FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Astrobiology" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Astrobiology
The DNA structure might not be the only nucleic acid in the universe capable of supporting life[1]

Astrobiology (from Greek: ἀστρο, astro, "constellation"; βίος, bios, "life"; and λόγος, logos, "knowledge") is the interdisciplinary study of life in space, combining aspects of astronomy, biology and geology.[2] It is focused primarily on the study of the origin, distribution and evolution of life. It is also known as exobiology (from Greek: έξω, exo, "outside").[3][4][5] The term "Xenobiology" has been used as well, but this is technically incorrect because its terminology means "biology of the foreigners".[6] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (799x2000, 915 KB) Summary An overview of the structure of DNA. Created by Michael Ströck (mstroeck) on February 8, 2006. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (799x2000, 915 KB) Summary An overview of the structure of DNA. Created by Michael Ströck (mstroeck) on February 8, 2006. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


Some major astrobiological research topics include:[2][7][8][9] What is life? How did life arise on Earth? What kind of environments can life tolerate? How can we determine if life exists on other planets? How often can we expect to find complex life? What will life consist of on other planets? Will it be DNA/Carbon based or based on something else?[1] What will it look like? For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... The eight planets and three dwarf planets of the Solar System. ...

Contents

Overview

It is not known whether life elsewhere in the universe would utilize cell structures like those found on Earth. (Chloroplasts (small green objects) within plant cells shown here.) According to NASA, the color of plant pigments on extrasolar planets may be different from our own
It is not known whether life elsewhere in the universe would utilize cell structures like those found on Earth. (Chloroplasts (small green objects) within plant cells shown here.) According to NASA, the color of plant pigments on extrasolar planets may be different from our own[10]

Although astrobiology is an emerging field, and still a developing subject, the question of whether life exists elsewhere in the universe is a verifiable hypothesis and thus a valid line of scientific inquiry. Astrobiology is a multidisciplinary field utilizing physics, biology, and geology as well as philosophy to speculate about the nature of life on other worlds. One commentator on the field, planetary scientist David Grinspoon, calls astrobiology a field of natural philosophy, grounding speculation on the unknown in known scientific theory (Grinspoon 2003). Since we have only one example of a planet with life (the Earth), most of the work is speculative and based on current understanding of physics, biochemistry, and biology.[11][12] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... One of Wikipedias rules to consider. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...


Though once considered outside the mainstream of scientific inquiry, astrobiology has become a formalized field of study. NASA now hosts an Astrobiology Institute.[13] Additionally, a growing number of universities in the United States (e.g., University of Arizona, Penn State University, and University of Washington) Canada, Britain, and Ireland now offer graduate degree programs in astrobiology. This article is about the American space agency. ... The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) engages in government-funded Exobiologic study of the living universe. ... The University of Arizona (UA or U of A) is a land-grant and space-grant public institution of higher education and research located in Tucson, Arizona, United States. ... The Pennsylvania State University The Pennsylvania State University (commonly known as Penn State) is a state-related land-grant university in Pennsylvania, with over 80,000 students at 24 campuses throughout the state. ... The University of Washington, founded in 1861, is a public research university in Seattle, Washington. ...

The Martian meteorite ALH84001 shows formations that may have been created by life
The Martian meteorite ALH84001 shows formations that may have been created by life

A particular focus of current astrobiology research is the search for life on Mars.[14] There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that Mars has previously had a considerable amount of water on its surface; water is considered to be an essential precursor to the development of life, although this has not been conclusively proven.[15] At the present, the creation of theory to inform and support the exploratory search for life may be considered astrobiology's most concrete practical application. Structures on ALH84001 meteorite Photo credit: NASA File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Structures on ALH84001 meteorite Photo credit: NASA File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Willamette Meteorite A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earths surface without being destroyed. ... Meteorite fragment ALH84001 ALH 84001 (Allan Hills 84001) is a meteorite found in Allan Hills, Antarctica in December 1984 by a team of US meteorite hunters from the ANSMET project. ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


Missions specifically designed to search for life include the Viking program and Beagle 2 probes, both directed to Mars. The Viking results were inconclusive and Beagle 2 failed to transmit from the surface and is assumed to have crashed. A future mission with a strong astrobiology role would have been the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, designed to study the frozen moons of Jupiter—some of which may have liquid water—had it not been canceled. In 2009, NASA plans to launch the Mars Science Laboratory Rover which will continue the search for past or present life on Mars using a suite of scientific instruments. Viking mission profile. ... Beagle 2 as it would have looked on Mars Beagle 2 was an unsuccessful British landing spacecraft that formed part of the European Space Agencys 2003 Mars Express mission. ... Artistss Conception of Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) was a proposed spacecraft designed to explore the icy moons of Jupiter. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... 2007 Mars Science Laboratory concept Schematic diagram of the planned rover components The Mars Science Laboratory (or MSL for short) is a NASA rover scheduled to launch in September 2009 and perform a precision landing on Mars in July-September 2010. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ...


