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Encyclopedia > Asterales
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Asterales
Helianthus annuus
Helianthus annuus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Asterales Lindl. (1833)

The Asterales are an order of dicotyledonous flowering plants which include the composite family Asteraceae (sunflowers and daisies) and its related families. Download high resolution version (768x1024, 108 KB)http://pdphoto. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms (as opposed to folk taxonomy). ... Divisions Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants Adiantum pedatum (a fern... Classes Magnoliopsida- Dicots Liliopsida- Monocots The flowering plants (also called angiosperms) are a major group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... John Lindley (February 8, 1799 - November 1, 1865) was an English botanist. ... 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is 1) a rank or 2) a taxon in that rank. ... Genera There are 3 genera: Alseuosmia Crispiloba Wittsteinia Alseuosmiaceae is a plant family of the order Asterales. ... Genera Argophyllum Corokia The family Argophyllaceae is a group of plant belonging to the order Asterales. ... Diversity About 900 genera and 13,000 species Type Genus Aster L. Subfamilies Barnadesioideae Cichorioideae Tribe Arctotidae Tribe Cardueae Tribe Eremothamneae Tribe Lactuceae Tribe Liabeae Tribe Mutisieae Tribe Tarchonantheae Tribe Vernonieae Asteroideae Tribe Anthemideae Tribe Astereae Tribe Calenduleae Tribe Eupatorieae Tribe Gnaphalieae Tribe Helenieae Tribe Heliantheae Tribe Inuleae Tribe Plucheae... Daisy may mean: Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: daisy Flowering plants Daisy family, a general name for all species in the family Asteraceae. ... Calyceraceae is a plant family in the order Asterales. ... Genera See text The family Campanulaceae (also bellflower family), of the order Asterales, contains about 70 genera and 2000 species. ... Genera Lobelia Monopsis The lobeliaceae or lobelia family comprises about 375 species of herbs, shrubs, or sometimes trees. ... The term Bellflower can refer to: The city of Bellflower, California Numerous flowering Bellflower plants, classified in the two related genera Campanula and Campanulastrum. ... Genera Fauria (deer cabbage) Liparophyllum Menyanthes (bog bean, buckbean) Nymphoides (floating heart, water snowflake) Villarsia The Menyanthaceae are a family of aquatic and wetland plants in the Order Asterales. ... Genera Pentaphragma The Pentaphragmaceae is a family in the order Asterales. ... Species There are 12 species: Phelline billardieri Phelline comosa Phelline confertifolia Phelline lucida Phelline wagapensis etc. ... Genera Forstera Levenhookia Oreostylidium Phyllachne Stylidium The family Stylidiaceae is a taxon of dicotyledonous flowering plants. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Young castor oil plant showing its prominent two embryonic leaves (cotyledons), that differ from the adult leaves Dicotyledons or dicots is a name for a group of flowering plants whose seed typically contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. ... Classes Magnoliopsida- Dicots Liliopsida- Monocots The flowering plants (also called angiosperms) are a major group of land plants. ... Diversity About 900 genera and 13,000 species Type Genus Aster L. Subfamilies Barnadesioideae Cichorioideae Tribe Arctotidae Tribe Cardueae Tribe Eremothamneae Tribe Lactuceae Tribe Liabeae Tribe Mutisieae Tribe Tarchonantheae Tribe Vernonieae Asteroideae Tribe Anthemideae Tribe Astereae Tribe Calenduleae Tribe Eupatorieae Tribe Gnaphalieae Tribe Helenieae Tribe Heliantheae Tribe Inuleae Tribe Plucheae... Binomial name Helianthus annuus L. The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is an annual plant in the Family Asteraceae with a large flower head (inflorescence). ... Species See text Bellis is a small genus of 15 species in the family Asteraceae. ...


The order is cosmopolitic, and includes mostly herbaceous species, although a small number of trees (Lobelia) and shrubs is also present.


The Asterales can be characterized on the morphological and molecular level. Synapomorphies include the oligosaccharide inulin as the nutrients storage, and the stamens are usually aggregated densely around the style or even are fused into a tube around it. The last property is probably associated with the plunger (or secondary) pollination, which is common among the families of the order. An oligosaccharide is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to six) of component sugars, also known as simple sugars. ... Inulins are a group of naturally occurring oligosaccharides (several simple sugars linked together) produced by many types of plants. ... A flower-fly pollinating a Common Daisy (Bellis perennis) Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ...

