobee, and Ronald McNair. Back row L-R: Ellison Onizuka, Christa McAuliffe, Gregory Jarvis, and Judith Resnik.
The crew of STS-51-L. Front row L-R: Michael J. Smith, Dick Scobee, and Ronald McNair. Back row L-R: Ellison Onizuka, Christa McAuliffe, Gregory Jarvis, and Judith Resnik.

Space travel carries with it inherent risk and dangers. To date, nineteen people have been killed on five spaceflight missions, and at least ten more have been killed in ground-based training accidents. The five spaceflights which resulted in astronaut deaths are: Space Shuttle Challenger was torn apart 73 seconds after launch due to hot gases escaping the SRBs cutting a hole into the external tank. ... Download high resolution version (3000x2400, 4093 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (3000x2400, 4093 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Michael John Smith (April 30, 1945 – January 28, 1986) was an American astronaut, pilot of the Space Shuttle Challenger when it was destroyed during the STS-51-L mission. ... Francis Richard Dick Scobee (May 19, 1939 - January 28, 1986) was an American astronaut who died commanding the Space Shuttle Challenger, which suffered catastrophic booster failure during launch of the STS-51-L mission. ... Ronald Erwin McNair, Ph. ... Ellison Shoji Onizuka (June 24, 1946 - January 28, 1986) was an American astronaut from Kealakekua, Kona, Hawaii who died during the destruction of the Space Shuttle Challenger, where he was serving as mission specialist on mission STS-51-L. // Early life Ellison Onizuka was the oldest son and second... Sharon Christa Corrigan McAuliffe (September 2, 1948 – January 28, 1986) was an American teacher from Concord, New Hampshire who was selected from among more than 11,000 applicants to be the first teacher in space. ... Gregory Jarvis Memorial at Hermosa Beach Gregory Bruce Jarvis (August 24, 1944 - January 28, 1986) was an American astronaut who died during the destruction of the Space Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-51-L, where he was serving as payload specialist. ... Dr. Judith Arlene Resnik (April 5, 1949 – January 28, 1986) was an American astronaut who died at the age of 36 in the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster during the launch of the mission STS-51-L. Resnik was born in Akron, Ohio and attended Hebrew school. ...

Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons of the same name, see Komarov. ... Soyuz 1 (Russian Союз 1, Union 1) was part of the Soviet Unions space program and was launched into orbit on April 23, 1967, carrying a single cosmonaut, Colonel Vladimir Mikhailovich Komarov, who was killed when the spacecraft crashed after its return to Earth. ... This article is about the device. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... Test pilots are aviators who fly new and modified aircraft in specific maneuvers, allowing the results to be measured and the design to be evaluated. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... Michael J. Adams with X-15 #1 (NASA) Michael J. Adams (born in Sacramento, California on 5 May 1930, died 15 November 1967) was an American aviator and NASA astronaut. ... Description Role: Research Aircraft Crew: one, pilot Dimensions Length: 50. ... Randsburg is a census-designated place located in Kern County, California. ... An Astronaut Badge is a United States, awarded to military aviation pilots who have completed Astronaut training with NASA and performed a successful space flight. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Soyuz 11 was the first successful visit to the worlds first space station, Salyut 1, but ended in disaster when an air leak killed the three-man crew during preparations for re-entry. ... Georgi Dobrovolski Georgi Timofeyevich Dobrovolski (Russian: Георгий Тимофеевич Добровольский; June 1, 1928 – June 30, 1971) was a Soviet cosmonaut. ... Viktor Patsayev Viktor Ivanovich Patsayev (Russian: Виктор Иванович Пацаев; June 19, 1933, Aktuybinsk – June 30, 1971) was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew on the Soyuz 11 mission and had the unfortunate distinction of being part of the second crew to die during a space flight. ... Vladislav Nikolayevich Volkov (Russian: Владислав Николаевич Волков; b. ... The International Space Station in 2007 A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ... Salyut 1 (DOS 1) was the first Salyut space station, and the first human-made space station of any kind. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For further information about Challengers mission and crew, see STS-51-L. The iconic image of Space Shuttle Challengers smoke plume after its breakup 73 seconds after launch. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... Space Shuttle Challenger (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099) was NASAs second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service, Columbia being the first. ... The launch of the Space Shuttle Challenger on mission 51L/STS-33, the 25th of the STS (Space Transportation System) program, began at an estimated time of 16:38:00. ... Gregory Jarvis Gregory Bruce Jarvis (August 24, 1944 - January 28 - 1986) was an American astronaut who died during the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-51-L, where he was serving as payload specialist. ... Sharon Christa Corrigan McAuliffe (September 2, 1948 – January 28, 1986) was an American teacher from Concord, New Hampshire who was selected from among more than 11,000 applicants to be the first teacher in space. ... Ronald Erwin McNair, Ph. ... Ellison Shoji Onizuka (June 24, 1946 - January 28, 1986) was an American astronaut from Kealakekua, Kona, Hawaii who died during the destruction of the Space Shuttle Challenger, where he was serving as mission specialist on mission STS-51-L. // Early life Ellison Onizuka was the oldest son and second... Dr. Judith Arlene Resnik (April 5, 1949 – January 28, 1986) was an American astronaut who died at the age of 36 in the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster during the launch of the mission STS-51-L. Resnik was born in Akron, Ohio and attended Hebrew school. ... Michael John Smith (April 30, 1945 – January 28, 1986) was an American astronaut, pilot of the Space Shuttle Challenger when it was destroyed during the STS-51-L mission. ... Francis Richard Dick Scobee (May 19, 1939 - January 28, 1986) was an American astronaut who died commanding the Space Shuttle Challenger, which suffered catastrophic booster failure during launch of the STS-51-L mission. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For further information about Columbias mission and crew, see STS-107. ... The STS-107 crewmembers strike a ‘flying’ pose for their traditional in-flight crew portrait in the SPACEHAB aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. ... Space Shuttle Columbia (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first spaceworthy space shuttle in NASAs orbital fleet. ... The space shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) is the barrier that protects the space shuttle orbiter during the searing 1649 °C (3000 °F) heat of atmospheric reentry. ... Rick D. Husband (larger image) Richard Douglas Husband (July 12, 1957 – February 1, 2003) was an astronaut and the space shuttle commander of STS-107 (Columbia) who was killed when the craft disintegrated after reentry into the Earths atmosphere. ... William C. Willie McCool (September 23, 1961 - February 1, 2003) was an United States Navy Commander, NASA astronaut and the Space Shuttle pilot of Columbia mission STS-107 who was killed when the craft disentegrated after re-entry into the Earths atmosphere. ... Michael P. Anderson Michael Phillip Anderson (December 25, 1959 – February 1, 2003) was a Lieutenant Colonel (USAF), a NASA astronaut and the Space Shuttle payload commander of STS-107 (Columbia) who was killed when the craft disintegrated after reentry into the Earths atmosphere. ... David M. Brown David M. Brown (April 16, 1956 – February 1, 2003) was a United States Naval Captain, NASA astronaut and space shuttle mission specialist. ... Kalpana Chawla (Hindi: कल्‍पना चावला)(Punjabi:ਕਲਪਨਾ ਚਾਵਲਾ) (7 March 1962 – 1 February 2003), was an Indian-American astronaut and space shuttle mission specialist. ... Laurel Blair Salton Clark (March 10, 1961 – February 1, 2003) was a medical doctor, United States Navy Captain, NASA astronaut and Space Shuttle mission specialist of STS-107 (Columbia) who was killed when the shuttle disintegrated after re-entry into the Earths atmosphere. ... Ilan Ramon (Hebrew: אילן רמון) (June 20, 1954 – February 1, 2003) was a combat pilot in the Israeli Air Force and later the first Israeli astronaut. ...