Research outcomes

Asteroids containing microbial life from Earth have been ejected out into space; additionally, asteroid(s) may have transported life to Earth
Asteroids containing microbial life from Earth have been ejected out into space; additionally, asteroid(s) may have transported life to Earth

As of 2007, there is no direct evidence of extraterrestrial life.[16] Although examination of the ALH84001 meteorites, which were recovered in Antarctica and are thought to have originated from the planet Mars have provided what some scientists suggested to be microfossils of extraterrestrial life, the interpretation is disputed.[17] In 2004, the spectral signature of methane was detected in the Martian atmosphere by both Earth-based telescopes as well as by the Mars Express probe. Methane is predicted to have a relatively short half-life in the Martian atmosphere, so the gas must be actively replenished. Since one possible source, active volcanism, has thus far not been detected on Mars, this has led scientists to speculate that the source could be (microbial) life - as terrestrial methanogens are known to produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. Source : NASA File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Source : NASA File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Asteroids is a popular vector-based video arcade game released in 1979 by Atari. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Meteorite fragment ALH84001 ALH 84001 (Allan Hills 84001) is a meteorite found in Allan Hills, Antarctica in December 1984 by a team of US meteorite hunters from the ANSMET project. ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... Concept model of the Mars Express spacecraft Main Engine Thrust for braking manouevre Mars Express is a Mars exploration mission of the European Space Agency and the first planetary mission attempted by the agency. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Methanogens are archaea that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. ... Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος(metavallo), the Greek word for change), in the most general sense, is the ingestion and breakdown of complex compounds, coupled...


Missions to other planetary bodies, such as Mars Science Laboratory, ExoMars, Beagle 2: Evolution to Mars, the Cassini probe to Saturn's moon Titan), and the "Ice Clipper" mission to Jupiter's moon Europa hope to further explore the possibilities of life on other planets in our solar system. 2007 Mars Science Laboratory concept Schematic diagram of the planned rover components The Mars Science Laboratory (or MSL for short) is a NASA rover scheduled to launch in September 2009 and perform a precision landing on Mars in July-September 2010. ... ExoMars model at ILA 2006 (Berlin) ExoMars. ... Beagle 2 : Evolution is the proposed successor to the unsuccessful Beagle 2 Mars lander which disappeared during its landing in 2003. ... This is an artists concept of Cassini during the Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI) maneuver, just after the main engine has begun firing. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 140 kPa Hydrogen >93% Helium >5% Methane 0. ... Titan (, from Ancient Greek Τῑτάν) or Saturn VI is the largest moon of Saturn and the only moon known to have a dense atmosphere. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ... The eight planets and three dwarf planets of the Solar System. ... This article is about the Solar System. ...

Artist's Impression of Gliese 581 c, the first extrasolar planet discovered in its star's habitable zone
Artist's Impression of Gliese 581 c, the first extrasolar planet discovered in its star's habitable zone

Efforts to answer secondary questions, such as the abundance of potentially habitable planets in habitable zones and chemical precursors, have had much success. Numerous extrasolar planets have been detected using the "wobble method" and transit method, showing that planets around other stars are more diverse than previously postulated. The first Earth-like extrasolar planet to be discovered within its star's habitable zone is Gliese 581 c, which was found using radial velocity.[18] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Gliese 581 c (IPA: ) is a super-earth extrasolar planet orbiting the red dwarf star Gliese 581. ... An extrasolar planet, or exoplanet, is a planet beyond the Solar System. ... It has been suggested that Goldilocks phenomenon be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Goldilocks phenomenon be merged into this article or section. ... An extrasolar planet, or exoplanet, is a planet beyond the Solar System. ... Gliese 581 c (IPA: ) is a super-earth extrasolar planet orbiting the red dwarf star Gliese 581. ... Radial velocity is the velocity of an object in the direction of the line of sight. ...


Due to technological limitations, most of the planets so far discovered have been hot gas giants, thought to be inhospitable to any life. It is possible that some of these planets may have moons with solid surfaces or oceans that are more hospitable. It is not yet known whether our solar system, with rocky, metal-rich inner planets ideal for life, is of an aberrant composition. Improved detection methods and increased observing time will undoubtedly discover more planetary systems, and possibly some more like ours. For example, NASA's Kepler Mission seeks to discover Earth-sized planets around other stars, by measuring minute changes in the star's light curve as the planet passes between the star and the spacecraft. Research into the environmental limits of life and the workings of extreme ecosystems is also ongoing, enabling researchers to predict what planetary environments might be most likely to harbor life. This article is about the American space agency. ... The Kepler Mission is a space observatory being developed by NASA that will search for extrasolar planets and will only be the second space-based telescope particularly constructed for that task, the first one being COROT. For this purpose, it will observe the brightness of about 100,000 stars over... In astronomy, a light curve is a graph of light intensity as a function of time. ...


Progress in infrared astronomy and submillimeter astronomy has revealed the constituents of other star systems. Infrared searches have detected belts of dust and asteroids around distant stars, underpinning the formation of planets. Some infrared images purportedly contain direct images of planets, though this is disputed. Infrared and submillimeter spectroscopy has identified a growing number of chemicals around stars which underpin the origin or maintenance of life. Infrared astronomy is the branch of astronomy and astrophysics which deals with objects visible in infrared (IR) radiation. ... Submillimetre astronomy or submillimeter astronomy (see spelling differences) is the branch of observational astronomy that is conducted at submillimetre wavelengths. ... Extremely high resolution spectrogram of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines) Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between radiation (electromagnetic radiation, or light, as well as particle radiation) and matter. ...


