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Encyclopedia > Assassination in Sarajevo
A plaque commemorating the exact location of the Sarajevo Assassination
A plaque commemorating the exact location of the Sarajevo Assassination

On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg were shot to death in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Gavrilo Princip, a member of Young Bosnia, a group aiming at the unification of the South Slavs. The event sparked off the outbreak of World War I. (See: Causes of World War I). Download high resolution version (1790x1184, 1540 KB)Picture taken by me, User Asim Led, summer of 2004. ... Download high resolution version (1790x1184, 1540 KB)Picture taken by me, User Asim Led, summer of 2004. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Francis Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria-Este (December 18, 1863 – June 28, 1914) was an Archduke of Austria, Prince Imperial of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia, and from 1896 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Countess Sophie Chotek Her Highness Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, born Countess Sophie Maria Josephine Albina Chotek von Chotkova und Wognin (March 1, 1868-June 28, 1914) was the morganatic wife of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: Country Bosnia and Herzegovina Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Canton Sarajevo Canton Mayor Semiha Borovac Area    - City 142 km²  (54. ... Gavrilo Princip in prison cell at Theresienstadt Gavrilo Princip (Serbian Cyrillic: Гаврило Принцип) (pronounced (gäv´ri:lo: pri:n´tsip) (July 25, 1894 – April 28, 1918) was a Serb member of the Young Bosnia secret society who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg in... Young Bosnia (Serbo-Croat: Млада Босна / Mlada Bosna) was a revolutionary youth organization in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the early 20th century. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul... The subject of the Causes of World War I has been among the most discussed issues in historiography ever since the war began in August 1914. ...

Contents

Background

Gavrilo Princip - the igniting torch of World War I
Gavrilo Princip - the igniting torch of World War I
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria

Under the 1878 Treaty of Berlin, Austria-Hungary received the mandate to occupy and administer the Ottoman provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina while the Ottoman Empire retained official sovereignty. This arrangement led to a number of arcane and internecine political and territorial disputes over several decades, involving Russia, Austria, Bosnia, and Serbia. The labyrinthine and Machiavellian diplomatic plots and conspiracies involving these territories over the years engendered hostility amongst the indigenous populations, breeding resentment which eventually led a fringe political group, the Black Hand, to plot Ferdinand's assassination. Gavrillo Princip, from raven. ... Gavrillo Princip, from raven. ... Gavrilo Princip in prison cell at Theresienstadt Gavrilo Princip (Serbian Cyrillic: Гаврило Принцип) (pronounced (gäv´ri:lo: pri:n´tsip) (July 25, 1894 – April 28, 1918) was a Serb member of the Young Bosnia secret society who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg in... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1262x1544, 702 KB) Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria Source: The Library of Congress - American Memory Published in: The War of the Nations (New York), December 31, 1919 Newspaper Pictorials The war of the nations : portfolio in rotogravure etchings : compiled from the... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1262x1544, 702 KB) Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria Source: The Library of Congress - American Memory Published in: The War of the Nations (New York), December 31, 1919 Newspaper Pictorials The war of the nations : portfolio in rotogravure etchings : compiled from the... The separate Bulgaria after The Treatry of Berlin - Lithography Nikolay Pavlovich The Treaty of Berlin was the final Act of the Congress of Berlin (June 13-July 13, 1878), by which the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman government under Sultan Hamid revised the Treaty... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469—June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ... Members of the Black Hand Black Hand (Serbian: Црна рука / Crna Ruka), officially Unification or Death (Serbian: Уједињење или смрт / Ujedinjenje ili smrt) was a secret society founded in Serbia in May 1911[1][2] as part of the Pan-Slavism nationalist movement, with the intention of uniting all of the territories containing Serb populations...


In late June 1914, Ferdinand visited Bosnia in order to observe military manoeuvres and to open a museum in Sarajevo. June 28th was the 14th anniverary of the Morganatic Oath, where Franz Ferdinand was given permission by Emperor Franz Joseph to marry his love, Sophie Chotek (a Slav born too far beneath his station), in exchange for Franz Ferdinand's oath that the children from this union would never ascend the throne. Sophie Chotek was happy to accompany her husband to Bosnia and celebrate their anniversary far from the Vienna court where she was treated poorly.


