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Encyclopedia > Asteraceae
iSunflowers
Aster alpinus
Aster alpinus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Martynov, 1820
Diversity
About 1500 genera and 23,000 species
Type Genus
Aster
L.
Subfamilies

Barnadesioideae
Cichorioideae
Image:Aster-alpinus. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta - rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta - zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta - trimerophytes Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also called angiosperms) are the dominant and most familiar group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... Families Alseuosmiaceae Argophyllaceae Asteraceae - Daisies Calyceraceae Campanulaceae (incl. ... Martynov (Russian: ) is a common Russian last name and may refer to: Alexander Samoylovich Martynov (1865–1935), a right-wing Russian Menshevik Alexander Yevstafyevich Martynov (1816–1860), a Russian actor Alexey Alexandrovich Martynov (1818–1903), a Russian historian, archaeologist, and architect Alexey Vasilyevich Martynov (1868–1934), a Russian surgeon Andrey... This is a list of genera in the plant family Asteraceae, the sunflowers. ... In scientific classification, a type is a specimen or description that corresponds to a taxon (a group of organisms), and helps to identify which organisms may be referred to with that name. ... Aster (flower) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[1] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ...

Tribe Arctotidae
Tribe Cardueae
Tribe Eremothamneae
Tribe Lactuceae
Tribe Liabeae
Tribe Mutisieae
Tribe Tarchonantheae
Tribe Vernonieae

Asteroideae

Tribe Anthemideae
Tribe Astereae
Tribe Calenduleae
Tribe Eupatorieae
Tribe Gnaphalieae
Tribe Helenieae
Tribe Heliantheae
Tribe Inuleae
Tribe Plucheae
Tribe Senecioneae
Tribe Tageteae

See also List of Asteraceae genera Genera Astereae is a tribe of plants in the family Asteraceae. ... Species See text. ... Genera Alatoseta Amphiglossa Anaxeton Anderbergia Anisochaeta Anisothrix Antithrixia Arrowsmithia Artemisiopsis Athrixia Atrichantha Bryomorphe Callilepis Calotesta Comborhiza Denekia Disparago Dolicothrix Edmondia Elytropappus Facelis Galeomma Gamochaeta Gnaphalium Helichrysopsis Helichrysum Hydroidea Ifloga Lachnospermum Langebergia Lasiopogon Lepidostephium Leysera Macowania Metalasia Nestlera Oedera Oreoleysera Oxylaena Pentatrichia Petalacte Phaenocoma Philyrophyllum Planea Plecostachys Printzia Pseudognaphalium Pterothrix Relhania... Species See text The Helianthus L. genus comprises 67 species and several subspecies in the Asteraceae family, all of which are native to North America. ... The tribe Senecioniae sits within the plant family Asteraceae and contains many genera including the huge assemblage of species within the type genus Senecio. ... Genera Adenopappus Adenophyllum Bajacalia Boeberastrum Boeberoides Chyrsactinia Dysodiopsis Dyssodia Gymnlaena Harnackia Hydrodyssodia Hydropectis Lescaillea Leucactinia Nicolletia Pectis Porophyllum Schizotrichia Strotheria Tagetes Thymophylla Urbinella Vilobia Tageteae is a tribe of the plant family Asteraceae. ... This is a list of genera in the plant family Asteraceae, the sunflowers. ...

Synonyms

Compositae Giseke In scientific classification, synonymy is the existence of multiple systematic names to label the same organism. ...

The family Asteraceae or, alternatively, Compositae, known as the aster, daisy or sunflower family, is a taxon of dicotyledonous flowering plants. The family name is derived from the genus Aster and refers to the star-shaped flower head of its members, typified well by the daisy. The Asteraceae is the second largest family in the Division Magnoliophyta, with some 1,100 genera and over 20,000 recognized species. Only the orchid family (Orchidaceae) is larger, with about 25,000 described species. Orders see text Dicotyledons or dicots are flowering plants whose seed contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also called angiosperms) are the dominant and most familiar group of land plants. ... Aster (flower) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Pleiades, an open cluster of stars in the constellation of Taurus. ... Binomial name Bellis perennis L. Bellis perennis is a common European species of daisy, often considered the archetypal species of that name, though many other related plants share the name; to distinguish it from other daisies, it is sometimes qualified as Common Daisy, or occasionally English daisy. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also called angiosperms) are the dominant and most familiar group of land plants. ... Subfamilies Apostasioideae Cypripedioideae Epidendroideae Orchidoideae Vanilloideae For genera, see list of Orchidaceae genera. ...


Plants belonging to the Asteraceae share all the following characteristics (Judd et al., 1999). None of these traits, taken separately, can be considered synapomorphic. Shared characteristics that define a cladistic grouping. ...

