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Encyclopedia > Astana
Astana

Flag

Seal
Location of Astana
Coordinates: 51.18°0′0″N, 71.45°0′0″E
Government
 - Mayor Askar Mamin
Population (estimated)
 - City 600,000
Time zone BTT (UTC+6)
This article is about the capital of Kazakhstan; for the article on the palace in Sarawak, see Astana (Sarawak); for the professional road-cycling team see Astana Team; for the Iranian city, see Astaneh-e Ashrafiyyeh.

Astana (Kazakh: Астана; former names include Akmola, Tselinograd, and Aqmola), estimated population of 600,000 (2004), is the third largest city and the capital of Kazakhstan since December 10, 1997. The name "Astana", which in Kazakh language means "Capital city", was allegedly chosen because it is easily pronounced in many languages[citation needed]. However, in Kazakh, it is pronounced "As-ta-na", while in English and many other international languages, the common pronunciation is "As-ta-na". It is within Aqmola Province, though politically separate from the rest of the province, which has its own capital. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Astana_panorama. ... Image File history File links Astana. ... Image File history File links Astana1. ... Image File history File links Kazakhstan-Astana. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Askar Mamin was formerly the Minister of Transport and Communication of Kazakhstan. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Bhutan Time (BTT) is the time zone of Bhutan. ... UTC +6 is the timezone for : Bhutan Time Generic UTC+6 in other countries. ... State motto: United, Industrious, Dedicated (Malay: Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti ) Capital Kuching Governor T.Y.T Tun Datuk Patinggi Abang Muhammad Salahuddin Chief Minister Y.A.B. Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Haji Abdul Taib Bin Mahmud / Pehin Sri Dr. Hj. ... The Astana-Würth Team logo The Astana Team (UCI Team Code: AWT), formerly named Liberty Seguros-Würth Team, Würth Team and Astana-Würth Team, is a professional cycling team sponsored by the Astana group, a coalition of companies from Kazakhstan, named after its capital. ... Astaneh-e Ashrafiyyeh is a major peanut, rice and fragrant medicinal herbs producing town. ... Kazakh, also Kazak, Qazaq, Khazakh, Kosach, and Kaisak (Қазақ тілі in Cyrillic, Qazaq tili in the Latin alphabet, and قازاق تءىلءي in the Arabic alphabet) is a Western Turkic language closely related to Kyrgyz, Nogai and Karakalpak. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aqmola is a province of Kazakhstan. ...


The current mayor of Astana is Askar Mamin, formerly Minister for Transportation. He was appointed mayor on 25 September 2006.[1] September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

Contents

History

Early history

A unit of Siberian cossacks from Omsk founded a huge fortress on the upper Ishim in 1824, which later became the town of "Akmolinsk". During the early 20th Century, the town became a major railway junction, causing a major economic boom that lasted until the Russian Civil War. Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) arctic northeast Siberia Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia and comprising a large part of the Euro-Asian Steppe. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... Omsk (Russian: ) is a city in southwest Siberia in Russia, the administrative center of Omsk Oblast. ... The Ishim River (Иши́м, another name is Esil River) is a river running through Kazakhstan and Russia. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Red Army (Bolsheviks) White Army (Monarchists, SRs, Anti-Communists) Green Army (Peasants and Nationalists) Black Army (Anarchists) Commanders Leon Trotsky Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Lavr Kornilov, Alexander Kolchak, Anton Denikin, Pyotr Wrangel Alexander Antonov, Nikifor Grigoriev Nestor Makhno Strength 5,427,273 (peak) +1,000,000 Casualties 939,755...


