FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Assyria" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Assyria
Ancient Mesopotamia
Euphrates · Tigris
Cities / Empires
Sumer: Uruk · Ur · Eridu
Kish · Lagash · Nippur
Akkadian Empire: Akkad
Babylon · Isin · Susa
Assyria: Assur · Nineveh
Dur-Sharrukin · Nimrud
Babylonia · Chaldea
Elam · Amorites
Hurrians · Mitanni
Kassites · Urartu
Chronology
Kings of Sumer
Kings of Assyria
Kings of Babylon
Language
Aramaic
Sumerian · Akkadian
Elamite · Hurrian
Mythology
Enûma Elish
Gilgamesh · Marduk

In the Middle Bronze Age Assyria was a region on the Upper Tigris river, named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur (Akkadian: Aššur; Hebrew: אַשּׁוּר Aššûr, Aramaic: Aṯûr). Later, as a nation and empire that came to control all of the Fertile Crescent, Egypt and much of Anatolia, the term "Assyria proper" referred to roughly the northern half of Mesopotamia (the southern half being Babylonia), with Nineveh as its capital. Assyria may refer to: Assyria, an ancient empire in Mesopotamia Assyria (Roman province), a province of the Roman Empire Assyrian homeland, the current geographical location of todays modern Assyrians A modern term referring to the establishment of a homeland for the Assyrian people; see Assyrian independence Category: ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Image File history File links Babylonlion. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Sumer (or Å umer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies to all speakers... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ... Lagash (Akkadian lagaÅ¡) or Sirpurla (Sumerian Å IR.BUR.LAKI; modern Tell al-Hiba), northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, was one of the oldest cities of Sumer and later Babylonia. ... The city of Nippur (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) (now it is in Afak town,Al Qadisyah Governorate) was one of the most ancient (some historians date it back to 5262 B.C. [1][2]) of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... For the Egyptian writer, see Abbas Al-Akkad. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... An International Securities Identifying Number (ISIN) uniquely identifies a security. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Assur (Assyrian: ܐܫܘܪ) also spelled Ashur, from Assyrian AÅ¡Å¡ur, was the capital of ancient Assyria. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... Human-headed winged bull, found during Bottas excavation. ... Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For other uses, see Chaldean. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... For the language, see Amorite language. ... For the history of the kingdom of Mitanni (1500–1300 BC), see Mitanni. ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... // The Kassites were a Near-Eastern mountain tribe which migrated to the Zagros Mountains and Mesopotamia (present Doroud) in 3000 and 4000 BC.[1] They spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... The Chronology of the Ancient Orient deals with the notoriously difficult task of assigning years of the Common Era to various events, rulers and dynasties of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. The chronology of this region is based on five sets of primary materials. ... The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ... This page lists the Kings of Lamestia from the late sixties. ... The following is a list of the Kings of Babylon, a major city of ancient Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken by the ancient Elamites (also known as Ilamids). ... Hurrian is a conventional name for the language of the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC. Hurrian was the language of the Mitanni kingdom in northern Mesopotamia, and was likely spoken at least initially in Hurrian settlements in... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... Enûma EliÅ¡ is the Babylonian creation epic. ... For other uses, see Gilgamesh (disambiguation). ... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Assur (Assyrian: ܐܫܘܪ) also spelled Ashur, from Assyrian AÅ¡Å¡ur, was the capital of ancient Assyria. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ...


The Assyrian kings controlled a large kingdom at three different times in history. These are called the Old (20th to 15th c. BC), Middle (15th to 10th c. BC), and Neo-Assyrian (911–612 B.C.) kingdoms, or periods, of which the last is the most well known and best documented. Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and its expansions. ...


The Assyrian homeland was located near a mountainous region, extending along the Tigris as far as the high Gordiaean or Carduchian mountain range of Armenia, sometimes known as the "Mountains of Ashur".


Assyrians invented excavation to undermine city walls, battering rams to knock down walls and gates, concept of a corps of engineers, who bridged rivers with pontoons or provided soldiers with inflatable skins for swimming.[1]

Contents

Early history

The most neolithic site in Assyria is at Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture. An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Hassuna was a Mesopotamian town in Mosul, Iraq. ...


Of the early history of the kingdom of Assyria, little is positively known. According to some Judeo-Christian traditions, the city of Ashur (also spelled Assur or Aššur) was founded by Ashur the son of Shem, who was deified by later generations as the city's patron god. Assur (Assyrian: ܐܫܘܪ) also spelled Ashur, from Assyrian AÅ¡Å¡ur, was the capital of ancient Assyria. ... Shem (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Greek: Σημ, SÄ“m ; Arabic:  ; Geez: Sham ; renown; prosperity; name) was one of the sons of Noah in the Bible. ...


