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Encyclopedia > Association football
A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. The goalkeeper will attempt to stop the ball from crossing the goal line.
A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. The goalkeeper will attempt to stop the ball from crossing the goal line.
A goalkeeper dives to stop the ball from entering his goal.
A goalkeeper dives to stop the ball from entering his goal.

Association football, commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of 11 players each. It is widely considered to be the most popular sport in the world.[1] Football is a ball game played on a rectangular grass or artificial turf field, with a goal at each of the short ends. The object of the game is to score by manoeuvring the ball into the opposing goal. In general play, the goalkeeper is the only player allowed to use their hands or arms to propel the ball; the rest of the team usually use their feet to kick the ball into position, while they may also occasionally use their torso or head to intercept a ball in mid air. The team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is tied at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time and/or a penalty shootout, depending on the format of the competition. Soccer can refer to: Football (soccer), the sport also known as football or association football Soccer (dog actor) Soccer (video game) Soccer mom, a North American social, cultural and political term Not to be confused with: Soca music, a Trinidadian fusion of Indian music and calypso Category: ... Football (soccer), Bloomington, Indiana, 1996, by Rick Dikeman File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Football (soccer), Bloomington, Indiana, 1996, by Rick Dikeman File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Soccer_goalkeeper. ... Image File history File links Soccer_goalkeeper. ... Womens Australian rules football is a team sport. ... Balls are objects typically used in games. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... A goalkeeper. ... This article is about a foot as a unit of length. ... “Kicking” redirects here. ... The human torso Torso is an anatomical term for the greater part of the human body without the head and limbs. ... “Human Head” redirects here. ... To tie or draw is to finish a competition with identical or inconclusive results. ... Penalty shootouts, officially named kicks from the penalty mark, are a method sometimes used to decide which team progresses to the next stage of a tournament (or wins the tournament) following a draw in a game of football. ...


The modern game was codified in England following the formation of the Football Association, whose 1863 Laws of the Game created the foundations for the way the sport is played today. Football is governed internationally by the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (International Federation of Association Football), which is commonly known by the acronym FIFA. The most prestigious international football competition is the World Cup, held every four years. This event, the most widely viewed and famous in the world, boasts an audience twice that of the Summer Olympics.[2] Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... The Football Association (The FA) is the governing body of football in England and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man. ... The Laws of the Game (also known as the Laws of Football) are the rules governing a game of association football (soccer). ... FIFA logo (usage restricted): For the Good of the Game Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) is the international governing body of the sport of association football (called simply football or soccer). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ... The FIFA World Cup, sometimes called the Football World Cup or the Soccer World Cup, but usually referred to simply as the World Cup, is an international football competition contested by the mens national football teams of the member nations of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA... The Summer Olympic Games are an international multi-sport event held every four years, organised by the International Olympic Committee. ...

Contents

Nature of the game

A football match at the AOL-Arena in Hamburg, Germany, May 2004.
A football match at the AOL-Arena in Hamburg, Germany, May 2004.

Football is played in accordance with a set of rules, known as the Laws of the Game. The game is played using a single round ball (the football) and two teams of eleven players each compete to get the ball into the other team's goal, thereby scoring a goal. The team that has scored more goals at the end of the game is the winner; if both teams have scored an equal number of goals, then the game is a draw. There are exceptions to this rule, however; see Duration and tie-breaking methods below. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 676 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) El AOL Arena en un partido de la Bundesliga Beschreibung: Hamburg, Germany, AOL-Arena: HSV-Eintracht Frankfurt, Mai 2004, Endstand 2:1 für den HSV... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 676 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) El AOL Arena en un partido de la Bundesliga Beschreibung: Hamburg, Germany, AOL-Arena: HSV-Eintracht Frankfurt, Mai 2004, Endstand 2:1 für den HSV... AOL Arena is the main stadium of Hamburg, Germany. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... The Laws of the Game (also known as the Laws of Football) are the rules governing a game of association football (soccer). ... A football is a ball used to play one of the different sports known as football. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ...


The primary rule is that the players (other than the goalkeepers) may not deliberately handle the ball with their hands or arms during play (though they do use their hands during a throw-in restart). Although players usually use their feet to move the ball around, they may use any part of their bodies other than their hands or arms. A goalkeeper. ... A throw-in is a method of restarting play in a game of association football (soccer). ...


In typical game play, players attempt to propel the ball toward their opponents' goal through individual control of the ball, such as by dribbling, passing the ball to a team-mate, and by taking shots at the goal, which is guarded by the opposing goalkeeper. Opposing players may try to regain control of the ball by intercepting a pass or through tackling the opponent who controls the ball; however, physical contact between opponents is limited. Football is generally a free-flowing game, with play stopping only when the ball has left the field of play, or when play is stopped by the referee. After a stoppage, play recommences with a specified restart. In sports such as football (soccer), basketball, bandy and water polo, dribbling refers to the maneuvering of a ball around a defender through short skillful taps or kicks with either the legs (football/soccer), hands (basketball), stick (bandy) or swimming strokes (water polo). ... A referee presides over a game of association football (soccer). ...


At a professional level, most matches produce only a few goals. For example, during the English 2005–06 season of the FA Premier League, an average of 2.48 goals per match were scored.[3] Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... Location of teams in the 2005-06 season The 2005-06 season of the FA Premier League saw Chelsea win their second successive title by defeating Manchester United on 29 April. ... For the Scottish equivalent see Scottish Premier League The FA Premier League (often referred to as the Barclays Premiership in England and the Barclays English Premier League or just simply The EPL internationally) is a league competition for football clubs located at the top of the English football league system...


The Laws of the Game do not specify any player positions other than goalkeeper, but a number of player specialisations have evolved. Broadly, these include three main categories: strikers, or forwards, whose main task is to score goals; defenders, who specialise in preventing their opponents from scoring; and midfielders, who dispossess the opposition and keep possession of the ball in order to pass it to the forwards; players in these positions are referred to as outfield players, in order to discern them from the single goalkeeper. These positions are further differentiated by which side of the field the player spends most time in. For example, there are central defenders, and left and right midfielders. The ten outfield players may be arranged in these positions in any combination (for example, there may be four defenders, four midfielders, and two forwards, or three defenders, three midfielders, and four forwards), and the number of players in each position determines the style of the team's play; more forwards and fewer defenders would create a more aggressive and offensive-minded game, while the reverse would create a slower, more defensive style of play. While players may spend most of the game in a specific position, there are few restrictions on player movement, and players can switch positions at any time. The layout of the players on the pitch is called the team's formation, and defining the team's formation and tactics is usually the prerogative of the team's manager. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The striker (wearing the red shirt) has run past the defender (in the white shirt) and is about to take a shot at the goal, while the goalkeeper positions himself to attempt to stop the ball. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Midfield in relation to the football positions In association football, a midfielder is a player whose position of play is midway between the attacking strikers and the defenders (highlighted in blue on the diagram). ... In Association football, the formation describes how the players in a team are positioned on the pitch. ... A coach (right) coaching a fencer (left) on strategy during a timeout In sports, a coach or manager is an individual involved in the direction and instruction of the on-field operations of an athletic team or of individual athletes. ...