Rare Earth hypothesis

Main article: Rare Earth hypothesis

In the book Rare Earth: Why Complex Life is Uncommon in the Universe, Peter Ward, a geologist and paleontologist, and Donald Brownlee, an astronomer and astrobiologist, propose that life as we know it is rare in the universe.[19][20] They suggest that microbial life, however, was probably common in the universe, because of recently discovered extremophiles.[21] The book argues that the chances of all the conditions that occurred to create the Earth occurring again would be rare; thus intelligent life would be rare. One important factor focused on in the book is planetary habitability (see section below). The Rare Earth hypothesis is a hypothesis in planetary astronomy and astrobiology which argues that the emergence of complex multicellular life (metazoa) on Earth required an extremely unlikely combination of astrophysical and geological events and circumstances. ... Peter D. Ward is a paleontologist and professor of Biology and of Earth and Space Sciences at the University of Washington. ... The Geologist by Carl Spitzweg A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system (see planetary geology). ... A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... An extremophile is an organism, usually unicellular, which thrives in or requires extreme conditions. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Understanding planetary habitability is partly an extrapolation of the Earths conditions, as it is the only planet currently known to support life. ...


Peter Ward, one of the authors, said the following:[1] Peter D. Ward is a paleontologist and professor of Biology and of Earth and Space Sciences at the University of Washington. ...

How do we define life as we do know it? Life on Earth has DNA, a specific genetic code. It also uses only 20, and the same 20, amino acids. Life is always cellular according to some people, but I think not. I personally define a virus as alive. As for other life, what could it be? Could there be non-DNA life? If such life does exist, what does chemistry permit? Certainly chemistry permits certain types of life on our planet and others not. But once we move out in the solar system, especially in the vast realm of cold, chemistry changes. There could be different information systems, different solvents, different membranes. And as we go from hotter to colder, when we go to Venus, out to Mars, to Europa, and to Titan, we really should expect radically different chemistries.

Methodology

Narrowing the task

When looking for life on other planets, some simplifying assumptions are useful to reduce the size of the task of astrobiologists. One is to assume that the vast majority of life-forms in our galaxy are based on carbon chemistries, as are all life-forms on Earth.[22] While it is possible that non carbon-based life exists, carbon is well known for the unusually wide variety of molecules that can be formed around it. However, it should be noted that astrobiology concerns itself with an interpretation of existing scientific data; that is, given more detailed and reliable data from other parts of the universe (perhaps obtainable only by physical space exploration) the roots of astrobiology itself--biology, physics, chemistry--may have their theoretical bases challenged. Much speculation is entertained in the field to give context, but astrobiology concerns itself primarily with hypotheses that fit firmly into existing theories. Understanding planetary habitability is partly an extrapolation of the Earths conditions, as it is the only planet currently known to support life. ... Carbon forms the backbone of biology for all life on Earth. ... Alternative biochemistry is the speculative biochemistry of alien life forms that differ radically from those on Earth. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ...

This planetary habitability chart shows where life might exist on extrasolar planets based on our own Solar System and life on Earth.
This planetary habitability chart shows where life might exist on extrasolar planets based on our own Solar System and life on Earth.

The presence of liquid water is also a useful assumption, as it is a common molecule and provides an excellent environment for the formation of complicated carbon-based molecules that could eventually lead to the emergence of life.[23] Some researchers posit environments of ammonia, or more likely water-ammonia mixtures.[24] These environments are considered suitable for carbon or noncarbon life, while opening more temperature ranges (and thus worlds) for life. Image File history File links Habitable_zone-en. ... Image File history File links Habitable_zone-en. ... Understanding planetary habitability is partly an extrapolation of the Earths conditions, as it is the only planet currently known to support life. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ...


A third assumption is to focus on Sun-like stars. This comes from the idea of planetary habitability.[25] Very big stars have relatively short lifetimes, meaning that life would not likely have time to evolve on planets orbiting them. Very small stars provide so little heat and warmth that only planets in very close orbits around them would not be frozen solid, and in such close orbits these planets would be tidally "locked" to the star.[26] Without a thick atmosphere, one side of the planet would be perpetually baked and the other perpetually frozen. In 2005, the question was brought back to the attention of the scientific community, as the long lifetimes of red dwarfs could allow some biology on planets with thick atmospheres. This is significant, as red dwarfs are extremely common. Sol redirects here. ... STAR is an acronym for: Organizations Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers], the self-regulatory body for the entertainment ticket industry in the UK. Society for Telescopy, Astronomy, and Radio, a non-profit New Jersey astronomy club. ... Understanding planetary habitability is partly an extrapolation of the Earths conditions, as it is the only planet currently known to support life. ... The eight planets and three dwarf planets of the Solar System. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the type of star, see Red dwarf. ...


About 10% of the stars in our galaxy are Sun-like, and there are about a thousand such stars within 100 light-years of our Sun. These stars would be useful primary targets for interstellar listening. Since Earth is the only planet known to contain life, there is no way to know if any of the simplifying assumptions are correct.