The upper Tigris River valley seems to have been ruled by Sumer, Akkad, and northern Babylonia in its earliest stages; once a part of Sargon the Great's empire, it was destroyed by barbarians in the Gutian period, then rebuilt, and ended up being governed as part of the Empire of the 3rd dynasty of Ur. The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Bronze head of Sargon (?), from Nineveh, stolen from National Museum of Iraq in 2003 Sargon of Akkad, or Sargon the Great (Akkadian Sharru-kin, the true king, reigned 2334 BC - 2279 BC, short chronology), founder of the Dynasty of Akkad. ... For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ... The Gutian kings came to some power in Mesopotamia in ca. ... The third dynasty of Ur reinstalled Sumerian rule after several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian kings (Sumerian Renaissance). ...


Old Assyrian city-states and kingdoms

The first inscriptions of Assyrian rulers appear after 2000 BC. Assyria then consisted of a number of city states and small Semitic kingdoms. The foundation of the Assyrian monarchy was traditionally ascribed to Zulilu, who is said to have lived after Bel-kap-kapu (Bel-kapkapi or Belkabi, ca. 1900 BC), the ancestor of Shalmaneser I. In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Founder of the Assyrian monarchy in ancient Assyria before 1900BC. Categories: | ... (Redirected from 1900 BC) (20th century BC - 19th century BC - 18th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events Hittite empire in Anatolia 1829 - 1818 BC -- Egyptian-Nubian war 1818 BC -- Egyptian Campaign in Palestine 1813 BC -- Amorite Conquest of Northern Mesopotamia 1806 BC... King Shalmaneser I, pouring out Dust of a Conquered City in front of an Assyrian Temple after returning victorious. ...


City state of Ashur

The city-state of Ashur had extensive contact with cities on the Anatolian plateau. The Assyrians established "merchant colonies" in Cappadocia, e.g., at Kanesh (modern Kültepe) circa 1920 BC1840 BC and 1798 BC1740 BC. These colonies, called karum, the Akkadian word for 'port', were attached to Anatolian cities, but physically separate, and had special tax status. They must have arisen from a long tradition of trade between Ashur and the Anatolian cities, but no archaeological or written records show this. The trade consisted of metal (perhaps lead or tin; the terminology here is not entirely clear) and textiles from Assyria, that were traded for precious metals in Anatolia. Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... For other uses, see Cappadocia (disambiguation). ... Kültepe is the modern Turkish name for an ancient city in central eastern Anatolia, which was also called Kârum Kanesh merchant-colony city of Kanes in Assyrian (rendered Karum Kaniş in Turkish). ... Kültepe is the modern Turkish name for an ancient city in central eastern Anatolia, also called Kârum Kanesh merchant-colony city of Kanes in Assyrian (rendered Karum KaniÅŸ in Turkish). ... (Redirected from 1920 BC) (21st century BC - 20th century BC - 19th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2000 BC -- Farmers and herders travel south from Ethiopia and settle in Kenya. ... (Redirected from 1840 BC) (20th century BC - 19th century BC - 18th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events Hittite empire in Anatolia 1829 - 1818 BC -- Egyptian-Nubian war 1818 BC -- Egyptian Campaign in Palestine 1813 BC -- Amorite Conquest of Northern Mesopotamia 1806 BC... (Redirected from 1798 BC) (19th century BC - 18th century BC - 17th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1787 - 1784 BC -- Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin 1786 BC -- Egypt: End of Twelfth Dynasty, start of Thirteenth Dynasty, start of Fourteenth Dynasty 1766... (Redirected from 1740 BC) (19th century BC - 18th century BC - 17th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1787 - 1784 BC -- Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin 1786 BC -- Egypt: End of Twelfth Dynasty, start of Thirteenth Dynasty, start of Fourteenth Dynasty 1766...