History and development

See also: Football and History of football (soccer)
Map showing the popularity of football around the world. Countries where football is the most popular sport are coloured green, while countries where it is not are coloured red. The various shades of green and red indicate the number of players per 1,000 inhabitants.
Map showing the popularity of football around the world. Countries where football is the most popular sport are coloured green, while countries where it is not are coloured red. The various shades of green and red indicate the number of players per 1,000 inhabitants.

Games revolving around the kicking of a ball have been played in many countries throughout history. According to FIFA, the "very earliest form of the game for which there is scientific evidence was an exercise of precisely this skilful technique dating back to the 2nd and 3rd centuries B.C. in China (the game of Cuju)."[4] In addition, the Roman game Harpastum may be a distant ancestor of football. Various forms of football were played in medieval Europe, though rules varied greatly by both period and location. Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ebenezer Cobb Morley, who is regarded as the father of football. The history of association football, which is also known as soccer, can be traced to various traditional football games played in Europe in ancient times, but the modern game has its roots in the formation of the The Football... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 40 KB, MIME type: image/png) Source Map taken from Image:BlankMap-World-v6. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 40 KB, MIME type: image/png) Source Map taken from Image:BlankMap-World-v6. ... The International Federation of Football Association (French: ), commonly known by its acronym, FIFA, is the international governing body of association football. ... Cuju (Chinese: ) is an ancient sport similar to footbal (soccer), played in China as well as Korea and Japan. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Harpastum, also known as Harpustum, was a form of football played in the Roman Empire. ... The name medieval football is a modern term sometimes used for a wide variety of localised games which were invented and played during the Middle Ages in Europe. ...


Whilst football has continued to be played in various forms throughout the United Kingdom, the English public schools (fee-paying schools) are widely credited with certain key achievements in the creation of modern football (association football and the rugby football games — rugby league and rugby union football). During the sixteenth century English public schools generally, and headmaster Richard Mulcaster in particular, were instrumental in taking football away from its violent "mob" form and turning it into an organised team sport that was beneficial to schoolboys. Thereafter, the game became institutionalised, regulated, and part of a larger, more central tradition. Many early descriptions of football and references to it (e.g., in poetry) were recorded by people who had studied at these schools, showing they were familiar with the game. Finally, in the 19th century, teachers and former students were the first to write down formal rules of early modern football to enable matches to be played between schools. An independent school or private school in the United Kingdom is a school relying for all of its funding upon private sources. ... A BCRFC match at Boston College Rugby football, often just rugby, may refer to a number of sports descended from a common form of football developed at Rugby School in England United Kingdom. ... Rugby league football (usually shortened to rugby league, football, league or rugby) is a full-contact team sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ... A rugby union scrum. ... Richard Mulcaster, one of the greatest British educational visionaries, is known best for his headmasterships and paedegogic writings. ... Ochlocracy (Greek: οχλοκρατια; Latin: ochlocratia) is government by mob or a disorganized mass of people. ...


The rules of football as they are codified today are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played at the public schools of England. The first ever set of football rules were written at Eton College in 1815. The Cambridge Rules were a code of football rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, which have influenced the development of Association football and subsequent codes. The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (privately funded and independent) for boys, founded in 1440 by King Henry VI. It is located in Eton, Berkshire, near Windsor in England, situated north of Windsor... The Cambridge Rules, were a code of football drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848 by H. de Winton and J. C. Thring. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ...


The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge in 1848, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester and Shrewsbury schools, but they were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world to play various forms of football. Some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club (formed by former pupils from Harrow) in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School also devised an influential set of rules.[5] Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street... Harrow School, (originally: The Free Grammar School of John Lyon; generally: Harrow), is one of the worlds most famous schools. ... A view of Rugby School from The Close, the playing field where according to legend Rugby was invented Rugby School, located in the town of Rugby, Warwickshire, is one of the oldest public schools in England and is one of the major co-educational boarding schools in the country. ... Winchester College is a well-known boys independent school, and an example of a British public school, in the city of Winchester in Hampshire, England. ... King Edward VI Grammar School, Shrewsbury, normally known as Shrewsbury School, is an independent school, located in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England. ... Sheffield F.C. was one of the worlds first football clubs and is the oldest still-existing club to now play football (soccer), having been founded in 1857. ... Sheffield & Hallamshire Football Association (originally called Sheffield FA) was formed in 1867 was the first County Football Association in England. ... H. (Henry) de Winton and J. C. (John Charles) Thring were influential in the development of modern codes of football. ... Uppingham School is a co-educational public school situated in the small town of Uppingham in Rutland, England. ...


These ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association (The FA) in 1863 which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemason's Tavern in Great Queen Street, London.[6] The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse. The Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which eventually produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting, the first which allowed for the running with the ball in hand and the second, obstructing such a run by hacking (kicking an opponent in the shins), tripping and holding. Other English rugby football clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA, or subsequently left the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under the charge of Ebenezer Cobb Morley, went on to ratify the original thirteen laws of the game. These rules included handling of the ball by "marks" and the lack of a crossbar, rules which made it remarkably similar to Victorian rules football being developed at that time in Australia. The Sheffield FA played by its own rules until the 1870s with the FA absorbing some of its rules until there was little difference between the games. The Football Association (The FA) is the governing body of football in England and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Great Queen Street is a street in central London, England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Charterhouse School (Originally, Suttons Hospital in Charterhouse), usually known simply as Charterhouse, is a famous boys English public school, located in Godalming in the county of Surrey. ... History Early history Blackheath Rugby Club (BRC) was founded in 1858 by old boys of Blackheath Propietary School who played a carrying game of football made popular by Rugby School. ... Football games of various types were played long before the 19th century but it was not until the middle of that century that rules were formulated and codified. ... The Rugby Football Union (RFU) is the rugby union governing body in England. ... Only known photograph of EC Morley Ebenezer Cobb Morley was an English sportsman and is regarded as the father of The Football Association and modern Association Football and, to a certain extent, of all organised football. ... High marking is a key skill and spectator attribute of Aussie Rules Precise field and goal kicking using the oval shaped ball is the key skill in Aussie Rules Football Australian rules football, also known as Australian football, Aussie rules, or simply football or footy is a code of football...