  • The inflorescence is an involucrate capitulum (flower head)
  • Tubular/disc florets are actinomorphic, ligulate/ray florets are zygomorphic
  • Anthers are syngenesious, i.e. with the stamens fused together at their edges, forming a tube
  • The ovary has basal arrangement of the ovules
  • One ovule per ovary
  • The calyx (sepals) of the florets are modified to form a pappus, a tuft of hairs, which often appears on the mature fruit
  • The fruit is an achene
  • In the essential oils Sesquiterpenes are present, but iridoids are lacking.
A typical Asteraceae flower head (here Bidens torta) showing the individual flowers
A typical Asteraceae flower head (here Bidens torta) showing the individual flowers

The most common characteristic of all these plants is an inflorescence or flower head; a densely packed cluster of many small, individual flowers, usually called florets (meaning "small flowers"). An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers on a branch of a plant. ... An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers on a branch of a plant. ... Flower of the spider tree (Crateva religiosa) with its numerous conspicuous stamens The stamen is the male organ of a flower. ... Flower of the spider tree (Crateva religiosa) with its numerous conspicuous stamens The stamen is the male organ of a flower. ... Ovary in plants is the female part of a flower. ... An ovule is a structure found in seed plants that develops into a seed after fertilization. ... An ovule is a structure found in seed plants that develops into a seed after fertilization. ... Flower of the Primrose Willowherb (Ludwigia octovalvis) showing petals and sepals A sepal is one member or part of the calyx of a flower. ... Pappus of Alexandria is one of the most important mathematicians of ancient Greek time, known for his work Synagoge (“Collection”). He was born at Alexandria of Egypt. ... Fruit stall in Barcelona, Spain. ... Fruit stall in Barcelona, Spain. ... An achene is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. ... Isoprene Terpenes are a class of hydrocarbons, produced by many plants, particularly conifers. ... Download high resolution version (700x698, 91 KB)Photograph of flower head of Bidens torta taken December 30, 2002 at Kolekole Pass, Schofield Barracks, Oahu, Hawaii by Eric Guinther and released under the GNU Free Documentation License. ... Download high resolution version (700x698, 91 KB)Photograph of flower head of Bidens torta taken December 30, 2002 at Kolekole Pass, Schofield Barracks, Oahu, Hawaii by Eric Guinther and released under the GNU Free Documentation License. ... Wildflowers A flower is the reproductive organ of those plants classified as angiosperms ( flowering plants; Division Magnoliophyta). ...


Plants in the family Asteraceae typically have one or both of two kinds of florets. The outer perimeter of a flower head like that of a sunflower is composed of florets possessing a long strap-like petal, termed a ligule; these are the ray florets. The inner portion of the flower head (or disc) is composed of small flowers with tubular corollas; these are the disc florets. The composition of asteraceous inflorescences varies from all ray flowers (like dandelions, genus Taraxacum) to all disc flowers (like pineapple weeds). Binomial name Helianthus annuus L. The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is an annual plant in the family Asteraceae, with a large flower head (inflorescence). ... It has been suggested that Corolla be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Corolla be merged into this article or section. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Matricaria discoides DC. The pineapple weed is an annual plant native to western North America and NE Asia but which has become a cosmopolitan weed. ...


The composite nature of the inflorescences of these plants led early taxonomists to call this family the Compositae. Although the rules governing naming conventions for plant families state that the name should come from the type genus, in this case Aster and thus Asteraceae. However, the long prevailing name Compositae is also authorized as an alternative family name (ICBN Art. 18.6). In scientific classification, a type is a specimen or description that corresponds to a taxon (a group of organisms), and helps to identify which organisms may be referred to with that name. ... The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature is the set of rules according to which plants are given their formal botanical names (scientific names). ...


The numerous genera are divided into about 13 tribes. Only one of these, Lactuceae, is considered distinct enough to be a subfamily (subfamily Cichorioideae); the remainer, which are mostly overlapping, are put in the subfamily Asteroideae (Wagner, Herbst, and Sohmer, 1990).


Uses

Commercially important plants in the Asteraceae include the food crops lettuce, chicory, globe artichoke, sunflower, safflower and Jerusalem artichoke. Guayule is a source of hypoallergenic latex. Binomial name Lactuca sativa L. Percentages are relative to US RDI values for adults. ... Species C. endivia - cultivated endive - wild endive - common chicory Chicory is the common name given to the flowering plants in genus Cichorium of the family Asteraceae. ... Binomial name Cynara scolymus L. The Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) is a perennial, thistle-like plant, originating in southern Europe around the Mediterranean. ... Binomial name Helianthus annuus L. The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is an annual plant in the family Asteraceae, with a large flower head (inflorescence). ... Binomial name Carthamus tinctorius L. Safflower is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual, usually with many long sharp spines on the leaves. ... Binomial name Helianthus tuberosus L. The Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), also called the sunroot or sunchoke or topinambur, is a flowering plant native to North America grown throughout the temperate world for its tuber, which is used as a root vegetable. ... Binomial name Parthenium argentatum L. Guayule (Parthenium argentatum), pronounced wa-YOO-lee, is a shrub in the genus Parthenium of the family Asteraceae, native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. ... Look up hypoallergenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The LaTeX logo, typeset with LaTeX , written as LaTeX in plain text, is a document preparation system for the (TeX) typesetting program. ...