Kingdom of Shamshi-Adad I

The city of Ashur was conquered by Shamshi-Adad I (1813 BC1791 BC) in the expansion of Amorite tribes from the Khabur river delta. He put his son Ishme-Dagan on the throne of nearby city Ekallatum, and allowed the former Anatolian trade to continue. Shamshi-Adad I also conquered the kingdom of Mari on the Euphrates and put another of his sons, Yasmah-Adad on the throne there. Shamshi-Adad's kingdom now encompassed the whole of northern Mesopotamia. He himself resided in a new capital city founded in the Khabur valley, called Shubat-Enlil. Ishme-Dagan inherited the kingdom, but Yasmah-Adad was overthrown and Mari was lost. The new king of Mari allied himself with Hammurabi of Babylon. Assyria now faced the rising power of Babylon in the south. Ishme-Dagan responded by making an alliance with the enemies of Babylon, and the power struggle continued for decades. Shamshi-Adad I (reigned 1813 to 1791 BC) rose to prominence when he carved out a large kingdom in northern Mesopotamia. ... (Redirected from 1813 BC) (20th century BC - 19th century BC - 18th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events Hittite empire in Anatolia 1829 - 1818 BC -- Egyptian-Nubian war 1818 BC -- Egyptian Campaign in Palestine 1813 BC -- Amorite Conquest of Northern Mesopotamia 1806 BC... (19th century BC - 18th century BC - 17th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) // Events 1787 - 1784 BC -- Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin 1786 BC -- Egypt: End of Twelfth Dynasty, start of Thirteenth Dynasty, start of Fourteenth Dynasty 1766 BC -- Shang conquest of... For the language, see Amorite language. ... The Khabur River (Kurdish: Çemê Xabûr, Arabic: نهر الخابور; also transliterated as Habor River or Habur River) is a river that begins in southeastern Turkey and flows south to Syria, where it eventually empties into the Euphrates River. ... Ishme-Dagan was the son of the Amorite king Shamshi-Adad I, put on throne of Ekallatum by his father after a successful military attack. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... Yasmah-Adad was the son of the Amorite king Shamshi-Adad I, put on throne of Mari by his father after a successful military attack. ... Shubat-Enlil was an ancient city located at the modern village of Tell Leilan in northern Syria, at the Khabur river basin by river Jarrah. ... Ishme-Dagan was the son of the Amorite king Shamshi-Adad I, put on throne of Ekallatum by his father after a successful military attack. ... For the computer game, see Hamurabi. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ...


Assyria reduced to vassal states

Hammurabi eventually prevailed over Ishme-Dagan, and conquered Ashur for Babylon. With Hammurabi, the various karum in Anatolia ceased trade activity — probably because the goods of Assyria were now being traded with the Babylonians' partners.


Assyria was ruled by vassal kings dependent on the Babylonians for a century. After Babylon fell to the Kassites, the Hurrians dominated the northern region, including Assur. Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // The Kassites were a Near-Eastern mountain tribe which migrated to the Zagros Mountains and Mesopotamia (present Doroud) in 3000 and 4000 BC.[1] They spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... For the history of the kingdom of Mitanni (1500–1300 BC), see Mitanni. ... Assur (Assyrian: ܐܫܘܪ) also spelled Ashur, from Assyrian Aššur, was the capital of ancient Assyria. ...


Middle Assyrian period

Map of the Ancient Near East during the Amarna period, showing the great powers of the day: Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mitanni (red). Lighter areas show direct control, darker areas represent spheres of influence. The extent of the Achaean/Mycenaean civilization is shown in orange.
Map of the Ancient Near East during the Amarna period, showing the great powers of the day: Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mitanni (red). Lighter areas show direct control, darker areas represent spheres of influence. The extent of the Achaean/Mycenaean civilization is shown in orange.

(Scholars variously date the beginning of the "Middle Assyrian period" to either the fall of the Old Assyrian kingdom of Shamshi-Adad I, or to the ascension of Ashur-uballit I to the throne of Assyria.) Image File history File links Download high resolution version (602x619, 23 KB) Summary Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna period, showing the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mittani (red). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (602x619, 23 KB) Summary Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna period, showing the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mittani (red). ... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna) is the name given to an extensive archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty (c. ... Hatti is the reconstructed ancient name of a region in Anatolia inhabited by the Hattians between the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC, and later by the Hittites, who were at the height of their power ca 1400 BC–1200 BC. The capital city of both peoples was Hattusa (modern... // The Kassites were a Near-Eastern mountain tribe which migrated to the Zagros Mountains and Mesopotamia (present Doroud) in 3000 and 4000 BC.[1] They spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... Shamshi-Adad I (reigned 1813 to 1791 BC) rose to prominence when he carved out a large kingdom in northern Mesopotamia. ... Ashur-uballit I (AÅ¡Å¡ur-uballiá¹­ I), was king of the Assyrian empire (1365 BC-1330 BC or 1353 BC – 1318 BC). ...