The laws of the game are currently determined by the International Football Association Board (IFAB). The Board was formed in 1886[7] after a meeting in Manchester of The Football Association, the Scottish Football Association, the Football Association of Wales, and the Irish Football Association. The world's oldest football competition is the FA Cup, which was founded by C. W. Alcock and has been contested by English teams since 1872. The first official international football match took place in 1872 between Scotland and England in Glasgow, again at the instigation of C. W. Alcock. England is home to the world's first football league, which was founded in 1888 by Aston Villa director William McGregor.[8] The original format contained 12 clubs from the Midlands and the North of England. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the international football body, was formed in Paris in 1904 and declared that they would adhere to Laws of the Game of the Football Association.[9] The growing popularity of the international game led to the admittance of FIFA representatives to the International Football Association Board in 1913. The board currently consists of four representatives from FIFA and one representative from each of the four British associations. The International Football Association Board (IFAB) (also known as or simply The International Board) is the body that determines the Laws of the Game of association football (soccer). ... Manchester shown within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region North West England Ceremonial county Greater Manchester Admin HQ Manchester City Centre Founded 13th Century City Status 1853 Government  - Type Metropolitan borough, City  - Governing body Manchester City Council Area  - Borough & City 115. ... The Scottish Football Association (SFA) is the governing body for the sport of football in Scotland. ... The Football Association of Wales is the governing body of football in Wales, being a member of both FIFA and UEFA. Established in 1876, it is the third-oldest association in the world, and is one of the four associations (with the English Football Association, the Scottish Football Association, the... The Irish Football Association (IFA) is the organising body for football in Northern Ireland. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Charles William Alcock (December 2, 1842 - February 26, 1907) was a very influential English sports administrator and player. ... “Glaswegian” redirects here. ... The Football League is a league competition featuring professional football clubs from England and Wales, and is the oldest such competition in world football. ... Aston Villa Football Club (also known as The Villa and The Villans)[3] are an English professional football club based in Aston, Birmingham, who currently play in the Premier League. ... William McGregor (born 1846, Braco, Perthshire; died 1911, Birmingham) William McGregor founder of the Football League Scottish Draper, Director of Aston Villa and founder of the Football League. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... The International Football Association Board (IFAB) (also known as or simply The International Board) is the body that determines the Laws of the Game of association football (soccer). ...


Today, football is played at a professional level all over the world, and millions of people regularly go to football stadia to follow their favourite teams,[10] whilst billions more watch the game on television.[11] A very large number of people also play football at an amateur level. According to a survey conducted by FIFA and published in the spring of 2001, over 240 million people regularly play football in more than 200 countries in every part of the world.[12] Its simple rules and minimal equipment requirements have no doubt aided its spread and growth in popularity.


In many parts of the world football evokes great passions and plays an important role in the life of individual fans, local communities, and even nations; it is therefore often claimed to be the most popular sport in the world. ESPN has spread the claim that the Côte d'Ivoire national football team helped secure a truce to the nation's civil war in 2005. By contrast, however, football is widely considered to be the final proximate cause in the Football War in June 1969 between El Salvador and Honduras. The sport also exacerbated tensions at the beginning of the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s, when a match between Dinamo Zagreb and Red Star Belgrade devolved into rioting in March 1990.[13] Fans of Janet Jackson, at Much Music in Toronto The word fan refers to someone who has an intense, occasionally overwhelming liking of a person, group of persons, work of art, idea, or trend. ... ESPN, formerly an acronym for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network, is an American cable television network dedicated to broadcasting sports-related programming 24 hours a day. ... First international Côte dIvoire 3 - 2 Dahomey (Madagascar; 13 April 1960) Biggest win Côte dIvoire 6 - 0 Mali (Abidjan, Côte dIvoire; 13 March 1985) Côte dIvoire 6 - 0 Botswana (Abidjan, Côte dIvoire; 11 October 1992) Côte dIvoire 6... Combatants El Salvador Honduras Commanders Fidel Sánchez Hernández Salvador Henríquez Oswaldo López Arellano Oscar Colindres Strength 20,000 (Army) 1,000 (Air Force) 12,000 (Army) 1,200 (Air Force) Casualties 700 (including civilians) 1,200 (including civilians) The Football War (La guerra de fútbol... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Dinamo is one of the most famous and successful Croatian football clubs. ... Crvena Zvezda can also be applied to KK Crvena zvezda, VK Crvena zvezda, RK Crvena zvezda. ...


Laws of the game

Football is popular among children as well as adults.
Football is popular among children as well as adults.

There are seventeen laws in the official Laws of the Game. The same Laws are designed to apply to all levels of football, although certain modifications for groups such as juniors, seniors or women are permitted. The laws are often framed in broad terms, which allow flexibility in their application depending on the nature of the game. In addition to the seventeen laws, numerous IFAB decisions and other directives contribute to the regulation of football. The laws can be found on the official FIFA website.[14] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Laws of the Game (also known as the Laws of Football) are the rules governing a game of association football (soccer). ...


Players, equipment and officials

See also: Football (soccer) positions, Formation (football), and kit (football)

Each team consists of a maximum of eleven players (excluding substitutes), one of whom must be the goalkeeper. Competition rules may state a minimum number of players required to constitute a team; this is usually seven. Goalkeepers are the only players allowed to play the ball with their hands or arms, but they are only allowed to do so within the penalty area in front of their own goal. Though there are a variety of positions in which the outfield (non-goalkeeper) players are strategically placed by a coach, these positions are not defined or required by the Laws. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Association football, the formation describes how the players in a team are positioned on the pitch. ... A kit is the standard equipment and attire worn by players in association football (soccer). ... A substitute is a player in football (soccer) who is brought on to the pitch during a match in exchange for an existing player. ... A goalkeeper. ... The penalty area (colloquiallly also known as the 18-yard box or penalty box), is an area of an association football (soccer) field. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The basic equipment (kit) players are required to wear includes a shirt, shorts, socks, footwear and adequate shin guards. Players are forbidden to wear or use anything that is dangerous to themselves or another player (including jewellery or watches). The goalkeeper must wear clothing that is easily distinguishable from that worn by the other players and the match officials. It has been suggested that replica shirt be merged into this article or section. ... Greek greaves from 500 b. ...