Divisions of astrobiology

Astronomy

Artist's impression of the extrasolar planet OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb (with surface temperature of −220°C), orbiting its star 20,000 light years (117.5 quadrillion miles) from Earth; this planet was discovered with gravitational microlensing
Artist's impression of the extrasolar planet OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb (with surface temperature of −220°C), orbiting its star 20,000 light years (117.5 quadrillion miles) from Earth; this planet was discovered with gravitational microlensing
The planned NASA Kepler mission for the search of extrasolar planets

Most astronomy-related astrobiological research falls into the category of extrasolar planet (exoplanet) detection, the hypothesis being that if life arose on Earth then it could also arise on other planets with similar characteristics. To that end, a number of instruments designed to detect 'Earth-like' exoplanets are under development, most notably NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA's Darwin programs.[27] Additionally, NASA plans to launch the Kepler mission in 2008, and the French Space Agency has already launched the COROT space mission.[28][29] There have also been several less ambitious ground-based efforts are also underway (see exoplanet). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 575 KB) Summary Planet OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb discovered by OGLE project in 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 575 KB) Summary Planet OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb discovered by OGLE project in 2005. ... An extrasolar planet, or exoplanet, is a planet beyond the Solar System. ... OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb is a super-Earth extrasolar planet orbiting the star OGLE-2005-BLG-390L, which is situated 21,500 ± 3,300 light years away from Earth, near the center of the Milky Way galaxy. ... A light year, abbreviated ly, is the distance light travels in one year: roughly 9. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Image source: http://www. ... Image source: http://www. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... The Kepler Mission is a space observatory being developed by NASA that will search for extrasolar planets and will only be the second space-based telescope particularly constructed for that task, the first one being COROT. For this purpose, it will observe the brightness of about 100,000 stars over... Infrared Image of a possible extrasolar planet (lower left) in the Constellation Taurus, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. ... An extrasolar planet, or exoplanet, is a planet beyond the Solar System. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... Terrestrial Planet Finder - Infrared interferometer concept The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) is a plan by NASA for a telescope system that would be capable of detecting extrasolar terrestrial planets. ... “ESA” redirects here. ... Darwin is a proposed European Space Agency (ESA) mission designed to directly detect Earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars, and search for evidence of life on these planets. ... The Kepler Mission is a space observatory being developed by NASA that will search for extrasolar planets and will only be the second space-based telescope particularly constructed for that task, the first one being COROT. For this purpose, it will observe the brightness of about 100,000 stars over... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Centre National dÉtudes Spatiales is the French government space agency (administratively, a public establishment of industrial and commercial character). Its headquarters are located in central Paris. ... Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (portrait by Nadar) Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (July 26, 1796 – February 22, 1875) was a French landscape painter. ... Infrared Image of a possible extrasolar planet (lower left) in the Constellation Taurus, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. ...


The goal of these missions is not only to detect Earth-sized planets but also to directly detect light from the planet so that it may be studied spectroscopically. By examining planetary spectra it will be possible to determine the basic composition of an extrasolar planet's atmosphere and/or surface; given this knowledge, it may be possible to assess the likelihood of life being found on that planet. A NASA research group, the Virtual Planet Laboratory[1] (VPL), is using computer modelling to generate a wide variety of 'virtual' planets to see what they would look like if viewed by TPF or Darwin. It is hoped that once these missions come online, their spectra can be cross-checked with these 'virtual' planetary spectra for features that might indicate the presence of life. The photometry (astronomy) temporal variability of extrasolar planets may also provide clues to their surface and atmospheric properties. One mission was planned to the Jupiter moon, Europa, before recent cuts by NASA. This mission would have searched for life in the ocean of this moon. Extremely high resolution spectrogram of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines) Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between radiation (electromagnetic radiation, or light, as well as particle radiation) and matter. ... Photometry is a technique of astronomy concerned with measuring the flux, or intensity of an astronomical objects electromagnetic radiation. ...


An estimate for the number of planets with (intelligent) extraterrestrial life can be gleaned from the Drake equation, essentially an equation expressing the probability of intelligent life as the product of factors such as the fraction of planets that might be habitable and the fraction of planets on which life might arise:[30] The Drake equation (rarely also called the Green Bank equation or the Sagan equation) is a famous result in the speculative fields of exobiology, astrosociobiology and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. ...

N = R^{*} ~ times ~ f_{p} ~ times ~ n_{e} ~ times ~ f_{l} ~ times ~ f_{i} ~ times ~ f_{c} ~ times ~ L

However, whilst the rationale behind the equation is sound, it is unlikely that the equation will be constrained to reasonable error limits any time soon. The first term, Number of Stars, is generally constrained within a few orders of magnitude. The second and third terms, Stars with Planets and Planets with Habitable Conditions, are being evaluated for the Sun's neighborhood. Another associated topic is the Fermi paradox, which suggests that if intelligent life is common in the universe then there should be obvious signs of it. This is the purpose of projects like SETI, which tries to detect signs of radio transmissions from intelligent extraterrestrial civilizations. A graphical representation of the Arecibo message - Humanitys first attempt to use radio waves to communicate its existence to alien civilizations The Fermi paradox is the apparent contradiction between high estimates of the probability of the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations and the lack of evidence for or contact with... This article is about the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence. ...


