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Encyclopedia > Astrocytoma
Astrocytoma
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 C71.
ICD-9 191
ICD-O: M9400/3
OMIM 137800
DiseasesDB 29449
eMedicine med/2693 

Astrocytomas are primary central nervous system tumors that arise primarily in and rarely spread away from the CNS parenchyma contained within the cranial vault. Astrocytomas are so named because of their histologic resemblance to astrocytes and account for ~75% of neuroepithelial tumors. In 1993 the World Health Organization (WHO) established a four-tiered histologic grading guideline for astrocytomas in an effort to eliminate confusion regarding diagnoses. The low grade astrocytomas (I & II) are among the least common of all reported brain tumors, less than 6%, while the highest grade (IV), also known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is the most common primary CNS malignancy and second most frequent brain tumor. Despite the comparatively low incidence of astrocytomas to other human cancers, the higher grades (III & IV) represent disparate mortality rates. Median survival of GBM victims who forgo treatment is approximately 90 days, and even with aggressive surgical, radio- and chemo- therapies is only extended to about twelve months, while long term survival (at least five years) falls under 3%.[1][2] The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // C00-D48 - Neoplasms (C00-C14) Malignant neoplasms, lip, oral cavity and pharynx (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue (C03) Malignant neoplasm of gum (C04) Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth (C05) Malignant neoplasm of... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... The cranial vault is the space in the skull within the neurocranium. ... Astrocytes, also known as astroglia, are characteristic star-shaped cells in the brain. ... WHO redirects here. ... Image 1a. ...

Contents

Diagnosis

A Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan is necessary to characterize the extent of these tumors (size, location, consistency). CT will usually show distortion of third and lateral ventricles with displacement of anterior and middle cerebral arteries. Histologic analysis is necessary for grading diagnosis. negron305 Cat scan redirects here. ... MRI redirects here. ...


Treatment

For low grade astrocytomas, removal of the tumor will generally allow functional survival for many years. In some reports, the 5 year survival has been over 90% with well resected tumors. Indeed, broad intervention of low grade conditions is a contested matter. In particular, pilocytic astrocytomas are commonly indolent bodies that may permit normal neurologic function. However, left unattended these tumors may eventually undergo neoplastic transformation. To date, complete resection of high grade astrocytomas is impossible because of the diffuse infiltration of tumor cells into normal parenchyma. Thus, high grade astrocytomas inevitably recur after initial surgery/therapy and are usually treated similarly as the initial tumor. Despite decades of therapeutic research, curative intervention is still nonexistent for high grade astrocytomas; patient care ultimately focuses on palliative management. Palliative care is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of the symptoms of a disease or slows its progress rather than providing a cure. ...


References

  1. ^ Buckner JC, Brown PD, O'Neill BP, Meyer FB, Wetmore CJ and Uhm JH (2007). "Central Nervous System Tumors". Mayo Clinic Proceedings 82: 1271-86. PMID 17908533. 
  2. ^ Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, http://www.cbtrus.org/

See also

A glioma is a type of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor that arises from glial cells. ... A brain tumor is any intracranial tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division, normally either in the brain itself (neurons, glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells), lymphatic tissue, blood vessels), in the cranial nerves (myelin-producing Schwann cells), in the brain envelopes (meninges), skull, pituitary and pineal gland, or... It occurs predominantly in children and involves the midline, basal and posterior fossa structures. ... Image 1a. ... Intracranial pressure, (ICP), is the pressure exerted by the cranium on the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brains circulating blood volume. ... Nervous tissue is the fourth major class of vertebrate tissue. ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Craniopharyngioma is a type of tumor that comprises 9% of all pediatric brain tumors and usually occur in children between 5 and 10 years of age. ... Pinealoma is a tumor of the pineal gland. ... A glioma is a type of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor that arises from glial cells. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Oligoastrocytomas are a subset of brain tumor that present with an appearance of mixed glial cell origin, astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma. ... Ependymoma are tumors arising from the inner lining of the cerebral ventricles (= intracranial) and the remnants of the central canal in the spinal cord. ... It occurs predominantly in children and involves the midline, basal and posterior fossa structures. ... Image 1a. ... Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour, commonly abbreviated DNT, is a type of brain tumour that arises from the oligodendrocyte, a type of brain cell. ... Oligodendrogliomas are a type of glioma that are believed to originate from the oligodendrocytes of the brain or from a glial precursor cell. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into brain tumor. ... X-Ray of a child with Ewings sarcoma of the tibia Ewings sarcoma is the common name for primitive neuroectodermal tumor. ... In zootomy, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid cancer in infancy and childhood. ... Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the retina. ... Meningiomas are the most common benign tumors of the brain (95% of benign tumors). ... A Nerve sheath tumor is a class of tumors of the nervous system which are primarily comprised of the myelin surrounding nerves. ... Neurofibromas are moderately firm, benign, encapsulated, slow-growing tumors of the nervous system arising from the supporting cells (Schwann cells) of peripheral nerves. ... Neurofibrosarcoma is a type of tumor combining characteristics of neurofibroma and fibrosarcoma. ... Neurofibromatosis is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder. ... Schwannomas, also referred to as Neurilomas, are slow-growing central nervous system tumours arising from the supporting cells of peripheral nerves, which include cranial and spinal nerve roots). ... Neurinoma is a tumor, usually benign but sometimes cancerous, which forms on the myelinous sheath of a nerve. ... Acoustic neuroma (or Vestibular Schwannoma) is a benign primary intracranial tumor of the myelin forming cells called Schwann cells (Schwannoma) of the 8th cranial nerve --- also known as the acoustic nerve, (or more properly the vestibulocochlear nerve). ... A neuroma is a tumor growth of nerve cells and fibres. ... A brain tumor is any intracranial tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division, normally either in the brain itself (neurons, glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells), lymphatic tissue, blood vessels), in the cranial nerves (myelin-producing Schwann cells), in the brain envelopes (meninges), skull, pituitary and pineal gland, or...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Astrocytoma - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (436 words)
Astrocytomas are primary intracranial tumors derived from astrocytes cells of the brain.
In almost half of the cases, the first symptom of an astrocytoma is the onset of a focal or generalized seizure.
Astrocytomas often recur even after treatment and are usually treated similarly as the initial tumor, with sometimes more aggressive chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
Nikon MicroscopyU: Human Pathology Digital Image Gallery - Astrocytoma (600 words)
Astrocytoma at 20x Magnification - In children with astrocytoma, the tumors that occur are typically classified as low-grade neoplasms.
Astrocytoma at 40x Magnification - Following diagnosis of astrocytoma, the first priority is generally to relieve any excess intracranial pressure, which can be achieved by administration of steroids to reduce swelling or through the application of a shunt to drain excess fluid.
Astrocytoma at 10x Magnification - The lowest-grade astrocytomas, which are sometimes known as pilocytic gliomas, have a five-year survival rate of approximately 70 percent, but the outlook for patients with higher-grade tumors is significantly less propitious.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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