A number of players may be replaced by substitutes during the course of the game. The maximum number of substitutions permitted in most competitive international and domestic league games is three, though the number permitted may be varied in other leagues or in friendly matches. Common reasons for a substitution include injury, tiredness, ineffectiveness, a tactical switch, or as a defensive ploy to use up a little time at the end of a finely poised game. In standard adult matches, a player who has been substituted may not take further part in the match.


A game is officiated by a referee, who has "full authority to enforce the Laws of the Game in connection with the match to which he has been appointed" (Law 5), and whose decisions are final. The referee is assisted by two assistant referees. In many high-level games there is also a fourth official (and in the world cup a fifth official), who assist(s) the referee and may replace another official should the need arise. A referee presides over a game of association football (soccer). ... In Association Football (Soccer), two Assistant Referees (previously known as linesmen) assist the Referee in controlling the match in accordance with the Laws of the Game. ... In a game of association football (soccer), the fourth official is a match official who assists the referee in a variety of tasks, and who may be called upon to replace another match official. ... In a game of football (soccer), the fifth official is a match official who assists the Fourth official in a variety of tasks, and who may be called upon to replace another match official if necessary. ...


Pitch

Standard pitch measurements (See Imperial version)
Standard pitch measurements ( See Imperial version)
Main article: Football pitch

Due to the original formulation of the Laws in England and the early supremacy of the four British football associations within IFAB, the standard dimensions of a football pitch, or field, were originally expressed in imperial units. The Laws now express dimensions with approximate metric equivalents (followed by traditional units in brackets), though popular use tends to continue to use traditional units in English-speaking countries with a relatively recent history of metrification[citation needed]. Image File history File links Football_pitch_metric. ... Image File history File links Football_pitch_metric. ... Image File history File links Football_pitch_imperial. ... A football field is the playing surface for the game of football (soccer). ... The International Football Association Board (IFAB) is the body that determines the Laws of the Game of association football (soccer). ... The Imperial units are an irregularly standardized system of units that have been used in the United Kingdom and its former colonies, including the Commonwealth countries. ... Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Metrication, or metrification, is the process of converting from the various other systems of units used throughout the world (especially the Imperial or American systems, originating in the United Kingdom) to the metric or SI (Système International) system. ...


The length of the pitch specified for international adult matches is in the range 100-110 metres (110-120 yd) and the width is in the range 64-75 metres (70-80 yd). Fields for non-international matches may be 100-130 yards length and 50-100 yards in width, provided that the pitch does not become square. The longer boundary lines are touchlines or sidelines, while the shorter boundaries (on which the goals are placed) are goal lines. On the goal line at each end of the field a rectangular goal is centred. The inner edges of the vertical goal posts must be 8 yards (7.32 m) apart, and the lower edge of the horizontal crossbar supported by the goal posts must be 8 feet (2.44 m) above the ground. Nets are usually placed behind the goal, but are not required by the Laws. A yard (abbreviation: yd) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


In front of each goal is an area of the field known as the penalty area (colloquially "18-yard box" or simply "the box"). This area is marked by the goal-line, two lines starting on the goal-line 18 yards (16.5 m) from the goalposts and extending 18 yards into the pitch perpendicular to the goal-line, and a line joining them. This area has a number of functions, the most prominent being to mark where the goalkeeper may handle the ball and where a penal foul by a member of the defending team becomes punishable by a penalty kick. The field has various other markings and defined areas. The penalty area (colloquiallly also known as the 18-yard box, penalty box or simply the box), is an area of an association football field. ... Players taking up positions prior to a penalty kick; note that the goalkeeper is not yet in the required position A penalty kick is a type of free kick in association football (soccer), taken from twelve yards (eleven metres) out from goal and with only the goalkeeper of the defending...


Duration and tie-breaking methods

A standard adult football match consists of two periods of 45 minutes each, known as halves. Each half runs continuously, meaning that the clock is not stopped when the ball is out of play; the referee does, however, make allowance for time lost through significant stoppages as described below. There is usually a 15-minute "half-time" break between halves. The end of the match is known as full-time.


The referee is the official timekeeper for the match, and may make an allowance for time lost through substitutions, injured players requiring attention, or other stoppages. This added time is commonly referred to as stoppage time or injury time, and is at the sole discretion of the referee. The referee alone signals the end of the match. In matches where a fourth official is appointed, toward the end of the half the referee signals how many minutes of stoppage time he intends to add, and the fourth official then informs the players and spectators by holding up a board showing this number. The signalled stoppage time may be further extended by the referee.


In league competitions games may end in a draw, but in some knockout competitions if a game is tied at the end of regulation time it may go into extra time, which consists of two further 15-minute periods. If the score is still tied after extra time, some competitions allow the use of penalty shootouts (known officially in the Laws of the Game as "kicks from the penalty mark") to determine which team will progress to the next stage of the tournament. Goals scored during extra time periods count toward the final score of the game, but kicks from the penalty mark are only used to decide the team that progresses to the next part of the tournament (with goals scored in a penalty shootout not making up part of the final score). Penalty shootouts, officially named kicks from the penalty mark, are a method sometimes used to decide which team progresses to the next stage of a tournament (or wins the tournament) following a draw in a game of football. ...


Competitions held over two legs (in which each team plays at home once) may use the away goals rule to attempt to determine which team progresses in the event of equal aggregate scores. If the result is still equal following this calculation kicks from the penalty mark are usually required, though some competitions may require a tied game to be replayed. The away goals rule is a method of breaking ties in football and other sports when teams play each other twice, once at each teams home ground. ...


In the late 1990s, the IFAB experimented with ways of making matches more likely to end without requiring a penalty shootout, which was often seen as an undesirable way to end a match. These involved rules ending a game in extra time early, either when the first goal in extra time was scored (golden goal), or if one team held a lead at the end of the first period of extra time (silver goal). Golden goal was used at the World Cup in 1998 (France) and 2002 (Japan-South Korea). The first World Cup game decided by a golden goal was France's victory over Paraguay in 1998. In Euro 1996, Germany was the first nation to score a golden goal in a major competition, beating Czech Republic in the final. Silver goal was used in Euro 2004 (Portugal). Both these experiments have been discontinued by IFAB. The International Football Association Board (IFAB) is the body that determines the Laws of the Game of association football (soccer). ... The golden goal was a method used in football to decide the winner of games in elimination matches which end in a draw after the end of ordinary time (90 minutes). ... Silver goal was a method used in association football to decide the result of games in elimination matches which end in a draw after the end of the ordinary time. ... Qualifying countries The 2002 FIFA World Cup, the 17th staging of the World Cup, was held in South Korea and Japan from May 31 to June 30. ... The 1996 European Football Championship (or simply Euro 96) was hosted by England. ... Euro 2004 Logo The 2004 UEFA European Football Championship, commonly called EURO 2004, was held in Portugal between 12 June and 4 July 2004. ...


