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Encyclopedia > Astra Digital Radio

Astra Digital Radio (ADR) is a system used by SES Astra for digital radio transmissions on their Astra 1 satellites, using the audio subcarrier frequencies of analogue television channels. It was introduced in 1995. As of 2006, a small number of services still transmit in this format. SES Astra SA, a subsidiary of SES Global, is a Luxembourg-based corporation which owns and operates the Astra series of geostationary satellites, which transmit approximately 1100 analogue and digital television and radio channels via 176 transponders to 91 million households across Europe. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... 1995 (MCMXCV in Roman) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The format uses one mono audio subcarrier, which would normally be allocated to an additional sound track or radio station, or half of a stereo sound track/station. The carrier is digitally modulated, and carries a 192 kbit/s, 48 kHz sampled Musicam encoded signal. 9.6 kbit/s is available for data. MP2, also known as Musicam, is a short form of MPEG Audio Layer II, and it is also used as a file extension for files containing audio data of this type. ...

Special receivers are required to listen to ADR stations, although some combined analogue/digital satellite boxes as well as later normal analogue boxes are equipped to decode it.

ADR is incompatible with DVB-S, although DVB-S digital radio stations are also transmitted using Musicam and generally at the same bitrates. As a result, when the final analogue switch-off on the Astra 1 satellites occurs, ADR will become obsolete. However, SES Astra state that 12.2 million homes, almost entirely in Germany, still use their analogue services [1] and does not expect an analouge switchoff to happen until 2010 [2] DVB, short for Digital Video Broadcasting, is a suite of internationally accepted, open standards for digital television maintained by the DVB Project, an industry consortium with more than 300 members, and published by a Joint Technical Committee (JTC) of European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC...

The majority of channels to have ever broadcast on ADR, and all remaining ones, are German or in the German language. In some ways, the system is seen to have replaced the "Digitales Satelliteradion" system, dating from the 1980s, which used an entire satelite transponder to carry 16 PCM encoded radio stations, and which closed in 1999. German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... PCM is an initialism which can have different meanings: Phase Change Material Pulse-code modulation, a way to digitally encode signals representing sound and their video counterparts Potential Cancer Marker Communist Party of Mexico Plug Compatible Manufacturer Power-train control module, a computer in a car which controls the car... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...

External links

  • Astra 19.2E frequency charts - ADR stations are marked in red as subcarriers on analogue services



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