Many members of Asteracae are copious nectar producers and are useful for evaluating pollinator populations during their bloom. Centaurea (knapweed), Helianthus annuus (domestic sunflower), and some species of Solidago (goldenrod) are major "honey plants" for beekeepers. Solidago produces relatively high protein pollen, which helps honeybees overwinter. Nectar of camellia Nectar, in botany, is a sugar-rich liquid produced by the flowers of plants in order to attract pollinating animals. ... A pollinator is the agent that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization or syngamy of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by the male gamete from the pollen grain. ... A jar of honey, shown with a wooden honey server and scones. ... Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of one or more hives of honeybees. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), lily (Lilium auratum), primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Species Apis andreniformis Apis cerana, or eastern honey bee Apis dorsata, or giant honey bee Apis florea Apis koschevnikovi Apis laboriosa Apis mellifera, or western honey bee Apis nigrocincta Apis nuluensis Honey bees are a subset of bees which represent a far smaller fraction of bee diversity than most people...


Many members of the family are grown as ornamental plants for their flowers, e.g., chrysanthemums and some are important ornamental crops for the cut flower industry. Some Asteraceae are economically important in the sense that they are considered noxious weeds, e.g., dandelions. Species C. carinatum - tricolor daisy C. cinerariifolium - pyrethrum C. coccineum - pyrethum daisy C. coronarium - crown daisy C. frutescens - marguerite C. majus - daisy C. X morifolium - florists           chrysanthemum C. segetum - corndaisy Ref: ITIS 35791 The chrysanthemum, also known as the mum, is a flowering perennial plant of the genus Chrysanthemum... The notion of weed is almost entirely in the eye of the beholder. ... Species Taraxacum officinale Taraxacum japonicum Taraxacum albidum and a few others. ...



Ray floret : A = ovary; B = pappus; C = theca; D = ligule; E = style with stigma
Ray floret : A = ovary; B = pappus; C = theca; D = ligule; E = style with stigma
Disc floret : A = ovary; B = tube of corolla with teeth of the corolla; C = theca; D = style with stigma
Disc floret : A = ovary; B = tube of corolla with teeth of the corolla; C = theca; D = style with stigma


Image File history File linksMetadata Ray. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ray. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Disc_floret01. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Disc_floret01. ...


References

  • ITIS report 2002-09-10
  • International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN, St. Louis Code). 1999. website (Published as Regnum Vegetabile 138. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein. ISBN 3-904144-22-7)
  • Walters, Dirk R. and David J. Keil (1996). Vascular plant taxonomy. 4th ed. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Dubuque, Iowa.
  • Wagner,W.L., D.R. Herbst, and S.H. Sohmer. 1990. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai‘i, Vol. I. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 988 pp.
  • Judd, W.S., C.S. Campbell, E.A. Kellogg, and P.F. Stevens. 1999. Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
  • D. J. N. Hind, C. Jeffrey & G. V. Pope (eds.), Advances in Compositae systematics. - Royal Bot. Gardens, Kew, 469 pp., 1995
Helichrysum petiolare
Helichrysum petiolare
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Asteraceae

  Results from FactBites:
 
Asteraceae in Flora of North America @ efloras.org (4747 words)
Asteraceae (Compositae, "composites," or "comps") have long been recognized as a natural group, and circumscription of the group has never been controversial (although some authors have divided the traditional family into three or more families).
Treatment of Asteraceae here differs from some of the recently proposed classifications in that some groups continue to be traditionally circumscribed (e.g., Mutisieae in the broad sense, Heliantheae in the broad sense, including Helenieae and excluding Eupatorieae).
Asteraceae are particularly conspicuous elements of warm-desert and intermountain grasslands, as well as of desert scrubs, notably the intermountain desert scrub where Artemisia dominates (M. Barbour and N. Christensen 1993).
Asteraceae Summary (900 words)
Asteraceae (or Compositae), the sunflower family, is the largest family of flowering plants, encompassing some fifteen hundred genera and nearly twenty-five thousand species.
The family Asteraceae or, alternatively, family Compositae, known as the aster, daisy or sunflower family, is a taxon of dicotyledonous flowering plants.
The Asteraceae is the second largest family in the Division Magnoliophyta, with some 1,100 genera and over 20,000 recognized species.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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