In 1961, it was renamed "Tselinograd" and made capital of the Soviet Virgin Lands Territory (Tselinny Krai). The city was at the centre of the Virgin Lands Campaign led by Nikita Khrushchev in the 1950s, in order to turn the state into a second grain producer for the Soviet Union. The high portion of Russian immigrants in this area, which later led to ethnic tension, can be traced to the influx of agricultural workers at this time. Additionally, many Russian-Germans were resettled here after being deported under Joseph Stalin for alleged Nazi ties during the World War II. 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... Virgin Lands by Fedor Malaev, a romanticised view of the Campaign The Virgin Lands Campaign was an initiative by Nikita Khrushchev to open up vast tracts of unused (virgin) steppe in the northern Kazakh SSR and the Altai region of the Russian SFSR, started in 1954. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[1]–September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... “Stalin” redirects here. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


After Kazakhstan gained its independence in 1991, the city and the region were renamed "Aqmola". The name was often translated as "White Tombstone," but actually means "Holy Place". The "White Tombstone" literal translation was too appropriate for many visitors to escape notice in almost all guide books and travel accounts. 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As Kazakhstan's new capital

A symbol of the new Astana for many Kazakhs, Bayterek.

In 1994, the city was designated as the future capital of the newly-independent country, and again renamed to the present "Astana" after the capital was officially moved from Almaty in 1997. Despite the isolated location of the new capital in the centre of the Kazakh Steppe and the forbidding climate in winter, Kazakhstan simply needed a more central location than its former location of Almaty, which lies on the southeast border with Kyrgyzstan. Some speculate[citation needed] that it was a move to impose more control over the Russian-dominated north of the country. Other reasons[citation needed] include the belief that the new city project is a strategic move to position the capital further from the borders with China, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan, or that Almaty was limited in its development by mountains (which is objectively not the case), or that President Nursultan Nazarbayev created a "Potemkin village", either to present a contrived image of a modern, clean Kazakhstan to entice foreign investment.[citation needed] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a photo that I [Michael Hancock]Michael Hancock 19:06, 13 February 2007 (UTC) took of the large monument in Astana, Kazakhstan, which is... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a photo that I [Michael Hancock]Michael Hancock 19:06, 13 February 2007 (UTC) took of the large monument in Astana, Kazakhstan, which is... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Map showing Almatys location in Kazakhstan Almaty Orthodox church Mosque Almaty (Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata, also Vernyj, Vyernyi (Верный) in Imperial Russia) is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,185,900 (2004) (8% of the population of Kazakhstan) citizens. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses... Map showing Almatys location in Kazakhstan Almaty Orthodox church Mosque Almaty (Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata, also Vernyj, Vyernyi (Верный) in Imperial Russia) is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,185,900 (2004) (8% of the population of Kazakhstan) citizens. ... Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev (Kazakh: Нұрсұлтан Әбішұлы Назарбаев [Nûrsûltan Äbîshûlâ Nazarbayev]; Russian: Нурсултан Абишевич Назарбаев) (born 6 July 1940 in Chemolgan, Kazakh SSR, Soviet Union) has served as the President of Kazakhstan since the Fall of the Soviet Union and the nations independence in 1991. ... Potemkin villages were, purportedly, fake settlements erected at the direction of Russian minister Grigori Aleksandrovich Potemkin to fool Empress Catherine II during her visit to Crimea in 1787. ...


To some Kazakhs, the move remains controversial.[citation needed] Critics resent the massive expenditure of public funds to build the new government complexes, as well as the continuing cost of airfare and hotel expenses for the many government workers who still live in Almaty.[citation needed] The lucrative development contracts handed out to companies owned by President Nazarbayev's family members also remain highly suspect.[citation needed]


Geography

Astana From Space

The city is located in central Kazakhstan on the Ishim River in a very flat, semi-desert steppe region which covers most of the country's territory. The elevation of Astana is at 347 meters above sea level. Astana is in a spacious steppe landscape, in the transient area between the north of Kazakhstan and the extremely thinly settled national center, because of the river Ishim. The older boroughs lie north of the river, whilst the new boroughs were located south of the Ishim. Download high resolution version (1280x948, 322 KB)NASA landsat photo of Astana, Kazakhstan I made this with World wind programme File links The following pages link to this file: Astana Categories: NASA images ... Download high resolution version (1280x948, 322 KB)NASA landsat photo of Astana, Kazakhstan I made this with World wind programme File links The following pages link to this file: Astana Categories: NASA images ... The Ishim River (Иши́м, another name is Esil River) is a river running through Kazakhstan and Russia. ...