Ashur-uballit I

In the 15th century BC, Saushtatar, king of Hanilgalbat (Hurrians of Mitanni), sacked Ashur and made Assyria a vassal. Assyria paid tribute to Hanilgalbat until Mitanni power collapsed from Hittite pressure from the north-west and Assyrian pressure from the east, enabling Ashur-uballit I (1365 BC1330 BC) to again make Assyria an independent and conquering power at the expense of Babylonia; and a time came when the Kassite king in Babylon was glad to marry the daughter of Ashur-uballit, whose letters to Akhenaten of Egypt form part of the Amarna letters. This marriage led to disastrous results, as the Kassite faction at court murdered the Babylonian king and placed a pretender on the throne. Assur-uballit promptly marched into Babylonia and avenged his son-in-law, making Kurigalzu of the royal line king there. // Overview Events 1504 BC – 1492 BC -- Egypt conquers Nubia and the Levant. ... Shaushtatar, also spelled Šauštatar, was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni in the fifteenth century BC. Shaushtatar was the son of Barattarna /Parsatatar and his seal was found in a letter from the archive of Nuzi. ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from Kaneš who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Ashur-uballit I (Aššur-uballiṭ I), was king of the Assyrian empire (1365 BC-1330 BC or 1353 BC – 1318 BC). ... (Redirected from 1365 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1410s BC 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC - 1360s BC - 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1368 BC - Death of Erichthonius, mythical King of... (Redirected from 1330 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1338 BC - Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ... Kurigalzu is the name of at least two kings in the Kassite Dynasty of Babylonia. ...


Assyrian expansion

Hanilgalbat was finally conquered under Adad-nirari I, who described himself as a "Great-King" (Sharru rabû) in letters to the Hittite rulers. The successor of Adad-nirari I, Shalmaneser I (c. 1300 BC), threw off the pretense of Babylonian suzerainty, made Calah his capital, and continued expansion to the northwest, mainly at the expense of the Hittites, reaching Carchemish and beyond. Three kings of Assyria were named Adad-Nirari. ... King Shalmaneser I, pouring out Dust of a Conquered City in front of an Assyrian Temple after returning victorious. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Assyria ... Carchemish (pr. ...


Shalmaneser's son and successor, Tukulti-Ninurta I, deposed Kadashman-Buriash of Babylon and ruled there himself as king for seven years, taking on the old title "King of Sumer and Akkad". Another weak period for Assyria followed when Babylon revolted against Tukulti-Ninurta, and later even made Assyria tributary during the reigns of the Babylonian kings Melishipak II and Marduk-apal-iddin I. Tukulti-Ninurta I was a king of Assyria from 1244 BC to 1208 BC. Categories: Royalty stubs | Assyrian kings ...


Tiglath-Pileser I reaches the Mediterranean Sea

As the Hittite empire collapsed from onslaught of the Phrygians (called Mushki in Assyrian annals), Babylon and Assyria began to vie for Amorite regions, formerly under firm Hittite control. The Assyrian king Ashur-resh-ishi I defeated Nebuchadnezzar I of Babylon in a battle, when their forces encountered one another in this region. In antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian highlands, part of modern Turkey. ... Meshechs (Meshekhs/Mosokhs/Mushki, Mushku in Akkadian, Moschoi in Greek) were an ancient, non-Indo-European and non-Semitic, indigenous tribe of Asia Minor of the 3rd-1st millennias BC, said to be the offspring of Meshech, son of Japheth. ... For the language, see Amorite language. ... Ashur-resh-ishi I was King of Assyria from 1133 to 1115 BC. He succeeded his father, Mutakkil-Nusku, and was succeeded by his son Tiglath-Pileser I. Categories: Royalty stubs ... Nebuchadnezzar I.(also Nebuchadrezzar) (Nabû-kudurri-ussur = god Nabû, protect my eldest son), king of Babylon 1125 BC -1104 BC, is the fourth king of the Isin-dynasty that achieved independence from Assyria. ...