Franz Ferdinand was widely believed to be an advocate of trialism, under which Austria-Hungary would be reorganized by combining the Slavic lands within the Austro-Hungarian empire into a third crown. A Slavic kingdom could have been a bulwark against Serb irredentism and Franz Ferdinand was therefore perceived as a threat by those same irredentists. Princip stated to the court that preventing Franz Ferdinand's planned reforms was one of his motivations.


The day of the assassination, June 28, is June 15 in the Julian calendar, the feast of St. Vitus. In Serbia, it is called Vidovdan and commemorates the 1389 Battle of Kosovo against the Ottomans at which the Sultan was assassinated in his tent by a Serb; it is an occasion for Serbian patriotic observances. June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... June 14 - Eastern Orthodox Church calendar - June 16 All fixed commemorations below celebrated on June 28 by Old Calendarists Saints Prophet Amos (8th century BC) Saint Jonah of Moscow, Metropolitan and Wonderworker of all Russia (1461) Martyrs Vitus, Modestus, and Crescentia at Lucania (303) Martyr Dulas the Passion-bearer of... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and took force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Vitus is a Latin given name meaning lively. ... Vidovdan (Видовдан) is a religious holiday, St. ... // This page is about the Battle of Kosovo of 1389; for other battles, see Battle of Kosovo (disambiguation). ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29...


Conspiracy

In late 1913, Danilo Ilić came to the Serbian listening post at Užice to speak to his handler and recommend an end to the period of terrorist organization building and a move to direct action against Austria-Hungary. Colonel Popović stated to the historian Albertini that he passed Danilo Ilić on to Belgrade to discuss this matter with Chief of Serbian Military Intelligence and leader of the Serbian secret society Black Hand Colonel Dragutin Dimitrijević (Apis). Ilić and Apis took the secrets of their discussion to their graves, but soon after their meeting, Apis' right-hand-man and fellow member of the Black Hand, Major Vojislav Tankosić, called a Serbian planning meeting in Toulouse, France. This is established by the statement of Paul Bastaić and Mustafa Golubić to the diplomat and historian Milos Bogićević. During this January 1914 meeting, various possible Austro-Hungarian targets for assassination were discussed including Franz-Ferdinand, but ultimately, at this meeting, it was decided only to dispatch Mohamed Mehmedbašić to Sarajevo, to kill the Austrian Governor of Bosnia, Oskar Potiorek. Danilo Ilić was born in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1891. ... Užice (Serbian Cyrillic: Ужице) is a town located in Serbia and Montenegro at 43. ... Members of the Black Hand Black Hand (Serbian: Црна рука / Crna Ruka), officially Unification or Death (Serbian: Уједињење или смрт / Ujedinjenje ili smrt) was a secret society founded in Serbia in May 1911[1][2] as part of the Pan-Slavism nationalist movement, with the intention of uniting all of the territories containing Serb populations... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Members of the Black Hand Black Hand (Serbian: Црна рука / Crna Ruka), officially Unification or Death (Serbian: Уједињење или смрт / Ujedinjenje ili smrt) was a secret society founded in Serbia in May 1911[1][2] as part of the Pan-Slavism nationalist movement, with the intention of uniting all of the territories containing Serb populations... Oskar Potiorek Oskar Potiorek (1853 – 1933) was an Austrian general who served as the Austro-Hungarian governor of Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1911 and 1914. ...


Mehmedbašić was delayed and before he made an attempt on Potiorek, Apis ordered the assassination of Franz-Ferdinand (as evidenced by Apis' confession to the Serbian Court). Mehmedbašić told the historian Albertini that Ilić summoned him to Mostar and informed him that Belgrade had scrapped the mission to kill the governor in favor of the murder of Franz-Ferdinand and that Mehmbedbašić should stand by for the new operation.