Contents


Families

The Asterales include about eleven families, the largest of which is Asteraceae with about 25,000 species, and Campanulaceae with about 2,000 species. The remaining families count together for less than 500 species. The two large families are cosmopolitic with center of mass in the northern hemisphere, and the smaller ones are usually confined to Australia and the adjacent areas, or sometimes the South America. Diversity About 900 genera and 13,000 species Type Genus Aster L. Subfamilies Barnadesioideae Cichorioideae Tribe Arctotidae Tribe Cardueae Tribe Eremothamneae Tribe Lactuceae Tribe Liabeae Tribe Mutisieae Tribe Tarchonantheae Tribe Vernonieae Asteroideae Tribe Anthemideae Tribe Astereae Tribe Calenduleae Tribe Eupatorieae Tribe Gnaphalieae Tribe Helenieae Tribe Heliantheae Tribe Inuleae Tribe Plucheae... Genera See text The family Campanulaceae (also bellflower family), of the order Asterales, contains about 70 genera and 2000 species. ...


Under the Cronquist system, Asteraceae was the only family in the group, but newer systems (e. g. APG II) have expanded it. The Cronquist system is a scheme for the classification of flowering plants (or angiosperms). ... Diversity About 900 genera and 13,000 species Type Genus Aster L. Subfamilies Barnadesioideae Cichorioideae Tribe Arctotidae Tribe Cardueae Tribe Eremothamneae Tribe Lactuceae Tribe Liabeae Tribe Mutisieae Tribe Tarchonantheae Tribe Vernonieae Asteroideae Tribe Anthemideae Tribe Astereae Tribe Calenduleae Tribe Eupatorieae Tribe Gnaphalieae Tribe Helenieae Tribe Heliantheae Tribe Inuleae Tribe Plucheae... The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group is an international group of systematic botanists who have come together to try to establish a consensus view of the taxonomy of flowering plants in the light of the rapid rise of molecular systematics. ...


Evolution and biogeography

The Asterales order probably originated in the Cretaceous on the supercontinent Gondwana, in the area which is now Australia and Asia. Although most extant species are herbaceous, the examination of the basal families in the order suggests that the common ancestor of the order was an arborescent plant. Cretaceous period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic period, about 146 million years ago (Ma), to the beginning of the Paleocene epoch of the Tertiary period (65. ... Pangaea was formed by the merging of two continents, Laurasia and Gondwana East African and Kuungan Orogens 550 Ma reconstruction showing final stages of assembly The southern supercontinent Gondwana (originally Gondwanaland) included most of the landmasses which make up todays continents of the southern hemisphere, including Antarctica, South America...


Fossil evidence of the Asterales is rare and belongs to rather recent epochs, so the precise estimation of the order's age is quite difficult. An Oligocene pollen is known for Asteraceae and Goodeniaceae, and seeds from Oligocene and Miocene are known for Menyanthaceae and Campanulaceae respectively. The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... The Miocene epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23 to 5. ...


(Bremer and Gustafsson, 1997)


Economical importance

The Asteraceae include some species grown for food, e. g. sunflower (Helianthus annuus) or chicory (Cichorium). Many spices and medicinal herbs are also present. Binomial name Helianthus annuus L. The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is an annual plant in the Family Asteraceae with a large flower head (inflorescence). ... Species C. endivia - cultivated endive - wild endive - common chicory Chicory is the common name given to the flowering plants in genus Cichorium of the family Asteraceae. ...


Of horticultural importance are the Asteraceae (e. g. chrysanthemum) and Campanulaceae. Species Chrysanthemum aphrodite Chrysanthemum arcticum Chrysanthemum argyrophyllum Chrysanthemum arisanense Chrysanthemum boreale Chrysanthemum chalchingolicum Chrysanthemum chanetii Chrysanthemum crassum Chrysanthemum glabriusculum Chrysanthemum hypargyrum Chrysanthemum indicum Chrysanthemum japonense Chrysanthemum japonicum Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium Chrysanthemum mawii Chrysanthemum maximowiczii Chrysanthemum mongolicum Chrysanthemum morii Chrysanthemum okiense Chrysanthemum oreastrum Chrysanthemum ornatum Chrysanthemum pacificum Chrysanthemum potentilloides Chrysanthemum shiwogiku Chrysanthemum...


References

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Asterales
  • K. Bremer, M. H. G. Gustafsson (1997). East Gondwana ancestry of the sunflower alliance of families. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 94, 9188-9190. (Available online: Abstract | Full text (HTML) | Full text (PDF))
  • W. S. Judd, C. S. Campbell, E. A. Kellogg, P. F. Stevens, M. J. Donoghue (2002). Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, 2nd edition. pp. 476-486 (Asterales). Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts. ISBN 0878934030.
  • J. Lindley (1833). Nixus Plantarum, 20. Londini.
  • Smissen, R. D. (December 2002). Asterales (Sunflower). In: Nature Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Nature Publishing Group, London. (Available online: DOI | ELS site)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Asterales - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (361 words)
The Asterales are an order of dicotyledonous flowering plants which include the composite family Asteraceae (sunflowers and daisies) and its related families.
The Asterales order probably originated in the Cretaceous on the supercontinent Gondwana, in the area which is now Australia and Asia.
An Oligocene pollen is known for Asteraceae and Goodeniaceae, and seeds from Oligocene and Miocene are known for Menyanthaceae and Campanulaceae respectively.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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