Climate

Climatically Astana is one of the coldest capitals in the world, with temperatures of -35 to -40 Celsius degrees common in the late autumn. The new city is also known to regularly freeze for around six months every year. Overall however, Astana has a continental climate, with exceptionally cold winters and moderately hot summers, arid and semiarid.


The average annual temperature in Astana is 1 degree Celsius. January is the coldest month with an average temperature of -16 degrees Celsius. July is the hottest month with an average temperature of 20 degrees Celsius.

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Yearly average
Avg Temperature °C (°F) -16 (4) -17 (3) -10 (17) 3 (41) 12 (56) 18 (66) 20 (70) 17 (64) 11 (54) 2 (37) -7 (21) -14 (9) 1 (33)
Precipitation mm (in) 22 (0.70) 14 (0.50) 19 (0.60) 21 (0.90) 31 (1.30) 40 (1.40) 50 (2.00) 37 (1.60 26 (0.90) 27 (1.20) 20 (0.90) 22 (0.70) 32.7

Economy

Politics and government are the main economic activity in the capital, which also forms a Special Economic Zone. Since the move, Astana has seen one of the world's greatest building projects, as oil money has been spent on government buildings, a massive home for the president, a mosque, and numerous parks and monuments. The project is designed to not just make the town the centre of Kazakhstan, but of all Central Asia. Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... A Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is a geographical region that has economic laws different from a countrys typical economic laws. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


People and culture

Town planning

Astana can be divided largely into a few different areas. North of the railway line, which crosses Astana in an east-west direction, are industrial and poorer residential areas. Between the railway line and the river Ishim is the city center, where at present intense building activity is occurring. To the west and east are more elevated residential areas with parks and the new area of government administration to the south of the Ishim. Here many large building projects are underway; for example, the construction of a diplomat quarter, and a variety of different government buildings. By 2030, these quarters are to be completed. Astana's chief planner, Vladimir Laptev, wants to build a Berlin in a Eurasian style. He has stated that a purely administrative capital such as Canberra is not one of his goals. Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Eurasian, also Euroasian or Euro-Asian can mean: Eurasian may be used as a slang term to refer to people of Asian decent, living in European countries who have no other traits of being Asian other then the fact that they look it. ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ...


Architecture

The architectural quality of the new buildings is, by the standards of almost all critics, quite high — ethno-postmodernism in an Albert Speer pattern dominates. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In December 2006, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev unveiled plans to build Khan Shatyry, a "giant, transparent tent", over an area of the city. The tent will be 150 metres high, and was designed by British architect Norman Foster.[2] It is expected to take around a year to build.[3] Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev (Kazakh: Нұрсұлтан Әбішұлы Назарбаев [Nûrsûltan Äbîshûlâ Nazarbayev]; Russian: Нурсултан Абишевич Назарбаев) (born 6 July 1940 in Chemolgan, Kazakh SSR, Soviet Union) has served as the President of Kazakhstan since the Fall of the Soviet Union and the nations independence in 1991. ... Khan Shatyry is a giant transparent tent currently under construction in Astana, capital city of Kazakhstan. ... An architect at his drawing board, 1893 An architect is a person who is involved in the planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction. ... The restored Reichstag in Berlin, housing the German parliament. ...