Another active research area in astrobiology is solar system formation. It has been suggested that the peculiarities of our solar system (for example, the presence of Jupiter as a protective 'shield' or the planetary collision which created the Moon) may have greatly increased the probability of intelligent life arising on our planet.[31][32] No firm conclusions have been reached so far. This article is about the Solar System. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ... This article is about Earths moon. ...


Biology

Hydrothermal vents are able to support extremophilic bacteria on Earth, and may also support life in other parts of the universe
Hydrothermal vents are able to support extremophilic bacteria on Earth, and may also support life in other parts of the universe

Extremophiles (organisms able to survive in extreme environments) are a core research element for astrobiologists. Such organisms include biota able to survive kilometers below the ocean's surface near hydrothermal vents and microbes that thrive in highly acidic environments.[33] Characterization of these organisms—their environments and their evolutionary pathways—is considered a crucial component to understanding how life might evolve elsewhere in the universe. Recently, a number of astrobiologists have teamed up with marine biologists and geologists to search for extremophiles and other organisms living around hydrothermal vents on the floors of our own oceans. Scientists hope to use their findings to help them create hypotheses on whether life could potentially exist on certain moons in our own solar system, such as Europa.[34][35][36] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1220x1804, 532 KB) en: Black smoker at a mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vent de: Black Smoker im Atlantischen Ozean Taken from http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1220x1804, 532 KB) en: Black smoker at a mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vent de: Black Smoker im Atlantischen Ozean Taken from http://www. ... A hydrothermal vent A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planets surface from which geothermally heated water issues. ... An extremophile is an organism, usually unicellular, which thrives in or requires extreme conditions that would exceed optimal conditions for growth and reproduction in the majority of mesophilic terrestrial organisms. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... An extremophile is an organism, usually unicellular, which thrives in or requires extreme conditions. ... It has been suggested that Biota (taxonomy) be merged into this article or section. ... A hydrothermal vent A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planets surface from which geothermally heated water issues. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ...


The origin of life, as distinct from the evolution of life, is another ongoing field of research. Oparin and Haldane postulated that the conditions on the early Earth were conducive to the formation of organic compounds from inorganic precursors and thus to the formation of many of the chemicals common to all forms of life we see today. The study of this process, known as prebiotic chemistry, has made some progress but it is still unclear whether or not life could have formed in such a manner on Earth. The alternative theory of panspermia is that the first elements of life may have formed on another planet with even more favourable conditions (or even in interstellar space, asteroids, etc.), and then have been carried over to Earth by a variety of means. Aleksandr Oparin Aleksandr Ivanovich Oparin (Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Опарин, March 2 (February 18 Julian) 1894 – April 21, 1980) was a Soviet biologist and biochemist, who has been acclaimed as one of the greatest authorities on the origin of life. ... John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (November 5, 1892 – December 1, 1964), who normally used J.B.S. as a first name, was a British geneticist and evolutionary biologist. ... Panspermia is a proven process (based on the principles of Biology, Microbiology, Physics, Chemistry, Astronomy, and assumption that life existed already in the universe) that explains how all life in the universe and/or solar system comes from a seed of life. ...


Geology

The fossil record provides the oldest known evidence for life on Earth.[37] By examining this evidence, geologists are able to better understand the types of organisms that arose on the early Earth. Some regions on Earth, such as the Pilbara in Western Australia are also considered to be geological analogs to regions of Mars and as such might be able to provide clues to possible Martian life. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fossil. ... This article is about the tv programme Life on Earth. ... The Pilbara is one of the nine regions of Western Australia. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $100,900 (4th)  - Product per capita  $50,355/person... An electron microscope reveals bacteria-like structures in meteorite fragment ALH84001 For other uses of Life on Mars, see Life on Mars (disambiguation). ...


Life in the Solar System

See also: Life on Mars, Life on Europa, and Life on Titan
Europa, due to the ocean that exists under its icy surface, might host some form of microbial life
Europa, due to the ocean that exists under its icy surface, might host some form of microbial life

The three most likely candidates for life in the solar system (besides Earth) are the planet Mars, the Jovian moon Europa, and Saturn's moon, Titan.[38][39][40][41][42] This speculation is primarily based on the fact that (in the case of Mars and Europa) the planetary bodies may have liquid water, a molecule essential for life as we know it for its use as a solvent in cells.[43] Water on Mars is found in its polar ice caps, and newly-carved gullies recently observed on Mars suggest that liquid water may exist, at least transiently, on the planet's surface,[44] [45] and possibly in subsurface environments such as hydrothermal springs as well. At the Martian temperatures and pressures, such liquid water is likely to be highly saline.[46] As for Europa, liquid water likely exists beneath the moon's icy outer crust.[47] This water may be warmed to a liquid state by volcanic vents on the ocean floor (an especially intriguing theory considering the various types of extremophiles that live near Earth's volcanic vents), but the primary source of heat is probably tidal heating.[48][49] An electron microscope reveals bacteria-like structures in meteorite fragment ALH84001 For other uses of Life on Mars, see Life on Mars (disambiguation). ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ... This article is about the planet Saturns largest natural satellite. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2666x2000, 528 KB) Interior of Europa original description: Cutaway view of the possible internal structure of Europa The surface of the satellite is a mosaic of images obtained in 1979 by NASAs Voyager spacecraft. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2666x2000, 528 KB) Interior of Europa original description: Cutaway view of the possible internal structure of Europa The surface of the satellite is a mosaic of images obtained in 1979 by NASAs Voyager spacecraft. ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ... Titan may mean: // Titan (mythology), a class of deities who preceded the Olympians in Greek mythology Helios, Greek sun-deity sometimes referred to as Titan (Mahler), nicknamed Titan Titan (satellite), largest satellite of the planet Saturn Titan beetle, the largest beetle in the Amazon rainforest USS Titan (AGOS-15), a... This table includes Solar Systems planets, dwarf planets and planetary-sized moons (larger than 1000 km in diameter)[1]. It accumulates information about planetary-sized bodies in the Solar system and their properties, focusing on those specific to planetary-sized objects and important for possible future solar system colonization. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Tidal acceleration is an effect of the tidal forces between an orbiting natural satellite ( a moon), and the planet (called the primary) that it orbits. ...