See also

The U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame is located in Titusville, Florida. ... Patricia G. Smith, Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation at the FAA, presents SpaceShipOne pilot Micheal Melvill the departments first commercial astronaut wings Commercial Astronaut Badge Commercial Astronaut is a title, awarded by United States Federal Aviation Administration to those civilian pilots and crew members on-board an FAA... This is an alphabetical list of astronauts, people who trained to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft. ... 1958 1959 1960 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1976 1978 1979 1980 1982 1984 1985 1987 1990 1992 1994 1995 1996 1997 2000 2003 2004 1958 June 25 - Man In Space Soonest - USA The first group of American astronaut candidates were selected... Map of countries whose citizens have flown in space Since the first spaceflight by the Soviet Union, astronauts who were citizens of 35 countries have flown into space. ... These chronological lists include all crewed spaceflights that reached an altitude of at least 100 km (the FAI definition of spaceflight), or were launched with that intention but failed. ... This is an alphabetical list of all space travelers, people who have flown in space. ... This list contains all spacewalks and moonwalks; that is, every occasion where an astronaut has fully or partially left his spacecraft. ... Description Role: Research Aircraft Crew: one, pilot Dimensions Length: 50. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shirley Thomas Ph. ... Cosmonautics Day is a holiday celebrated (mainly in Russia) every April 12 to commemorate the manned earth orbit. ... Yuris Night is an international celebration held on April 12 every year to commemorate the first human in space, Yuri Gagarin on April 12, 1961, and the first Space Shuttle launch on April 12, 1981. ... Fallen Astronaut on the Moon. ... This is an incomplete list of fictional astronauts appearing in various media, including books, film, television shows (live or animated), radio shows, records, and comic books. ... Still frame from the video transmission of Neil Armstrong stepping onto the surface of the Moon on 20 July 1969. ... Jerrie Cobb with a Mercury capsule The Mercury 13 are 13 American women selected by NASA in the 1960s to train alongside the United States original Mercury Seven astronauts, though they never flew in space. ...

References

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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (IPA [ˈnæsə]) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (IPA [ˈnæsə]) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... An aerial view of the complete Johnson Space Center facility in Houston, Texas in 1989. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (IPA [ˈnæsə]) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Look up cosmonaut, spationaut, astronaut, taikonaut in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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