Ball in and out of play

Under the Laws, the two basic states of play during a game are ball in play and ball out of play. From the beginning of each playing period with a kick-off (a set kick from the centre-spot by one team) until the end of the playing period, the ball is in play at all times, except when either the ball leaves the field of play, or play is stopped by the referee. When the ball becomes out of play, play is restarted by one of eight restart methods depending on how it went out of play: The Ball In and Out of Play is the ninth law of the Laws of the Game of football (soccer), and describes to the two basic states of play in the game. ... Kick-off at the final of the 2005 Confederations Cup A kick-off is the method of starting and restarting play in a game of association football (soccer). ...

  • Kick-off: following a goal by the opposing team, or to begin each period of play.
  • Throw-in: when the ball has wholly crossed the touchline; awarded to opposing team to that which last touched the ball.
  • Goal kick: when the ball has wholly crossed the goal line without a goal having been scored and having last been touched by an attacker; awarded to defending team.
  • Corner kick: when the ball has wholly crossed the goal line without a goal having been scored and having last been touched by a defender; awarded to attacking team.
  • Indirect free kick: awarded to the opposing team following "non-penal" fouls, certain technical infringements, or when play is stopped to caution/send-off an opponent without a specific foul having occurred. A goal may not be scored directly from an indirect free kick.
  • Direct free kick: awarded to fouled team following certain listed "penal" fouls.
  • Penalty kick: awarded to the fouled team following a foul usually punishable by a direct free kick but that has occurred within their opponent's penalty area.
  • Dropped-ball: occurs when the referee has stopped play for any other reason (e.g., a serious injury to a player, interference by an external party, or a ball becoming defective). This restart is uncommon in adult games.

A throw-in is a method of restarting play in a game of association football (soccer). ... A goal kick is a method of restarting play in a game of association football (soccer). ... In association football a corner kick is awarded if the defensive team is the last to touch the ball before it crosses its own goal line (goal line of the end of the field it is defending) outside of the goal itself (whether by kicking or off the hands of... An indirect free kick is a method of restarting play in a game of association football (soccer). ... A direct free kick A direct free kick is a method of restarting play in a game of association football (soccer) following a foul. ... Players taking up positions prior to a penalty kick; note that the goalkeeper is not yet in the required position A penalty kick is a type of free kick in association football (soccer), taken from twelve yards (eleven metres) out from goal and with only the goalkeeper of the defending... A dropped-ball (or drop-ball) is a method of restarting play in a game of association football (soccer). ...

Fouls and misconduct

Players are cautioned with a yellow card, and sent off with a red card. Players are cautioned with a yellow card, and sent off with a red card.
Players are cautioned with a yellow card, and sent off with a red card.

A foul occurs when a player commits a specific offence listed in the Laws of the Game when the ball is in play. The offences that constitute a foul are listed in Law 12. Handling the ball deliberately, tripping an opponent, or pushing an opponent, are examples of "penal fouls", punishable by a direct free kick or penalty kick depending on where the offence occurred. Other fouls are punishable by an indirect free kick. Image File history File links Yellow_card. ... Image File history File links Red_card. ... A foul in football (soccer) is an unfair act by a player which is deemed by the referee to contravene Law 12 of the Laws of the Game. ... A direct free kick A direct free kick is a method of restarting play in a game of association football (soccer) following a foul. ... Players taking up positions prior to a penalty kick; note that the goalkeeper is not yet in the required position A penalty kick is a type of free kick in association football (soccer), taken from twelve yards (eleven metres) out from goal and with only the goalkeeper of the defending... An indirect free kick is a method of restarting play in a game of association football (soccer). ...

A player scores a penalty kick given after an offence is committed inside the penalty box
A player scores a penalty kick given after an offence is committed inside the penalty box

The referee may punish a player or substitute's misconduct by a caution (yellow card) or sending-off (red card). A second yellow card at the same game leads to a red card, and therefore to a sending-off. Misconduct may occur at any time, and while the offences that constitute misconduct are listed, the definitions are broad. In particular, the offence of "unsporting behaviour" may be used to deal with most events that violate the spirit of the game, even if they are not listed as specific offences. Non-players, such as managers and support staff, may be dismissed from the field and its surrounds by the referee if they fail to conduct themselves in a responsible manner. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3456 × 2304 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3456 × 2304 pixel, file size: 4. ... Misconduct in football (soccer) is any conduct by a player which is deemed by the referee to warrant a disciplinary sanction (caution or dismissal) in accordance with Law 12 the Laws of the Game. ...


Rather than stopping play, the referee may allow play to continue when its continuation will benefit the team against which an offence has been committed. This is known as "playing an advantage". The referee may "call back" play and penalise the original offence if the anticipated advantage does not ensue within a short period of time, typically taken to be four to five seconds. Even if an offence is not penalised because the referee plays an advantage, the offender may still be sanctioned for any associated misconduct at the next stoppage of play. A referee is a person who has authority to make decisions about play in many sports. ...


The offside law effectively limits the ability of attacking players to remain forward (i.e. closer to the opponent's goal-line) of the ball, the second-to-last defending player (which can include the goalkeeper), and the half-way line.[15] Offside is a Law in association football which effectively limits how far forward attacking players may be when involved in play. ...


Governing bodies

The recognised international governing body of football (and associated games, such as futsal and beach soccer) is the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). The FIFA headquarters are located in Zürich, Switzerland. Futsal in Germany Futsal is an indoor version of football (soccer). ... Beach Soccer is a variant of the sport of association football. ... The International Federation of Football Association (French: ), commonly known by its acronym, FIFA, is the international governing body of association football. ... Zürich IPA (in English often Zurich, which is also the standard French form of the name) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 364,558 in 2002; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ...


Six regional confederations are associated with FIFA; these are:

The recognised various national associations (see football around the world) oversee football within their jurisdictions. These are affiliated both with FIFA directly and also with their respective continental confederations. The 46 member Asian Football Confederation (AFC) is the governing body of football in Asia, excluding Cyprus and Israel but including Australia. ... The 53 member CAF (Confederation of African Football) , (French : Confédération Africaine de Football) , (Arabic : الإتحاد الأفريقى لكرة القدم) represents international football in Africa, and organises the African Cup of Nations, CAF Confederation Cup and the African Champions League. ... CONCACAF (the Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football) is the continent-wide governing body for association football in North America, Central America and the Caribbean. ... UEFA logo The Union of European Football Associations, almost always referred to by the acronym UEFA (pronounced you-AY-fuh), is the administrative and controlling body for European football. ... Oceania Football Confederation logo since 1998 The Oceania Football Confederation (OFC) is one of the six continental confederations of international football. ... CONMEBOL or CSF (CONfederación sudaMEricana de FútBOL, South American Football Confederation) is the governing body of football in South America. ... Most European countries have two principal football competitions: a more prestigious league which is typically a double round-robin tournament restricted to the elite clubs, and a cup which is a single-elimination tournament open to both the elite and lesser clubs. ...