Ilić recruited the Serbian youths Vaso Čubrilović and Cvjetko Popović shortly after Easter (April 19, 1914), for the assassination as evidenced by the testimony of Ilić, Čubrilović, and Popović at the Sarajevo trial. Three Bosnian Serb youths living in Belgrade, Gavrilo Princip, Trifun Grabež, and Nedjelko Čabrinović testified at the Sarajevo trial that at about the same time, (a little after Easter) they were eager to carry out an assassination and approached Milan Ciganović and through him Major Tankosić and reached an agreement to transport arms to Sarajevo and participate in the assassination.


At trial, the 3 youths from Belgrade testified that Tankosić, directly and through Ciganović, not only provided six hand grenades, four Browning Automatic Pistols and ammunition, but also money, suicide pills, training, a special map with the location of gendarmes marked, knowledge of contacts on a special channel used to infiltrate agents and arms into Austria-Hungary and a small card authorizing the use of that special channel. Major Tankosić confirmed to the historian Luciano Magrini that he provided the bombs and revolvers and was responsible for the terrorists' training and that he initiated the idea of the suicide pills. FN Model 1910 The FN Model 1910 was a Blowback (arms) operated, semi-automatic pistol designed by John Browning and manufactured by FN of Belgium. ...


After receiving this training and support from Major Tankosić and his associates, the three conspirators traveled from Belgrade to Šabac and handed the small card to Captain Popović of the Serbian Border Guard. Popović, in turn, provided them with a letter to Captain Prvanović and sent them on to Loznica, a small border town. When they reached Loznica, Captain Prvanović summoned three of his revenue sergeants to discuss the best way to cross the border undetected. Sergeant Grbić accepted the task and led Princip and Grabež with the weapons to Isaković’s Island, a small island in the middle of the Drina River that separated Serbia from Austria-Hungary, (Čabrinović crossed at another point without weapons) and then handed off the two terrorists and their weapons to the agents of the Serbian Narodna Obrana for transport into Austria-Hungarian territory and from safe-house to safe-house. See also: Sabac (disambiguation) Å abac (Шабац) is a city located in Serbia at 44. ... Loznica (Serbian Cyrillic: Лозница) is a town and municipality located in the Mačva District of Serbia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The terrorists and weapons were passed from agent to agent until they arrived in Tuzla where the terrorists left their weapons in the hands of the Narodna Obrana agent Miško Jovanović. The agents reported back their activities to the Narodna Obrana President, Boža Milanović, who in turn reported to the then Caretaker Prime Minister Nikola Pašić. The report adds the name of a new military conspirator, Major Kosta Todorović, apparently the immediate superior of Captains Popović and Prvanović. Pašić’s handwritten notes document the Prime Minister's advanced knowledge of the plot and that he was able to connect Major Tankosić. The Austrians captured the report, Pašić’s handwritten notes, and additional documents corroborating the Civilian Government’s foreknowledge of the plot, and the involvement of Major Todorović and Captain Prvanović. Tuzla (Serbian Cyrillic: Тузла) is a city in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Nikola PaÅ¡ić // Nikola P. PaÅ¡ić (Serbian Cyrillic: Никола П. Пашић, at the time also spelled Pashitch or Pachitch), (December 18, 1845, Zaječar, Serbia - December 10, 1926, Belgrade, Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, today Serbia) was a Serbian and Yugoslav politician and diplomat, the most important Serbian political figure...


From Tuzla, Grabež and Čabrinović went on to their parents' homes to lie low until Franz-Ferdinand's arrival and Princip stayed at Ilić's mother's house and there met Ilić. After meeting Princip, Ilić went to Tuzla to bring the weapons to Sarajevo. Miško Jovanović hid the weapons in a large box of sugar and the two went separately by train to Doboj where Jovanovic handed off the box to Ilić. Ilić brought the weapons back to his mother's house on June 15 and kept them in a suitcase under a sofa. Doboj (Serbian Cyrillic: Добој) is a city and a municipality in Republika Srpska, situated on the river Bosna. ...