Another planetary body that could potentially sustain extraterrestrial life is Saturn's largest moon, Titan.[42] Titan has been described as having conditions similar to those of early Earth; according to bbc.co.uk, "The atmosphere on Titan could be identical to that of the early Earth when life began".[50] On Titan, scientists have discovered the first liquid lakes outside of Earth, but they are made of ethane and methane, not water.[51] Additionally, Saturn's moon Enceladus may have an ocean below its icy surface.[52] This table includes Solar Systems planets, dwarf planets and planetary-sized moons (larger than 1000 km in diameter)[1]. It accumulates information about planetary-sized bodies in the Solar system and their properties, focusing on those specific to planetary-sized objects and important for possible future solar system colonization. ... This article is about the planet. ... Titan (, from Ancient Greek Τῑτάν) or Saturn VI is the largest moon of Saturn and the only moon known to have a dense atmosphere. ... This article is about a chemical compound. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... Atmosphere Surface pressure: trace, significant spatial variability[8][9] Composition: 91% Water vapour 4% Nitrogen 3. ...


Political Support

In the United States, President George W. Bush's Fiscal Year 2007 NASA Budget cut funding for astrobiological research by 50 percent.[53] In the 2007 plan, $89 million will be cut from astrobiological research, partly because of a $2.3 billion error in the Space Shuttle Budget.[54] In a letter to the astrobiological community in the United States, SETI chief executive Thomas Pierson and former NAI director Baruch Blumberg said the following: "Action is needed immediately to prevent the slowing down, or even cessation, of astrobiological research".[54] Hiroshi Ohmoto, the director of the Astrobiology Research Center in Penn State, said the following in response to the budget cuts to astrobiology:[54] George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... This article is about the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence. ...

Astrobiology is the reason we go into space, to answer fundamental questions about the origins of life and how it evolved, and whether there are other places where organisms are living. It is the whole justification for future space missions.

Criticisms

Because Astrobiology relies mostly on scientific extrapolations, over solid, factual evidence, the authenticity of astrobiology as a science has become a skeptical concept. Astrobiology is more theoretical than scientific. While other branches of science remain heavily theoretical, there is a greater degree of mathematical, pragmatic and/or observational evidence supporting the theories. For example, while science cannot prove string theory, there is a great deal of mathematical computation which implies the existence of strings of energy. Such evidence does not exist with Astrobiology, save for an asteroid segment which is believed to have fossilized Martian microbes. [55] the University of Glamorgan, UK, started just such a degree in 2006.[56] from http://www. ... Interaction in the subatomic world: world lines of pointlike particles in the Standard Model or a world sheet swept up by closed strings in string theory String theory is a model of fundamental physics whose building blocks are one-dimensional extended objects called strings, rather than the zero-dimensional point... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Another criticism of astrobiology is whether the very act of extrapolating from a single data source is unscientific. At best, this creates tautologies ("Earth-like life will evolve under circumstances which are sufficiently Earth-like for a sufficient period of time") and at worst it may go against some aspects of scientific method. Characterization of non-Earth life is extraordinarily unsettled; hypotheses and predictions as to its existence and origin vary wildly; true astrobiological experiments (with modest exceptions such as the study of the ALH84001 meteorite and searches for indications of life in Earthshine) simply cannot occur at present. Finally, astrobiology has been criticized for being unimaginative in the tacit assumption that Earth-like life presents the most likely template for life elsewhere. For example, Michael Crow, the president of Arizona State University, said the following:[57] Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Meteorite fragment ALH84001 ALH 84001 (Allan Hills 84001) is a meteorite found in Allan Hills, Antarctica in December 1984 by a team of US meteorite hunters from the ANSMET project. ... Leonardo da Vincis sketch of crescent Moon with earthshine as part of his Codex Leicester, written between 1506 and 1510. ... Evolving the Alien: The Science of Extraterrestrial Life (2002, second edition published as What Does a Martian Look Like? The Science of Extraterrestrial Life) is a book about xenobiology by biologist Jack Cohen and mathematician Ian Stewart. ...

For the last 3,000 years of our science, we really haven't gotten around to the notion that there might be something going on somewhere other than in this small, rural village [called Earth], in this isolated corner of our own galaxy or the Universe itself.