The son of Ashur-resh-ishi's, Tiglath-Pileser I, may be regarded as the founder of the first Assyrian empire. In 1120 BC, he crossed the Euphrates, capturing Carchemish, and defeated the Mushki and the remnants of the Hittites—even claiming to reach the Black Sea. He advanced to the Mediterranean, subjugating Phoenicia, where he hunted wild bulls. He also marched into Babylon twice, assuming the old title "King of Sumer and Akkad", although he was unable to depose the actual king in Babylonia, where the old Kassite dynasty had now succumbed to an Elamite one. Tiglath-Pileser I (the Hebraic form of Tukulti-apil-Esharra, my trust is in the son of Esharra) was King of Assyria (1115 BC - 1076 BC). ... (Redirected from 1120 BC) Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC 1140s BC 1130s BC - 1120s BC - 1110s BC 1100s BC 1090s BC 1080s BC 1070s BC Events and Trends 1126 BC - Thymoetes, legendary King of Athens dies childless after... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ...


Society in the Middle Assyrian period

Assyria had difficulties with keeping the trade routes open. Unlike the situation in the Old Assyrian period, the Anatolian metal trade was effectively dominated by the Hittites and the Hurrians. These peoples now controlled the Mediterranean ports, while the Kassites controlled the river route south to the Persian Gulf. Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from Kaneš who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... For the history of the kingdom of Mitanni (1500–1300 BC), see Mitanni. ... // The Kassites were a Near-Eastern mountain tribe which migrated to the Zagros Mountains and Mesopotamia (present Doroud) in 3000 and 4000 BC.[1] They spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


The Middle Assyrian kingdom was well organized, and in the firm control of the king, who also functioned as the High Priest of Ashur, the state god. He had certain obligations to fulfill in the cult, and had to provide resources for the temples. The priesthood became a major power in Assyrian society. Conflicts with the priesthood are thought to have been behind the murder of king Tukulti-Ninurta I. In Akkadian mythology and Sumerian mythology, Anshar (also Anshur, Ashur, Asshur) (which means sky pivot or sky axle) is a sky god. ... Tukulti-Ninurta I was a king of Assyria from 1244 BC to 1208 BC. Categories: Royalty stubs | Assyrian kings ...


The main Assyrian cities of the middle period were Ashur, Kalhu and Nineveh, all situated in the Tigris River valley. At the end of the Bronze Age, Nineveh was much smaller than Babylon, but still one of the world's major cities (population ca. 33,000). By the end of the Neo-Assyrian period, it had grown to a population of some 120,000, and was possibly the largest city of that time.[2] Assur (Assyrian: ܐܫܘܪ) also spelled Ashur, from Assyrian Aššur, was the capital of ancient Assyria. ... This article is about an (ancient) city in Iraq. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ...


All free male citizens were obliged to serve in the army for a time, a system which was called the ilku-service. The Assyrian law code, notable for its repressive attitude towards women in their society, was compiled during this period. Assyrian law was very similar to Sumerian and Babylonian law,[1] however, notably more brutal than its predecessors. ...


Neo-Assyrian Empire

Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and its expansions.
Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and its expansions.
Main article: Neo-Assyrian Empire

The Neo-Assyrian Empire is usually considered to have begun with the accession of Adad-nirari II, in 911 BC, lasting until the fall of Nineveh at the hands of the Babylonians in 612 BC.[3] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1985x1365, 639 KB) Summary This is a large map of Assyria, made by Ningyou. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1985x1365, 639 KB) Summary This is a large map of Assyria, made by Ningyou. ... Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and its expansions. ... Adad-nirari II is generally considered to be the first King of Assyria in the Neo-Assyrian period. ... Centuries: 11th century BC - 10th century BC - 9th century BC Decades: 960s BC 950s BC 940s BC 930s BC 920s BC - 910s BC - 900s BC 890s BC 880s BC 870s BC 860s BC Events and Trends 912 BC - Adad-nirari II succeeds his father Assur-dan as king of Assyria. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC Events and Trends 619 BC - Alyattes becomes king of Lydia 619 BC _ Death of Zhou xiang...