Ilić testified that on June 18 he went to Brod and here begins an interesting twist in the plot, because Ilić claimed that from this time on he opposed the assassination. According to Čeda Popović, Đuro Šarac was sent to Šabac by Tankosić to meet with Ilić and cancel the assassination. It is about 100km along the river Sava from Brod to Šabac. For other uses of this word, see Sava (disambiguation). ... See also: Sabac (disambiguation) Å abac (Шабац) is a city located in Serbia at 44. ...


In further testimony Ilić, Princip and Grabež describe how after Ilić returned from Brod he tried to prevent the assassination. But then, and this is a point of some controversy, on the eve of the assassination, Masterspy Rade Malobabić arrived in Sarajevo on the orders of the Chief of the Serbian General Staff, Marshall Putnik, and apparently gave the final go ahead on the assassination and only then did Ilić hand out the weapons to the assassins. The evidence of this is Rade Malobabić's confession to a priest, Colonel Ljubomir Vulović's statement to the Serbian Court that he received orders from Putnik and sent Malobabić into Austria-Hungary, witness accounts from Sarajevo, and Dragutin Dimitrijević's confession to the Serbian Court that he had ordered Malobabić to organize the assassination. Still all these statements and accounts are open to multiple interpretations and its possible Malobabić was conducting other business on behalf of the Serbian Military on this particular visit to Austria-Hungary.


To sum up so far, the Serbian Military, including the Chief of the Serbian General Staff, Marshall Putnik, Colonels Apis and Vulović, Majors Tankosić, Mojić and Todorović, Captains Popović and Prvanović, sergeant Grbić, and two other unnamed sergeants, and Rade Malobabić is implicated by the evidence in the assassination conspiracy. A number of agents of the Narodna Odbrana, an organization officially recognized by Serbia and reporting to the Prime Minister, are also implicated in the assassination. Knowledge of the plot circulated widely and we must now turn our attention to how, once the Serbian Caretaker Government became aware of the assassination plot, the Serbia Civilian Government failed to take firm measures to prevent the assassination. Narodna Odbrana logo Narodna Odbrana (literally, The Peoples Defense) was a Serbian nationalist group that was created around 1908 as a reaction to the Austria-Hungarian annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


Caretaker Prime Minister Pašić learned of the assassination plot and informed members of his cabinet in late May or early June according to Ljuba Jovanović in the article "The Blood of Slavism". Other evidence making it clear Pašić had sufficient advanced warning to have prevented the attack include Pašić’s handwritten notes on the briefing by the Narodna Obrana and the statement of Serbian Military Attache to Vienna, Colonel Lešanin to the historian Luciano Magrini. The statements of Colonel Lešanin, and Ljuba Jovanović cite certain half-measures taken by the Prime Minister providing Pašić with plausible deniability.


The half-measures were doomed to failure and the Prime Minister surely must have known that. The first half-measure was the instruction to the border guards to block the assassins. Jovanovic's account makes it clear that the Prime Minister did not give his order immediately, but rather reviewed it with his ministers after some time had elapsed, giving the assassins time to cross into Austria-Hungary, and he did not give the order through the proper channel. In the Spring of 1914, the Serbian Civilian Government was in the process of trying to establish its authority over the Serbian Military and the Serbian Military was resisting by all means available including refusing to follow orders, forcing Prime Minister Pasic to resign, and, when the Prime Minister was reinstated, an attempted putsch in Macedonia. Prime Minister Pasic needed to get King Petar to issue the order if there was to be any chance it would be obeyed and this the Prime Minister did not do. The second half-measure was to give Austria an oblique warning through Serbia's embassy in Vienna. The ambassador was a known ally of the military conspirators and his instructions were carried out poorly and not followed up on. To be successful, Prime Minister Pasic should have approached the Austrian Ambassador to Serbia personally and provided the details he knew about including the name of one of the assassins, the agents who passed them along, the fact that the weapons were in Tuzla with Misko Jovanovic and so on. This also, Prime Minister Pasic did not do and so the assassination and its terrible consequences were allowed to proceed.


The assassination

Note: The exact course of events was never firmly established, mostly due to inconsistent stories of witnesses.

