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Encyclopedia > Assur

Assur (Assyrian: ܐܫܘܪ) also spelled Ashur, from Assyrian Aššur, was the capital of ancient Assyria. The remains of the city are situated on the western bank of river Tigris, north of the confluence with the tributary Little Zab river, in modern day Iraq (coordinates: 35.456516927474° N 43.262489439451° E). The term Assyrian language can mean one of: Assyrian Neo-Aramaic: a language spoken in Israel, Syria, and Mesopotamia from perhaps 700 BC until now. ... Relief from Assyrian capital of Dur Sharrukin, showing transport of Lebanese cedar (8th century BC) In the earliest historical times, the term Assyria (Syriac:ܐܬܘܖ̈) referred to a region on the Upper Tigris river, named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur. ... The Tigris River (Arabic: دجلة Dijla, Hebrew: חדקל ḥiddeqel, Kurdish: Dîjle, Pahlavi: Tigr, Old Persian: Tigrā-, Syriac: ܕܩܠܬ Deqlath, Turkish: Dicle, Akkadian: Idiqlat) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq (the name Mesopotamia... The Zab (also known as the Zawa in Syriac) is a river that splits from the Tigris and flows from northern Iraq into southeastern Turkey. ...


Assur is also the name of the chief deity of the city. He was considered the highest god in the Assyrian pantheon and the protector of the Assyrian state. In the Mesopotamian mythology he was the equivalent of Babylonian Marduk. Marduk [märdook] (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical Merodach) was the name of a late generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi...


The site of Assur is a United Nations World Heritage Site, but was placed on the list of World Heritage Sites in danger in 2003, in part to the conflict in that area, and in part due to a proposed dam, that would flood part of the site. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


Exploration of the site of Assur began in 1898 by German archaeologists. Excavations began in 1900 by Friedrich Delitzsch, and were continued in 1903-1913. More than 16,000 tablets with cuneiform texts were discovered. Many of the objects found made their way to the Pergamon Museum in Berlin. Delitzsch is a city in Saxony, near Leipzig. ...   The cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. ... The Pergamon Museum The Pergamon Museum (in German, Pergamonmuseum) is one of the museums on the Museum Island in Berlin. ...

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Assur in the Third Millennium BC

Archaeology reveals the site of the city was occupied by the middle of the third millennium BC. This was still the Sumerian period, before the Assyrian kingdom emerged. The oldest remains of the city were discovered in the foundations of the Ishtar temple, as well as at the Old Palace. In the following Old Akkadian period, the city was ruled by kings from Akkad. During the "Sumerian Renaissance", the city was ruled by a Sumerian governor. (4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC – 2nd millennium BC – other millennia) Events Foundation of the city of Mari (Syria) (29th century BC ) Creation of the Kingdom of Elam (Iraq) Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah about 2700 BC, the oldest tree still living now Dynasty of... (The Sumerian king list contains a traditional list of the early dynasties; however much of it is probably mythical, and only a few of the names have been authenticated through archaeology. ... Relief from Assyrian capital of Dur Sharrukin, showing transport of Lebanese cedar (8th century BC) In the earliest historical times, the term Assyria (Syriac:ܐܬܘܖ̈) referred to a region on the Upper Tigris river, named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur. ... Ishtar is the Assyrian and Babylonian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate northwest Semitic goddess Astarte. ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Mesopotamia, situated on the left bank of the Euphrates, between Sippar and Kish (located in present-day Iraq, ca. ... The third dynasty of Ur reinstalled Sumerian rule after several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian kings (Sumerian Renaissance). ...