The Laws of the Game are not maintained by FIFA itself; rather they are maintained by the International Football Association Board. The International Football Association Board (IFAB) (also known as or simply The International Board) is the body that determines the Laws of the Game of association football (soccer). ...


Major international competitions

The major international competition in football is the World Cup, organised by FIFA. This competition takes place over a four-year period. More than 190 national teams compete in qualifying tournaments within the scope of continental confederations for a place in the finals. The finals tournament, which is held every four years, now involves 32 national teams (increased in 1998 from the 24 of 1994) competing over a four-week period. The 2006 FIFA World Cup took place in Germany;[16] in 2010 it will be held in South Africa. The FIFA World Cup, sometimes called the Football World Cup or the Soccer World Cup, but usually referred to simply as the World Cup, is an international football competition contested by the mens national football teams of the member nations of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA... Qualifying countries The 1998 FIFA World Cup, the 16th staging of the World Cup, was held in France from June 10 to July 12 after 60 years to celebrate the third edition scheduled in 1938. ... Qualifying countries The 1994 FIFA World Cup, the 15th staging of the FIFA World Cup, was held in the United States from June 17 to July 17, 1994. ... Qualifying countries The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the eighteenth instance of the FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international association football world championship tournament. ...


There has been a football tournament at every Summer Olympic Games since 1900, except at the 1932 games in Los Angeles. Prior to the inception of the World Cup, the Olympics (especially during the 1920s) had the same status as the World Cup. Originally, the event was for amateurs only,[17] however, since the 1984 Summer Olympics professionals have been permitted as well, albeit with certain restrictions which effectively prevent countries from fielding their strongest sides. Currently, the Olympic men's tournament is played at Under-23 level. In the past the Olympics have allowed a restricted number of over-age players per team;[18] but that practice will cease in the 2008 Olympics. The Olympic competition is not generally considered to carry the same international significance and prestige as the World Cup. A women's tournament was added in 1996; in contrast to the men's event, the women's Olympic tournament is played by full international sides without age restrictions. It thus carries international prestige considered comparable to that of the FIFA Women's World Cup. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Poster for the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp. ... The 1932 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the X Olympiad, were held in 1932 in Los Angeles, California, United States. ... Music sample: Olympic Fanfare and Theme ( file info) — composed by John Williams for the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles Problems listening to the file? See media help. ... The FIFA Womens World Cup is the most important championship in international football competition for women. ...


After the World Cup, the most important football competitions are the continental championships, which are organised by each continental confederation and contested between national teams. These are the European Championship (UEFA), the Copa América (CONMEBOL), African Cup of Nations (CAF), the Asian Cup (AFC), the CONCACAF Gold Cup (CONCACAF) and the OFC Nations Cup (OFC). Two of the most prestigious competitions in club football are the respective continental championships, which are generally contested between national champions, for example the UEFA Champions League in Europe and the Copa Libertadores de América in South America. The most prestigious competition until 2005 was the Intercontinental Cup which was contested by the winner club of the European Champions League cup and the winner of the Copa Libertadores. This was a single match played in Tokyo, Japan and went from 1980 until 2004. This was also known as the Toyota Cup. Due to the growing number of audience and interest of people from Africa, North America and Asia, this "cup" was replaced in 2005 by the FIFA Club World Cup in which there is no single match, but a whole tournament between the winners of the six club championships of each FIFA confederation. The UEFA European Championship is the main football competition of the mens national football teams governed by the UEFA. Held every four years since 1960, in the even-numbered year between World Cup tournaments, it was originally called the European Nations Cup, changing to the name European Football Championship... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The African Cup of Nations, also referred to as the African Nations Cup (ANC) is the main international football competition in Africa. ... The Asian Cup is run by the Asian Football Confederation. ... The CONCACAF Gold Cup is the main international football competition of the CONCACAF nations. ... OFC Nations cup logo The OFC Nations Cup is the biennial football competition held among the Oceania Football Confederation member nations. ... The UEFA Champions League (also known as the European Cup, UCL, CE1, C1[1] or CL) is a seasonal club football competition organized by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) since 1955 for the most successful football clubs in Europe. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Copa Libertadores Logo The Copa Libertadores de América (also known as Copa Toyota Libertadores) (Portuguese: Taça Libertadores da América, English: Liberators of America Cup) is an international football cup competition played annually by the top clubs of South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Champions League Logo Copa Libertadores Logo The European/South American Cup, commonly referred to as the Intercontinental Cup, and also known as the World Club Championship or Toyota Cup, was a football competition endorsed by UEFA and CONMEBOL, contested between the winners of the European Champions League and the South...   , literally Eastern capital) is a unique subnational administrative region of Japan with characteristics of both a prefecture and a city. ... The FIFA Club World Cup, formerly known as the FIFA Club World Championship, is a football competition contested between the champion clubs from all 6 continental confederations, although since 2007 the champions of Oceania must play a qualifying play-off against the champion club of the permanent host country Japan. ...


Domestic competitions

The governing bodies in each country operate league systems, normally comprising several divisions, in which the teams gain points throughout the season depending on results. Teams are placed into tables, placing them in order according to points accrued. Most commonly, each team plays every other team in its league at home and away in each season, in a round-robin tournament. At the end of a season, the top team are declared to be the champions, and the top few teams may be promoted to a higher division; and one or more of the teams finishing at the bottom are relegated to a lower division. The teams finishing at the top of a country's league may be eligible also to play in international club competitions in the following season. The main exceptions to this system occur in some Latin American leagues, which divide football championships into two sections named Apertura and Clausura, awarding a champion for each. Most European countries have two principal football (soccer) competitions: a more prestigious league which is typically a double round-robin tournament restricted to the elite clubs, and a cup which is a single-elimination tournament open to both the elite and lesser clubs. ... A league system is a hierarchy of leagues in a sport that teams (usually) can be promoted or relegated between, depending on finishing positions or playoffs. ... A division in sport consists of a group of teams who compete against one another for a divisional title, or other honour. ... A table is a mode of visual communication that maps the logical structure of a set of data into a hierarchical matrix. ... A round-robin tournament or all-play-all tournament is a type of group tournament in which each participant plays every other participant an equal number of times. ... In many sports leagues around the world (with North American and Australian professional leagues being the most notable exceptions), relegation (or demotion) means the mandated transfer of the least successful team(s) of a higher division into a lower division at the end of the season. ... In many sports leagues around the world (with North American and Australian professional leagues being the most notable exceptions), relegation (or demotion) means the mandated transfer of the least successful team(s) of a higher division into a lower division at the end of the season. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... In recent times, many Latin American football leagues are divided in two sections per season, Apertura and Clausura, each with its own champion. ...