A map of where the Archduke was killed
Enlarge
A map of where the Archduke was killed

The seven young conspirators were inexperienced with weapons, and it was only due to an extraordinary sequence of events that they were successful. Around 10:00 Franz Ferdinand, his wife and their party left the Philipovic army camp, where he had undertaken a brief review of the troops. The motorcade consisted of seven cars: Image File history File links Sarajevo-assn-chart. ... Image File history File links Sarajevo-assn-chart. ...

  1. In the first car: the chief detective of Sarajevo and three local police officers.
  2. In the second car: Sarajevo's Mayor, Fehim Efendi Curcic; Sarajevo's Commissioner of Police, Dr. Edmund Gerde.
  3. In the third car: Franz Ferdinand; his wife Sophie; Bosnia's Governor General Oskar Potiorek; Franz Ferdinand's bodyguard Lieutenant Colonel Count Franz von Harrach.
  4. In the fourth car: the head of Franz Ferdinand's military chancery, Baron Carl von Rumerskirch; Sophie's lady-in-waiting Countess Wilma Lanyus von Wellenberg; Potiorek's chief adjutant, Lieutenant Colonel Erich Edler von Merizzi; Lieutenant Colonel Count Alexander Boos-Waldeck.
  5. In the fifth car: Adolf Egger, Director of the Fiat Factory in Vienna; Major Paul Höger; Colonel Karl Bardolff; Dr. Ferdinand Fischer.
  6. In the sixth car: Baron Andreas von Morsey; Captain Pilz; other members of Franz Ferdinand's staff and Bosnian officials.
  7. In the seventh car: Major Erich Ritter von Hüttenbrenner; Count Josef zu Erbach-Fürstenau; Lieutenant Robert Grein.

At 10:15 the parade passed the first member of the group, Mehmed Mehmedbašić. He had placed himself in an upstairs window, but later claimed that he could not get a clear shot and decided to hold fire so as not to jeopardize the mission by alerting the authorities. The second member, Nedeljko Čabrinović, threw a bomb (or a stick of dynamite, according to some reports) at Franz Ferdinand's car, but missed. The explosion destroyed the following car, severely wounding the passengers, a policeman and several members of the crowd. Čabrinović swallowed his cyanide pill and jumped into the shallow river Miljacka. The procession sped away towards the Town Hall, and the scene turned to chaos. Police dragged Čabrinović out of the river, and he was severely beaten by the crowd before being taken into custody. His cyanide pill was either old or of too weak a dosage and had not worked. The river was also only 4 inches deep and failed to drown him. Some of the other assassins, either assuming that Franz Ferdinand had been killed, or losing their nerve, left the scene. Oskar Potiorek Oskar Potiorek (1853 – 1933) was an Austrian general who served as the Austro-Hungarian governor of Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1911 and 1914. ... Lady in Waiting is an album by American southern rock band The Outlaws, released in 1976. ... Fiat Punto FIAT Group, or Fiat S.p. ... Nedeljko Čabrinović (1895-1916) was a member of the Black Hand society, and one of seven assassains who made a successful attempt on the life of Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria. ... The cyanide ion, CN−. From the top: 1. ... The Miljacka is a river in Bosnia and Herzegovina that passes through Sarajevo. ...

1911 Graf und Stift Rois De Blougne tourer in which the Archduke Francis Ferdinand was riding at the time of his assassination.
1911 Graf und Stift Rois De Blougne tourer in which the Archduke Francis Ferdinand was riding at the time of his assassination.

Arriving at the Town Hall for a scheduled reception, Franz Ferdinand showed understandable signs of stress, interrupting a prepared speech of welcome by Mayor Curcic to protest "we come here and people throw bombs at us". He then became calm and the remainder of the reception passed tensely but without incident. Officials and members of the Archduke's party discussed how to guard against another assassination attempt without coming to any coherent conclusion. A suggestion that the troops outside the city be brought in to line the streets was reportedly rejected because they did not have their parade uniforms with them on manoeuvres. Security was accordingly left to the small Sarajevo police force. The only obvious measure taken was for one of Franz Ferdinand's military aides to take up a protective position on the left hand running board of his car. This is confirmed by photographs of the scene outside the Town Hall. Image File history File links Franz_Ferdinand_Automobile_AB.jpg‎ Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria ... Image File history File links Franz_Ferdinand_Automobile_AB.jpg‎ Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria ...