Assur in the Old and Middle Assyrian period

By the time the Neo-Sumerian Ur-III dynasty collapsed at the hands of the Elamites in 2004 BC, the local princes, including in Assur, had shaken off the foreign yoke. Assur developed rapidly into a centre for trade, and trade routes led from the city to Anatolia, where merchants from Assur established trading colonies. These Assyrian colonies in Asia Minor were called kârum, and traded mostly with tin and wool (see Kültepe). In the city of Assur, the first great temples to the city god Assur and the weather god Adad were erected. The first fortifications were also began in this period. Elam (Persian: ایلام) is one of the most ancient civilizations on record. ... (Redirected from 2004 BC) (22nd century BC - 21st century BC - 20th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2130 - 2080 BC -- Ninth Dynasty wars in Egypt 2112 - 2095 BC -- Sumerian campaigns of Ur-Nammu 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2049... Kültepe is the modern Turkish name for an ancient city in central eastern Anatolia, also called Kârum Kanesh merchant-colony city of Kanes in Assyrian (rendered Karum KaniÅŸ in Turkish). ... This article is about the Sumerian god Adad also known as Ishkur. ...


Assur was the capital of the kingdom of Shamshi-Adad I (1813-1781 BC). He expanded the city's power and influence beyond the Tigris river valley. In this period, the Great Royal Palace was built, and the temple of Assur was expanded and enlarged with a ziggurat. This kingdom came to end when Hammurabi of Babylon incorporated the city into his kingdom following the death of Shamshi-Adad. Renewed building activity is known a few centuries later, during the reign of a native king Puzur-Assur III, when the city was refortified and the southern quarters incorporated into the main city defenses. Temples to the moon god Sin (Nanna) and the sun god Shamash were erected in the 15th century BC. The city then became subjugated by the kingdom of Mitanni. Shamshi-Adad I (reigned 1813 to 1791 BC) rose to prominence when he carved out a large kingdom in northern Mesopotamia. ... Dur-Untash, or Choqa Zanbil, built in 13th century BC by Untash Napirisha and located near Susa, Iran is one of the worlds best-preserved ziggurats. ... This diorite head is believed to represent Hammurabi Hammurabi (Akkadian from Amorite ˤAmmurāpi, the kinsman is a healer, from ˤAmmu, paternal kinsman, and Rāpi, healer; 1810 BC?–1750 BC) also rarely transliterated Ammurapi, Hammurapi, or Khammurabi) was the sixth king of Babylon. ... Babylon was a city in Mesopotamia, the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, Iraq, about 50 miles south of Baghdad. ... Nanna is the name of two deities: God of the moon in Sumerian mythology and Nanna, the wife of Balder in Norse mythology There is also a kind of Corsican music called nanna. ... Shamash or Sama, was the common Akkadian name of the sun-god in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu. ... // Overview Events 1504 BC – 1492 BC -- Egypt conquers Nubia and the Levant. ... Mitanni or Mittani (in Assyrian sources Hanilgalbat, Khanigalbat) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia (in what is today Syria) from ca. ...


Assyria regained its independence in the 14th century BC, and in the following centuries the old temples and palaces of Assur were restored. Tukulti-Ninurta I (1244-1208 BC) also started a new temple to the goddess Ishtar. The Anu-Adad temple was constructed during the reign of Tiglath-Pileser I (1115-1075 BC). The walled area of the city in the Middle Assyrian period made up some 120 ha, or 300 acres. // Overview Events 1344 BCE – 1322 BCE -- Beginning of Hittite empire Rise of the Urnfield culture Significant persons Akhenaten, Pharaoh of Egypt Tutankhamun, Pharaoh of Egypt Suppiliulima, king of the Hittites Moses Inventions, discoveries, introductions Template:DecadesAndYearsBCE Category: ‪14th century BCE‬ ... Tukulti-Ninurta I was a king of Assyria from 1244 BC to 1208 BC. Categories: Royalty stubs | Assyrian kings ... Ishtar is the Assyrian and Babylonian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate northwest Semitic goddess Astarte. ... Tiglath-Pileser I (the Hebraic form of Tukulti-apil-Esharra, my trust is in the son of Esharra) was King of Assyria (1115 BC - 1076 BC). ...