Biologist Jack Cohen and mathematician Ian Stewart, amongst others, consider xenobiology separate from astrobiology for this reason. Cohen and Stewart stipulate that astrobiology is the search for earth-like life outside of our solar system and say that xenobiologists are concerned with the possibilities open to us once we consider that life need not be carbon-based or oxygen-breathing, so long as it has the defining characteristics of life. See carbon chauvinism. A biologist is a scientist devoted to and producing results in biology through the study of organisms. ... See: Jack Cohen, biologist and special effects consultant. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... Ian Stewart is a name shared by several people: Ian Stewart (racing driver) (born 1929), Scottish Formula One driver Ian Stewart (Conservative politician) (born 1935), former MP for Hitchin, England Ian Stewart (musician) (1938–1985), Scottish rock musician and early member of the Rolling Stones Ian Stewart (Australian rules footballer... This article is about life in general. ... Carbon chauvinism is the viewpoint in xenobiology that carbon is necessarily the basis of all life on other planets, as carbons chemical and thermodynamic properties render it far superior to all other elements. ...


As with all space exploration, there is the classic argument that there is still a lot more scientists have to learn about Earth.[citation needed] Even though the discovery of life in an extra-terrestrial environment would be exciting to many scientists, it is speculated there are millions of undiscovered or unclassified species on Earth, especially in environments with rich biodiversity such as the tropics. The deepest oceanic depressions are also believed to contain unknown species, possibly also of great potential interest for evolutionary theory. Critics of astrobiology may prefer that federal funding remain dedicated towards searching for unknown species in our own terrestrial biosphere.[citation needed] They feel that earth is the most plausible and practical region to search for and study life. This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... A false-color composite of global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. ...


Publications

  • The International Journal of Astrobiology, published by Cambridge University Press is the forum for practitioners in this interdisciplinary field.
  • Astrobiology, published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., is an authoritative peer-reviewed international journal created as a forum for scientists seeking to advance our understanding of life's origin, evolution, and distribution in the universe. Astrobiology brings together researchers through the dissemination of original research, hypothesis, education articles, and reviews.
  • Jakosky, Bruce M. Science, Society, and the Search for Life in the Universe. 2006. The University of Arizona Press
  • Grinspoon, David. "Lonely Planets". (HarperCollins 2003)
  • Jonathan I. Lunine. "Astrobiology - A Multidisciplinary Approach". (Addison-Wesley 2005)
  • Halberg, Adam. "Learning to Love Exo and Astro Biology". (HipperCollins 2002)
  • Brown, Marisa. "ENDO-Biology: The Mamikuniananian solution to the Exo/Astro Conundrum." (Cielo Press, 2006)

The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. ...