This picture is still widely identified as showing Gavrilo Princip's arrest. However, the figure under detention does not resemble Princip and is perhaps another member of the group of assassins. It has also been suggested that he is a German passerby who saved Princip from being lynched and was seized in the confusion of the moment
This picture is still widely identified as showing Gavrilo Princip's arrest. However, the figure under detention does not resemble Princip and is perhaps another member of the group of assassins. It has also been suggested that he is a German passerby who saved Princip from being lynched and was seized in the confusion of the moment

The remaining conspirators had been obstructed by the heavy crowds, and it appeared that the assassination plan had failed. However, after the reception at the Town Hall, Franz Ferdinand decided to go to the hospital and visit the wounded victims of Čabrinović's bomb. Meanwhile, Gavrilo Princip had gone to a nearby food shop, either having given up or assuming that the bomb attack had been successful. Emerging, he saw Franz Ferdinand's open car reversing after having taken a wrong turn as it drove past, near the Latin Bridge. The driver, Franz Urban, had not been advised of the hospital change in plan and had continued on a route that would take the Archduke and his party directly out of the city. Pushing forward to the right hand side of the car, Princip twice fired a Belgian made Fabrique Nationale M 1910 semi-automatic pistol in 7.65×17 mm (.32 ACP) caliber (serial number 19074). The first bullet went through the side of the vehicle and hit Sophie in the abdomen, and the second hit Franz Ferdinand in the neck. Princip later claimed that his intention was to kill Governor General Potiorek, not Sophie. photo of the famous Gavrilo Princip being arrested This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... photo of the famous Gavrilo Princip being arrested This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Latin bridge in 1913 Latin Bridge (Serb. ... Franz Urban was the driver of the car used to transport Austro-Hungarian archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophia von Chôtek through the city of Sarajevo on the day of the assassination in Sarajevo June 28, 1914. ... Fabrique Nationale de Herstal, more often known as Fabrique Nationale and abbreviated simply as FN, is a well-known firearm manufacturer that originated in the Belgian city of Herstal, near Liège. ... FN Model 1910 The FN Model 1910 was a Blowback (arms) operated, semi-automatic pistol designed by John Browning and manufactured by FN of Belgium. ... Springfield Armory M1911A1 . ... The . ...

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Franz Ferdinand

Both victims remained seated upright, but dying while being driven to the Governor's residence for medical treatment. Franz Ferdinand's last words, moments after being shot, were reported by von Harrach as "Sophie dear, don't die! Stay alive for our children!" („Sopherl! Sopherl! Sterbe nicht! Bleibe am Leben für unsere Kinder!“) Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Princip tried to kill himself, first by ingesting the cyanide, and then with his gun, but he vomited the apparently ineffective poison, and the gun was wrestled from his hand by onlookers before he had a chance to fire another shot.


Anti-Serb rioting broke out in Sarajevo in the hours following the assassination until order was restored by the military.


Consequences

The murder of the heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire and his pregnant wife produced widespread shock across Europe, and there was initially much sympathy for the Austrian position. The Austrian Government in Vienna opportunistically saw this as an opportunity to settle the perceived threat from Serbia once and for all.


After conducting a criminal investigation, as well as verifying that Germany would honor its military alliance, Austria-Hungary issued a formal letter to the government of Serbia. The letter reminded Serbia of its commitment to respect the Great Powers' decision regarding Bosnia-Herzegovina, and to maintain good neighborly relations with Austria Hungary. The letter also contained specific demands aimed at destroying the funding and operation of terrorist organizations which arguably had perpetrated the Sarajevo outrage. Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Motto: none Anthem: Bože pravde (English: God of Justice) Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Republic  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica  - President Boris Tadić Establishment    - Formation 814   - First Serbian Uprising 1804   - Internationally recognized July 13, 1878   - Kingdom of SCS created December 1, 1918...