In addition to a league system, most countries operate one or more cup competitions during the season. These are organised on a knock-out basis, the winner of each match proceeding to the next round; the loser takes no further part in the competition. Example of a single-elimination tournament bracket A single-elimination tournament, also called a knockout or sudden death tournament, is a type of tournament where the loser of each match is immediately eliminated from winning the championship or first prize in the event. ...


Some countries' top divisions feature highly-paid star players; in smaller countries and lower divisions, players may be part-timers with a second job, or amateurs. The five top European leagues - the FA Premier League, the Bundesliga, La Liga, Ligue 1 and Serie A - attract most of the world's best players. Historical restrictions on the number of foreign players in a club's team have been largely eliminated by the Bosman ruling. For the Scottish equivalent see Scottish Premier League The FA Premier League (often referred to as the Barclays Premiership in England and the Barclays English Premier League or just simply The EPL internationally) is a league competition for football clubs located at the top of the English football league system... The title of this article contains the character ß. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Fussball-Bundesliga. ... (Professional Football League), commonly known as La Liga, is the professional football league in Spain. ... Ligue 1 (Première division or Division 1 until 2003) is the top division of French and Monegasque football, one of two divisions making up the LFP, the other being Ligue 2. ... This article is about the Italian football (soccer) league. ... In football (soccer), the Bosman ruling is a 1995 European Court of Justice decision that allows professional football players in the European Union (EU) to move freely to another club at the end of their term of contract with their present team. ...


Names of the game

See also: Names for football (soccer) and Football (word)

The rules of football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863, and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time, specifically rugby football. The term soccer first appeared in the 1880s as a slang abbreviation of Association football, often credited to Charles Wreford-Brown.[19] The word soccer used in a London newspaper headline, August 2006 The names of football refer to the terms used to describe the sport most commonly referred to in the English-speaking world as either football or soccer. ... The English language word football may mean any one of several games, or the ball used in that game, depending on the national or regional origin/location of the person using the word. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A BCRFC match at Boston College Rugby football, often just rugby, may refer to a number of sports descended from a common form of football developed at Rugby School in England United Kingdom. ... Charles Wreford Brown Charles Wreford Brown (9 October 1866 _ 26 November 1951) is usually credited with inventing the word soccer as an abbreviation for association football. ...


Today the sport is known by a number of names throughout the English-speaking world, the most common being football and soccer. Although FIFA, the sport's world governing body, defines the sport they govern as Association football in their statutes[20], the most commonly used term by that organisation and the International Olympic Committee is football. Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ...


For more details of naming throughout the world, please refer to the main articles above.


References

  1. ^ Soccer Encarta. Retrieved on May 24, 2007.
  2. ^ 2002 FIFA World Cup TV Coverage, FIFA official website. Retrieved on May 13, 2006.
  3. ^ England Premiership (2005/2006). Sportpress. Retrieved on 5 June 2006.
  4. ^ History of Football. FIFA. Retrieved on 20 November 2006.
  5. ^ The hands-off approach to a man's game. The Times. Retrieved on 3 June 2006.
  6. ^ History of the FA. Football Association website. Retrieved on February 19, 2006.
  7. ^ The International FA Board. FIFA website. Retrieved on February 19, 2006.
  8. ^ The History Of The Football League. Football League website. Retrieved on April 19, 2006.
  9. ^ History of FIFA. FIFA website. Retrieved on 3 June 2006.
  10. ^ Baseball or Football: which sport gets the higher attendance?, Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved on 5 June 2006.
  11. ^ 2002 FIFA World Cup TV Coverage, FIFA official website. Retrieved on 13 May 2006.
  12. ^ FIFA Survey: approximately 250 million footballers worldwide, FIFA official website. Retrieved on 5 June 2006.
  13. ^ Daniel W. Drezner. "The Soccer Wars", The Washington Post, Sunday, June 4, 2006, p. B01. 
  14. ^ The Official web site of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association. Retrieved on 2006-04-19.
  15. ^ The History of Offside. Julian Carosi. Retrieved on June 3, 2006.
  16. ^ FIFA World Cup 2006. FIFA World Cup 2006 website. Retrieved on February 19, 2006.
  17. ^ Where it all began FIFA official website. Retrieved on April 10, 2006.
  18. ^ Football - An Olympic Sport since 1900. IOC website. Retrieved on June 5, 2006.
  19. ^ The World's Most Beloved Sport - The History of Soccer. fussballportal.de. Retrieved on 3 June 2006.
  20. ^ FIFA Statutes