Assur in the Neo-Assyrian period and later

In the Neo-Assyrian period (912-612 BC), the royal residence was transferred to other Assyrian cities. Assur-nasir-pal II (884-884 BC) moved the capital from Assur to Kalhu (Nimrud). Yet the city of Assur remained the religious centre of the empire, due to its temple of the national god Assur. In the reign of Sennacherib (705-682 BC), the House of the New Year, akitu, was built, and the festivities celebrated in the city. Several Assyrian rulers were also buried beneath the Old Palace. The end of the glorious days of Assur came in 614 BC, when the city was sacked and destroyed during the conquest of Assyria by the Medes. Ashurnasirpal II, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California Ashur-nasir-pal II was king of Assyria from 884 BC-859 BC. Ashur-nasir-pal II succeeded his father, Tukulti-Ninurta II, in 884 BC. He conquered Mesopotamia and the territory of what is now the Lebanon, adding them to... Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... It has been proposed that Sennacherib be renamed and moved to Sin-ahhe-eriba. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC Events and Trends 619 BC - Alyattes becomes king of Lydia 619 BC _ Death of Zhou xiang... Medea (Medea Proper), ca. ...


The city was reoccupied some centuries later, in the Parthian period. New administrative buildings were erected to the north of the old city, and a palace to the south. The old Assur temple was also rebuilt. However, the city was destroyed again by the Sassanid king Shapur I (241-272 AD). Some settlement at the site is known from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, but afterwards only by nomadic Bedouin. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: ‎ Sasanian) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... A coin of Shapur I. Shapur I, son of Ardashir I (226–241), was King of Persia from 241 to 272. ... A Bedouin man resting on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic (‎), a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via...


See also

Relief from Assyrian capital of Dur Sharrukin, showing transport of Lebanese cedar (8th century BC) In the earliest historical times, the term Assyria (Syriac:ܐܬܘܖ̈) referred to a region on the Upper Tigris river, named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur. ... See also Category:Babylonia and Category:Assyria. ... The rise of Assyria is the history of the first Assyrian empire until about 747 BC. In the reign of Hammurabi, one Shamshi-Adad I seems to have been vassal-prince at Asshur, and the names of several of the high-priests of Assur who succeeded him have been made... This page lists the Kings of Assyria from earliest times. ... See Chronology of Babylonia and Assyria/1911 fpr the partly obsolete article of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. ...

Bibliography

  • Walter Andrae: Das wiedererstandene Assur. Hinrichs, Leipzig 1938 (2. Aufl. Beck, München 1977). ISBN 3-406-02947-7
  • Walter Andrae: Babylon. Die versunkene Weltstadt und ihr Ausgräber Robert Koldewey. de Gruyter, Berlin 1952.
  • Eva Cancik-Kirschbaum: Die Assyrer. Geschichte, Gesellschaft, Kultur. C.H.Beck Wissen, München 2003. ISBN 3-406-50828-6
  • Olaf Matthes: Zur Vorgeschichte der Ausgrabungen in Assur 1898-1903/05. MDOG Berlin 129, 1997, 9-27. ISSN 0342-118X
  • P. A. Miglus: Das Wohngebiet von Assur, Stratigraphie und Architektur. Berlin 1996. ISBN 3-7861-1731-4
  • Susan L. Marchand: Down from Olympus. Archaeology and Philhellenism in Germany 1750-1970. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1996. ISBN 0-691-04393-0
  • Conrad Preusser: Die Paläste in Assur. Gebr. Mann, Berlin 1996. ISBN 3-7861-2004-8

  Results from FactBites:
 
Assur - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (806 words)
Assur became the capital of an Assyrian kingdom during the rule of Shamshi-Adad I (1813-1781 BC).
Assur-nasir-pal II (884-884 BC) moved the capital from Assur to Kalhu (Nimrud).Yet the city of Assur remained the religious centre of the empire due to its temple of the national god Assur.
Olaf Matthes: Zur Vorgeschichte der Ausgrabungen in Assur 1898-1903/05.
Assur - Crystalinks (318 words)
The city of Asshur (or Assur or Ashur) on the Tigris was originally a colony of Babylonia, and later became the first capital city of Assyria, to which it gave its name.It was the royal city of Assyria until the reign of Asurnasirpal II, who moved to Kalhu (Nimrud).
Assur was often the religious capital of Assyria, with its temples of Ishtar and Assur.
Assur was conquered by the Babylonians in 614 B.C.Today the archaeological survey is directed by a German expedition.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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