In the Middle Assyrian period, Assyria had been a minor kingdom of northern Mesopotamia, competing for dominance with Babylonia to the south. Beginning with the campaigns of Adad-nirari II, Assyria became a great regional power, growing to be a serious threat to 25th dynasty Egypt. It began reaching the peak of its power with the reforms of Tiglath-Pileser III (ruled 745727 BC)[4][5]. This period, which included the Sargonic dynasty, is well-referenced in several sources, including the Assyro-Babylonian Chronicles and the Hebrew Bible. Assyria finally succumbed to the rise of the neo-Babylonian Chaldean dynasty with the sack of Nineveh in 612 BC. Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... The Twenty-fifth Dynasty of ancient Egypt originated in Kush at the city-state of Napata, whence they invaded and took control of Egypt under Piye (spelled Piankhi in older works). ... Tiglath-Pileser III — stela from the walls of his palace (British Museum, London) Tiglath-Pileser III (Akkadian: Tukultī-Apil-Ešarra) was a prominent king of Assyria in the 8th century BC (ruled 745–727 BC) and is widely regarded as the founder of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. ... Tiglath-Pileser III — stela from the walls of his palace (British Museum, London) Tiglath-Pileser III (Akkadian: Tukultī-Apil-Ešarra) was a prominent king of Assyria in the 8th century BC (ruled 745–727 BC) and is widely regarded as the founder of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC - 740s BC - 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC Events and Trends February 26 747 BC - Nabonassar becomes king of Assyria 747 BC - Meles becomes king... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC - 720s BC - 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC Events and Trends 728 BC - Piye invades Egypt, conquering Memphis and receives the submission of the rulers... Nabonidus Chronicle, British Museum, London The Babylonian Chronicles are series of tablets recording major events in Babylonian history. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... Through the centuries of Assyrian domination, Babylonia enjoyed a prominent status, or revolting at the slightest indication that it did not. ... The following is a list of the Kings of Babylon, a major city of ancient Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC Events and Trends 619 BC - Alyattes becomes king of Lydia 619 BC _ Death of Zhou xiang...


Language

The ancient people of Assyria spoke an Assyrian dialect of the Akkadian language, a branch of the Semitic languages. The first inscriptions, called Old Assyrian (OA), were made in the Old Assyrian period. In the Neo-Assyrian period the Aramaic language became increasingly common, more so than Akkadian - this was thought to be largely due to the mass deportations undertaken by Assyrian kings, in which large Aramaic-speaking populations, conquered by the Assyrians, were relocated to other parts of the empire. The ancient Assyrians also used the Sumerian language in their literature and liturgy, although to a more limited extent in the Middle- and Neo-Assyrian periods, when Akkadian became the main literary language. Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific...


The utter and complete destruction of the Assyrian capitals of Nineveh and Assur by Babylonians and Medians ensured that the bilingual elite, perhaps the few remaining still competent in Akkadian, were wiped out. By the 6th century B.C., much of the Assyrian population that survived used Aramaic and not the cuneiform Akkadian. In time, Akkadian would no longer be used by the Assyrians, although many aspects of the culture associated, such as naming with Assur, continued, and do so today.


Arts and sciences

Relief from Assyrian capital of Dur Sharrukin, showing transport of Lebanese cedar (8th century BC)
Relief from Assyrian capital of Dur Sharrukin, showing transport of Lebanese cedar (8th century BC)

Assyrian art preserved to the present day predominantly dates to the Neo-Assyrian period. Art depicting battle scenes, and occasionally the impaling of whole villages in gory detail, was intended to show the power of the emperor, and was generally made for propaganda purposes. These stone reliefs lined the walls in the royal palaces where foreigners were received by the king. Other stone reliefs depict the king with different deities and conducting religious ceremonies. A lot of stone reliefs were discovered in the royal palaces at Nimrud (Kalhu) and Khorsabad (Dur-Sharrukin). A rare discovery of metal plates belonging to wooden doors was made at Balawat (Imgur-Enlil). The culture of Assyria, and still more of Greece. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 418 KB) Description: transport of Lebanese cedar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 418 KB) Description: transport of Lebanese cedar. ... Human-headed winged bull, found during Bottas excavation. ... Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... Khorsabad (Khursabad), village in Iraq, 15 km northeast of Mosul, with well-preserved ruins of the large, rectangular Dur-Sharrukin. ... Balawat is a village in the Kurdish region of northern Iraq, 25 km (15 miles) southeast from the city of Mosul. ...


Assyrian sculpture reached a high level of refinement in the Neo-Assyrian period. One prominent example is the winged bull Lamassu, or shedu that guard the entrances to the king's court. These were apotropaic meaning they were intended to ward off evil. C. W. Ceram states in The March of Archaeology that lamassi were typically sculpted with five legs so that four legs were always visible, whether the image were viewed frontally or in profile. For the town in Pakistan, see Shedu (town). ...


Since works of precious gems and metals usually do not survive the ravages of time, we are lucky to have some fine pieces of Assyrian jewelry. These were found in royal tombs at Nimrud.