is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

See also

football (soccer) Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... This is a list of the mens national football (soccer) teams in the world. ... This is a partial list of football (soccer) clubs from all over the world sorted by home country. ... This article is concerned with Association football (soccer). ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Football culture is a descriptive term of the cultural aspects surrounding the game of association football. ... Paralympic football consists of adaptations of the sport of football (soccer) for athletes with a disability. ... Most European countries have two principal football (soccer) competitions: a more prestigious league which is typically a double round-robin tournament restricted to the elite clubs, and a cup which is a single-elimination tournament open to both the elite and lesser clubs. ... Womens football (soccer) is becoming more high profile, as an increasing number of countries around the world organise womens football on a national and club level. ... This page indexes the individual year in football (soccer) pages. ... This is a timeline of English football which contains notable football-related events that have occurred both on and off the field. ... The following are the football (soccer) events before 1835 around the world. ... Ebenezer Cobb Morley, who is regarded as the father of football. The history of association football, which is also known as soccer, can be traced to various traditional football games played in Europe in ancient times, but the modern game has its roots in the formation of the The Football... The following are the football (soccer) events of decades 1840s around the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events in the decades 1850s around the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the decade 1860s around the world. ... // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1870 throughout the world. ... The following are the football events of the year 1871 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1872 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1873 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1874 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1875 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1876 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1877 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1878 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1879 throughout the world. ... // Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1880 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1881 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1882 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1883 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1884 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1885 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1886 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1887 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1888 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1889 throughout the world. ... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1891 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1892 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1893 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1894 throughout the world. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Tis empty of content, alas! If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1896 throughout the world. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Tis empty of content, alas! If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Tis empty of content, alas! If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Tis empty of content, alas! If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ... // Public flight demonstration of an airplane by Alberto Santos-Dumont in Paris, November 12, 1906. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Tis empty of content, alas! If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1901 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1902 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1903 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1904 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1905 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1906 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1909 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1908 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1909 throughout the world. ... // The 1910s represent the culmination of European militarism which had its beginnings during the second half of the 19th Century. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1910 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1911 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1912 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1913 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1914 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1915 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1916 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1917 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1918 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1919 throughout the world. ... The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1920 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1921 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1922 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1923 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1924 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1925 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1926 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1927 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1928 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1929 throughout the world. ... Face The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1930 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1931 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1932 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1933 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1934 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1935 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1936 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1937 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1938 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1939 throughout the world. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1940 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1941 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1942 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1943 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1944 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1945 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1946 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1947 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1948 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1949 throughout the world. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1950 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1951 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1952 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1953 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1954 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1955 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1956 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1957 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1958 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1959 throughout the world. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1960 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1961 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1962 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1963 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1964 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1965 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1966 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1967 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1968 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1969 throughout the world. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1970 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1971 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1972 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1973 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1974 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1975 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1976 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1977 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1978 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1979 throughout the world. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1980 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1981 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1982 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1983 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1984 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1985 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1986 throughout the world. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1988 throughout the world. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... I wont stop until Dat dere cell-tech is on the English language article: Ronnie coleman! ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1998 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 1999 throughout the world. ... The 2000s are the current decade, spanning from 2000 to 2009. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 2000 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 2001 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 2002 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 2003 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 2004 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 2005 throughout the world. ... The following are the football (soccer) events of the year 2006 throughout the world. ... // The following are the scheduled events of football (soccer) for the year 2007 throughout the world. ... The following are the scheduled events of football (soccer) for the year 2008 throughout the world. ... Womens Australian rules football is a team sport. ... A sport governing body comes in several forms. ... There are a variety of articles listing people of a particular sport. ... Map of the World showing the most popular sports by nation. ... This article is about the sport. ... Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by throwing a ball through a 10-foot high hoop (the basket) under organized rules. ... Vince R. releases the ball. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Swifts Creek Bowls Club Bowls (also known as Lawn Bowls or Lawn Bowling) is a precision sport in which the goal is to roll slightly radially asymmetrical balls (called bowls) closer to a smaller white ball (the jack or kitty) than ones opponent is able to do. ... Next to the beach at Nice, France In Hakaniemi, Helsinki Pétanque (pronounced in French) is a form of boules where the goal is to throw metal balls as close as possible to a small wooden ball called a cochonnet (jack). ... A game of broomball begins with a face-off Broomball is a popular recreational ice sport originating in Canada and played around the world. ... Game of Buzkashi in Mazari Sharif, Afghanistan Buzkashi, Kok-boru or Oglak Tartis (Persian: بزکشی buzkashī: goat grabbing) (Uzbek, Tatar, Turkmen: kökbörü, kök blue + börü wolf, Kazakh: көкпар, Kyrgyz: улак) is a traditional Central Asian team sport played on horseback. ... Bowler Shaun Pollock bowls to batsman Michael Hussey. ... Curling is a team sport with similarities to bowls and bocce, played on a rectangular sheet of carefully prepared ice by two teams of four players each. ... Fistball is a very old sport which continues to be practiced all over the world: in Europe, North and South America, Africa and Asia. ... Handball is the name of several different sports: Team handball, or Olympic/European Handball is a game somewhat similar to association football, but the ball is played with the hand, not the foot. ... For the Cornish sport, see Cornish Hurling. ... Camogie (in Irish, camógaíocht) is a Celtic team sport, the womens variant of hurling. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A korfball match in the Netherlands between Trekvogels and OZC Korfball is a team ball game, similar in many ways to mixed netball. ... Kubb is a lawn game where the object is to knock over wooden blocks by throwing wooden sticks at them. ... The Dive Shot. Lacrosse is a team sport that is played with ten players (mens field), six players (mens box), or twelve players (womens field), each of whom uses a netted stick (the crosse) in order to pass and catch a hard rubber ball with the aim... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Newcomb featured in Spaldings Red Cover series of atheletic handbooks in 1914 Newcomb ball (also known as Newcomb)1 is a ball game played as a variation of volleyball. ... Girls playing pesäpallo in Siilinjärvi Pesäpallo (also referred to as Finnish baseball) is a fast-moving ball sport thats quite often referred to as the national sport of Finland and has some presence in other countries, such as Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, Australia, and Northern Ontario in... A game of polo. ... Rounders is a sport which developed from Cricket and originated in Great Britain and Ireland. ... A sepak takraw ball made out of rattan. ... // A shinty game in progress Shinty (Scottish Gaelic camanachd or iomain) is a team sport played with sticks and a ball. ... Softball is a team sport, in which a ball, eleven to twelve inches (or rarely, 16 inches) (28 to 30. ... Stool ball is a historical ball game, originating in southern England, where variants are still played in some schools. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Volleyball is an Olympic sport in which two teams separated by a high net use their hands, arms or (rarely) other parts of their bodies to hit a ball back and forth over the net. ... Water polo is a team water sport, which can be best described as a combination of swimming, handball and wrestling. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gaelic football (Irish: Peil or Caid ), commonly referred to as football, Gaelic or GAA (gah), is a form of football played mainly in Ireland. ... A BCRFC match at Boston College Rugby football, often just rugby, may refer to a number of sports descended from a common form of football developed at Rugby School in England United Kingdom. ... Hockey is any of a family of sports in which two teams compete by trying to maneuver a ball, or a hard, round disc called a puck, into the opponents net or goal, using a hockey stick. ... Look up bandy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A game of field hockey in progress Field hockey is a popular sport for men and women in many countries around the world. ... A floorball match between powerhouses Sweden (yellow) and Finland (white) Floorball is an indoor team sport played using composite or carbon sticks with a plastic vented blade where the aim is to put a light plastic ball into the opponents goal. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Indoor field hockey is an indoor variant of traditional outdoor field hockey. ... Ringette is a team sport played on an ice surface. ... Roller hockey is a category which includes two rollersports. ...

Further reading

  • Szymanski, Stefan; and Tim Kuypers (1999). Winners and Losers. London: Viking. ISBN 0-670-88486-3. 

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Association football is the proper name of soccer (and the origin of the word soccer incidentally).
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Football, Association, History of, historical development of the most widely played team game in the world and the most popular spectator sport, followed avidly by millions of fans.
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