Sightseeing

Today there are many construction works under way, such as embassy buildings, representative riversides along the Ishim River, and some infrastructure for transportation and communication. In the centre of town, the Avenue of the Republic acts as the main hub of activity. It is bordered by many stores, coffee houses, restaurants, discotheques and even some casinos. Worth a visit are the:

The Oceanarium in Lisbon, Portugal opened in 1998. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Sport

Astana is home to FC Astana, a football team in the Kazakhstan Super League, which won the national championship in 2000, 2001 and 2006. The city is also home to the Astana-Tigers basketball team who successfully took the 2004/2005 season title, as well as Barys Astana of the Kazakh Ice Hockey League. In addition, Team Astana is a professional cycling team that competes on the UCI ProTour. FC Astana, formerly FC Zhenis until the club was renamed before the 2006 season, are a Kazakhstani football club based at the Kazhimukan Munaitpasov Stadium in Astana. ... Football is a ball game played between two teams of eleven players, each attempting to win by scoring more goals than their opponent. ... The Kazakhstan Super League is the top division of football in Kazakhstan. ... Sara Giauro shoots a three-point shot, FIBA Europe Cup for Women Finals 2005. ... The Astana-Würth Team logo The Team Astana (UCI Team Code: AWT), formerly named Liberty Seguros-Würth Team, Würth Team and Astana-Würth Team, is a professional cycling team sponsored by the Astana group, a coalition of companies from Kazakhstan, named after its capital. ... A cycling team is a group of cyclists who join a team or are acquired and train together to compete in bicycle races of any kind, whether they are recreational or professional. ... The UCI ProTour logo The UCI ProTour is a competition under the International Cycling Union (UCI). ...

Club Sport Founded League Venue
FC Astana Soccer 1964 Kazakhstan Super League Kazhimukan Munaitpasov Stadium
Astana-Tigers Basketball Kazakh Basketball League -
Barys Astana Ice hockey 1999 Kazakh Ice Hockey League

FC Astana, formerly FC Zhenis until the club was renamed before the 2006 season, are a Kazakhstani football club based at the Kazhimukan Munaitpasov Stadium in Astana. ... Football (soccer) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... The Kazakhstan Super League is the top division of football in Kazakhstan. ... Kazhimukan Munaitpasov Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Astana, Kazakhstan. ... Sara Giauro shoots a three-point shot, FIBA Europe Cup for Women Finals 2005. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...

Transportation

Astana International Airport was designed by the famed Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa. Astana International Airport (IATA: TSE, ICAO: UACC) is an airport in Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan. ... Entrance to the Nagoya City Art Museum The Nakagin Capsule Tower Kurokawa Kisho (In Japanese, family name first: 黒川 紀章, Kurokawa, Kisho)(b. ...

Sister Cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland_corrected_(bordered). ... GdaÅ„sk ( ; IPA: ), also known by its German name Danzig ( ) and several other names, is the sixth-largest city in Poland and is Polands principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland_corrected_(bordered). ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: Country Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia_(bordered). ... Coordinates: Government  - Governing Mayor Giorgi Gigi Ugulava Area  - City 372 km²  (143. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea_(bordered). ... Seoul   is the capital of South Korea and is located on the Han River in the countrys northwest. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ Kazakh President Appoints New Transportation Minister RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty
  2. ^ http://www.fosterandpartners.com/Projects/1438/Default.aspx
  3. ^ Giant tent to be built in Astana BBC News Online

External links


Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Provinces of Kazakhstan Flag of Kazakhstan
Provinces: Almaty | Aqmola | Aqtöbe | Atyrau | East Kazakhstan | Mangghystau | North Kazakhstan | Pavlodar | Qaraghandy | Qostanay | Qyzylorda | South Kazakhstan | West Kazakhstan | Zhambyl
Metropolitan Cities: Almaty | Astana | Baikonur

  Results from FactBites:
 
Astana, the new capital of Kazakhstan (981 words)
Present day Astana boasts new modern government and business offices, a five star hotel and a number of good quality hotels to accommodate visitors, apartment blocks matching the European standards, beautiful squares and boulevards, modern roads as well as river promenade on both banks of the River Ishim.
The development of Astana is so important to the country that it is considered according to the law to be one of the priority spheres for attracting foreign investment.
Having arrived to Astana from Almaty on December 9, 1997, President Nazarbayev emphasized that it is located in the very center of the Eurasia continent at the crossroads of routes from East to West, West to East, From South to North and from North to South.
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