There is ongoing discussion among academics over the nature of the Nimrud lens, a piece of rock crystal unearthed by Austen Henry Layard in 1850, in the Nimrud palace complex in northern Iraq. A small minority believe that it is evidence for the existence of ancient Assyrian telescopes, which could explain the great accuracy of Assyrian astronomy. The Nimrud Lens is held in the British Museum.[6] The Nimrud lens is a piece of rock crystal, 3000 years old, and unearthed in Assyria-proper by Austen Henry Layard. ... For other uses of this word, see Quartz (disambiguation). ... The Right Honourable Sir Austen Henry Layard (5 March 1817–5 July 1894) was a British author and diplomatist, best known as the excavator of Nineveh. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious, mythological, and astrological practices of pre-history: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with public and governmental astronomy, and not completely disentangled from it until a...


Legacy and rediscovery

Main articles: Assyria (Persian province), History of the Assyrian people, and Assyriology

Achaemenid Assyria retained a separate identity for some time, official correspondence being in Imperial Aramaic, and there was even an attempted revolt of the two provinces of Mada and Athura in 520 BC. Under Seleucid rule, however, Aramaic gave way to Greek as the official language. Aramaic was marginalised, but remained spoken in Judea (Biblical Aramaic), the Syrian Desert (Nabataeans) and Khuzestan (Mandaic). The Persian Empire of the Achaemenid Dynasty was at its height the most powerful force in the known world, incorporating a variety of cultures and peoples. ... The Assyrian people (Aramaic: Āṯūrāyē; Akkadian: Aššuri) are believed to have descended from the ancient Assyrians of Mesopotamia (Aramaic: Bet-Nahrain, the land of the rivers), who, in the 7th century BC, controlled the vast Neo-Assyrian Empire which stretched from Egypt and Anatolia, across Mesopotamia, to western... Assyriology is the historical and archaeological study of ancient Mesopotamia. ... Not to be confused with the Amharic language, the official language of Ethiopia. ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Biblical Aramaic is the form of the Aramaic language that is used in the books of Daniel, Ezra and a few other places in the Hebrew Bible. ... The Syrian Desert is a combination of steppe and true desert that is located in parts of the nations of Syria, Jordan, and Iraq. ... Al Khazneh, Petra (the Nabataean capital) Shivta The Nabataeans, Arabic (الأنباط) Al-Anbaat, were an ancient trading people of southern Jordan, Canaan and the northern part of Arabia- whose oasis settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Syria and Arabia, from the Euphrates... Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... The Mandaic language is the liturgical language of the Mandaean religion; a vernacular form is still spoken by a small community in Iran around Ahwaz. ...


Classical historiographers had only retained a very dim picture of Assyria. It was remembered that there had been an Assyrian empire predating the Persian one, but all particulars were lost. Thus Jerome's Chronicon lists 36 kings of the Assyrians, beginning with Ninus, son of Belus, down to Sardanapalus, the last king of the Assyrians before the empire fell to Arbaces the Median. Almost none of these have been substantiated as historical, with the exception of the Neo-Assyrian and Babylonian rulers listed in Ptolemy's Canon, beginning with Nabonassar. Before the decipherment of cuneiform text, knowledge of the history of Babylon and Assyria was mostly dependent upon classical authorities. ... The Chronicle (or Chronicon or Temporum liber) was one of Jeromes earliest attempts in the department of history. ... Ninus, was accepted in texts arising in Hellenistic period and later as the eponymous founder of Nineveh, and thus the city itself personified. ... Belus in Latin or Belos in accurate Greek transliteration is one of: Persons Ba‘al: a title (lord) in northwest Semitic languages, often applied to particular gods. ... Assurbanipal in a relief from the north palace at Nineveh There were several Assyrian kings named Assur-bani-pal, also spelled Asurbanipal, Assurbanipal (most commonly), Ashurbanipal and Ashshurbanipal, but the best known was Assurbanipal IV.  Ashurbanipal, or Assurbanipal, (reigned 668 - 627 BCE), the son of Esarhaddon and Naqia-Zakutu... Arbaces, according to Ctesias, one of the generals of Sardanapalus, king of Assyria and founder of the Median empire about 830 BC. From the inscriptions of Sargon II of Assyria we know one Arbaku of Arnashia as one of forty-five chiefs of Median districts who paid tribute to Sargon... The Canon of Kings was a dated list of kings used by ancient astronomers as a convenient means to date astronomical phenomena, such as eclipses. ... Nabonassar (also Nabonasser, Nabu-nasir, Nebo-adon-Assur or Nabo-n-assar) was a king of Assyria, who founded the Chaldean and Babylonian kingdom. ...