See also

Space science is an all-encompassing term that describes most all of the various science fields that are concerned with the study of the Universe, generally also meaning excluding the Earth and outside of the Earths atmosphere. Originally, all of these fields were considered part of astronomy. ... Alternative biochemistry is the speculative biochemistry of alien life forms that differ radically from those on Earth. ... Artificial Life, (commonly Alife or alife) is a field of study and art form that examines systems related to life, its processes and its evolution through simulations using computer models, robotics, and biochemistry [1] (called soft, hard, and wet approaches respectively[2]). Artificial life complements traditional Biology by trying to... Astrosociobiology (also referred to as exosociobiology and xenosociology) is the speculative scientific study of extraterrestrial civilizations and their possible social characteristics and developmental tendencies. ... “Green people” redirects here. ... Gravitational Biology is the study of the effects gravity has on living organisms. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) engages in government-funded Exobiologic study of the living universe. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Panspermia is a proven process (based on the principles of Biology, Microbiology, Physics, Chemistry, Astronomy, and assumption that life existed already in the universe) that explains how all life in the universe and/or solar system comes from a seed of life. ... Understanding planetary habitability is partly an extrapolation of the Earths conditions, as it is the only planet currently known to support life. ... Planetary science, also known as planetology or planetary astronomy, is the science of planets, or planetary systems, and the solar system. ... The astrobiological hypothesis that life forms of early Earth were retinal-based rather than chlorophyll-based thus making Earth appear purple rather than green. ... This article is about the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence. ... Artists conception of a terraformed Mars in four stages of development. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Aurelia and Blue Moon are two fictional/hypothetical satellites on which extraterrestrial life could evolve. ... Spore is a simulation computer game designed by Will Wright. ... An electron microscope reveals bacteria-like structures in meteorite fragment ALH84001 For other uses of Life on Mars, see Life on Mars (disambiguation). ... Gliese 581 c (IPA: ) is a super-earth extrasolar planet orbiting the red dwarf star Gliese 581. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c http://www.astrobio.net/news/article2168.html
  2. ^ a b http://astrobiology.arc.nasa.gov/
  3. ^ http://www.aleph.se/Trans/Words/x.html
  4. ^ http://www.worldwidewords.org/articles/phobias.htm
  5. ^ http://www.itwire.com.au/content/view/11647/1066/
  6. ^ http://biocab.org/Astrobiology.html
  7. ^ http://astrobiology.arc.nasa.gov/about/index.cfm
  8. ^ http://www.astrobiology.com/
  9. ^ http://www.space.com/news/cosmic_life_020129-1.html
  10. ^ http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory/2007/spectrum_plants.html
  11. ^ http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewpr.html?pid=17211
  12. ^ http://www.amazon.com/Life-Universe-Expectations-Astrobiology-Biogeophysics/dp/3540307087
  13. ^ http://nai.arc.nasa.gov/
  14. ^ http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/marslife.html
  15. ^ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/mars/essential.html
  16. ^ http://www.ifa.hawaii.edu/UHNAI/bioast07.htm
  17. ^ http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/solarsystem/mars_meteorite_020320.html
  18. ^ http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/070424_hab_exoplanet.html
  19. ^ http://www.amazon.com/Rare-Earth-Complex-Uncommon-Universe/dp/0387987010
  20. ^ http://tal.forum2.org/rare
  21. ^ http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/rare_earth_1_020715.html
  22. ^ http://library.thinkquest.org/C003763/index.php?page=interview07
  23. ^ http://www.bookrags.com/research/astrobiology-spsc-04/
  24. ^ http://www.astrobio.net/news/article2057.html
  25. ^ http://www.solstation.com/habitable.htm
  26. ^ http://www.redorbit.com/news/display/?id=223364&source=r_space
  27. ^ http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=31165
  28. ^ http://kepler.nasa.gov/
  29. ^ http://smsc.cnes.fr/COROT/
  30. ^ http://www.setileague.org/general/drake.htm
  31. ^ http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewsr.html?pid=3910
  32. ^ http://www.astrobio.net/news/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=1222
  33. ^ http://www.livescience.com/animalworld/050207_extremophiles.html
  34. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12530238&dopt=Abstract
  35. ^ http://www.space.com/news/060207_europa_budget.html"
  36. ^ http://science.nasa.gov/newhome/headlines/ast05mar98_1.htm
  37. ^ http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/fossils/succession.html
  38. ^ http://people.msoe.edu/~tritt/sf/europa.life.html
  39. ^ http://www.planetary.org/programs/projects/explore_europa/update_12142005.html"
  40. ^ http://www.space.com/news/europa_story_991109.html
  41. ^ http://www.space.com/businesstechnology/070228_tw_mars_massspec.html
  42. ^ a b http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/050913_titan_life.html
  43. ^ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/mars/essential.html
  44. ^ http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/mars/news/mgs-20061206.html
  45. ^ http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/Mars_Express/SEMGKA808BE_0.html
  46. ^ Landis, G. A., "Martian Water: Are there Extant Halobacteria on Mars?" Astrobiology, Vol. 1, No. 2, 161-164 (2001).
  47. ^ http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/solarsystem/europa_ocean_000824.html
  48. ^ "http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn2929"
  49. ^ http://www.abc.net.au/science/k2/moments/gmis9817.htm
  50. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/space/life/looking/titan.shtml
  51. ^ http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/060728_titan_lake.html
  52. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4790126.stm
  53. ^ http://www.space.com/searchforlife/seti_culberson_060316.html
  54. ^ a b c http://www.the-scientist.com/news/display/23183/
  55. ^ http://nai.arc.nasa.gov/astrobio/astrobio_detail.cfm?ID=477
  56. ^ http://case.glam.ac.uk/CASE/Degrees/AstroBio.html
  57. ^ http://www.the-scientist.com/article/display/21107/

External links

Wikiversity
At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Astrobiology at:
The Department of Astrobiology
  • Astrobiology at UCLA
  • Astrobiology Instant Expert on New Scientist
  • Astrobiology@home
  • Australian Centre for Astrobiology
  • The Astrobiology Web
  • Astrobiology Magazine
  • Astrobiology Selected Links
  • NASA Astrobiology Institute
  • The Astrobiology Society of Britain
  • Possible Connections Between Interstellar Chemistry and the Origin of Life on the Earth
  • Scientists Find Clues That Life Began in Deep Space - NASA Astrobiology Institute
  • Stars and Habitable Planets
  • Life Around a Red Dwarf Reading Exercise
  • Mark Elowitz's Web site on Exobiology and SETI
  • Let's Build an Extraterrestrial
  • Influenza 1918, A Venus Connection?
  • NASA-Macquarie University Pilbara Education Project
  • Conditions for Life Everywhere
  • Snaiad, a world-building project with creatures designed with evolutionary biology in mind.
Topics associated with astrobiology
Biochemistry | Cosmology | Ecology | Evolutionary biology | Extremophiles | Mars | Microbiology | Origin of life | Paleontology | Planetary habitability | Planetary science | Solar system formation | Terrestrial Planet Finder

  Results from FactBites:
 
TERC Astrobiology (207 words)
Astrobiology, by its very nature, kindles interest and curiosity in students and offers a genuinely exciting entrée to high school science.
Astrobiology is a low-cost, high-impact science course designed to reach students having a wide range of abilities.
The Astrobiology curriculum was conceived, developed, and written by leading educators and classroom teachers with the participation of NASA and with funding from the National Science Foundation.
The Astrobiology Society of Britain (443 words)
The Astrobiology Society of Britain, founded in March 2003, serves its members and the astrobiology community as a whole in the UK in fostering links between the various and many disciplines that comprise the science of astrobiology in order to ensure that astrobiology research in the UK is vigorous, progressive and successful.
It seeks to provide a mechanism for members of the astrobiology community to meet, collaborate, make the community aware of UK astrobiology activities, and encourage new students and researchers into the field.
Astrobiology is a multidisciplinary topic that brings together many branches of science.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m