With the rise of Syriac Christianity, Aramaic enjoyed a renaissance as a classical language in the 2nd to 8th centuries AD, and the modern Assyrian people continue to speak Neo-Aramaic dialects. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Syriac Christianity is a culturally and... Languages Aramaic Religions Christianity Related ethnic groups other Semitic peoples The Assyrians (also called Syriacs or Aramaeans[11]) are an ethnic group whose origins lie in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria, but many of whom have migrated to the Caucasus, North America and Western Europe during the... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


The modern discovery of Babylonia and Assyria begins with excavations in Nineveh in 1845, which revealed the library of Ashurbanipal. Decipherment of cuneiform was a formidable task that took more than a decade, but by 1857, the Royal Asiatic Society was convinced that reliable reading of cuneiform texts was possible. Assyriology has since pieced together the formerly forgotten history of Mesopotamia. In the wake of the archaeological and philological rediscovery of ancient Assyria, Assyrian nationalism has come to strongly identify with ancient Assyria. For many centuries knowledge of Babylonia and Assyria was largely confined to the often dubious classical sources. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... Ashurbanipal, Assurbanipal or Sardanapal, in Akkadian Aššur-bāni-apli, (b. ... Look up Cuneiform in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Article 90a of the bylaws of the Royal Asiatic Society. ... Assyriology is the historical and archaeological study of ancient Mesopotamia. ... For many centuries knowledge of Babylonia and Assyria was largely confined to the often dubious classical sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


References

  1. ^ Bertman, Stephen (2005). Handbook to Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. New York: Oxford UP. 
  2. ^ see historical urban community sizes. Estimates are those of Chandler (1987).
  3. ^ http://www.allempires.com/article/index.php?q=AE_Chart
  4. ^ http://www.livius.org/li-ln/limmu/limmu_1c.html
  5. ^ Tadmor, H. (1994). The Inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser III, King of Assyria.pp.29
  6. ^ Lens, Britiſh Muſeum.

It has been suggested that List of largest cities throughout history be merged into this article or section. ...

See also

Look up Assyria in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Assyria

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Assyriology is the historical and archaeological study of ancient Mesopotamia. ... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... This page lists the Kings of Lamestia from the late sixties. ... The Assyrian Empire originated in the early 2nd millennium BC,[4][5] succeeding the Akkadian Kingdom of the late 3rd millennium BC.[6] Assyria did not become a powerful military state until the early 1st millenium BC, when Ashurnasirpal IIs conquests reasserted Assyrias hegemony in the Near East... The sister-states of Babylonia and Assyria differed essentially in character. ... See Chronology of Babylonia and Assyria/1911 fpr the partly obsolete article of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The Geography of Babylonia as well as its ethnology and, history, was enclosed between the two great rivers of western Asia, the Tigris and Euphrates, forms but one country. ... Castes were unknown in both Babylonia and Assyria, but the priesthood of Babylonia found its counterpart in the military aristocracy of Assyria. ... Cuneiform redirects here. ... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise...

References and further reading

  • Ascalone, Enrico. Mesopotamia: Assyrians, Sumerians, Babylonians (Dictionaries of Civilizations; 1). Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007 (paperback, ISBN 0520252667).
  • Grayson, Albert Kirk: Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles (ABC), Locust Valley, N.Y.; Augustin (1975), Winona Lake, In.; Eisenbrauns (2000).
  • Healy, Mark. The Ancient Assyrians.
  • Leick, Gwendolyn. Mesopotamia.
  • Lloyd, Seton. The Archaeology of Mesopotamia: From the Old Stone Age to the Persian Conquest.
  • Nardo, Don. The Assyrian Empire.
  • Nemet-Nejat, Karen Rhea. Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia.
  • Oppenheim, A. Leo. Ancient Mesopotamia: Portrait of a Dead Civilization.
  • Roux, Georges. Ancient Iraq. Third edition. Penguin Books, 1992 (paperback, ISBN 014012523X).
  • Schomp, Virginia. Ancient Mesopotamia: The Sumerians, Babylonians, And Assyrians.
  • Spence, Lewis. Myths and Legends of Babylonia and Assyria.

External links

This entry incorporates text from the public domain Easton's Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. DjVu (pronounced déjà vu) is a computer file format designed primarily to store scanned images, especially those containing text and line drawings. ... Eastons Bible Dictionary generally refers to the Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, by Matthew George Easton M.A., D.D. (1823-1894), published three years after Eastons death in 1897 by Thomas Nelson. ...



 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m