This letter became known as the July Ultimatum, and Austria-Hungary stated that if Serbia did not accept all of the demands in total within 48 hours that it would withdraw its ambassador from Serbia. Serbia largely accepted all the Austro-Hungarian demands, apart from the demand that Austrian agents be allowed to conduct an investigation in Belgrade, which it felt would impinge on its sovereignty. The Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum to Serbia or July Ultimatum was an ultimatum or final list of demands delivered to the government of Serbia on July 23, 1914, following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo. ...


Serbian reservists being transported on tramp steamers on the Danube, apparently accidentally, crossed on to the Austro-Hungarian side of the river at Temes-Kubin and Austro-Hungarian soldiers fired into the air to warn them off. This incident was blown out of proportion and Austria-Hungary then declared war and mobilized its army on July 28, 1914. Under the Secret Treaty of 1892 Russia and France were obligated to mobilize their armies if any of the triplice mobilized and soon all the Great Powers except Italy had chosen sides and gone to war. July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Those of the conspirators who were under the age of 20 at the time of the assassination were sentenced to prison rather than execution. Three, including Danilo Ilić, were hanged. Čabrinović and Princip died of tuberculosis in prison. Some minor conspirators were acquitted. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones and joints. ...


It could be argued that this assassination set in train most of the major events of the 20th century, with its reverberations lingering into the 21st. The Treaty of Versailles at the end of the First World War is generally linked to the rise of Adolf Hitler and World War II. It also led to the success of the Russian Revolution, which helped lead to the Cold War. This, in turn, led to many of the major political developments of the twentieth century, such as the fall of the colonial empires and the rise of the United States and the USSR to super-power status. The Treaty of Versailles (3010) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Central Powers and the German Empire. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the system of autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal Provisional Government (Duma), resulting in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... For other uses, please see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


However, if the assassination had not occurred, it is very possible that European war would have still have erupted, triggered by another event at another time. The alliances noted above and the existence of vast and complex mobilization plans that were almost impossible to reverse once put in motion made war on a huge scale increasingly likely from the beginning of the twentieth century. This article describes military mobilization. ...


Relics

The automobile ridden in by the Archduke at the time of his assassination. The hole left by the bullet which killed Sophie can be seen above the rear wheel
The automobile ridden in by the Archduke at the time of his assassination. The hole left by the bullet which killed Sophie can be seen above the rear wheel

The bullet fired by Gavrilo Princip, sometimes referred to as "the bullet that started World War I", is stored as a museum exhibit in the Konopiště Castle near the town of Benešov, Czech Republic. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1675x833, 157 KB) Summary Automobile in which the Archduke Francis Ferdinand was riding at the time of his assassination on June 28, 1914. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1675x833, 157 KB) Summary Automobile in which the Archduke Francis Ferdinand was riding at the time of his assassination on June 28, 1914. ... The subject of the Causes of World War I has been among the most discussed issues in historiography ever since the war began in August 1914. ... KonopiÅ¡tÄ› is a château (castle) located in the Czech Republic, about 50 km southeast of Prague, outside the city of BeneÅ¡ov. ... Horní BeneÅ¡ov is also a town in the Czech Republic BeneÅ¡ov (pronounce Beneshoff) is a town in the Czech Republic, about 40 km southeast of Prague. ...


Princip's weapon itself, along with the large car that the Archduke was riding in, his bloodstained light blue uniform and plumed cocked hat, and the chaise longue on which he was placed while being attended to by physicians, are kept as a permanent exhibit in the Museum of Military History, Vienna, Austria. A chaise lounge (French long chair) is an upholstered couch in the shape of a chair that is long enough to support the legs. ... The Heeresgeschichtliches Museum is a Military History museum located in Vienna, Austria. ...


References

  • Albertini, Luigi. Origins of the War of 1914, Oxford University Press, London, 1953
  • Dedijer, Vladimir. The Road to Sarajevo, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1966
  • de Schelking, Eugene. Recollections of a Russian Diplomat, The Suicide of Monarchies, McMillan Co., New York, 1918
  • Fay, Sidney Bradshaw: Origins of the Great War. New York 1928
  • MacKenzie, David. 'Black Hand' On Trial: Salonika 1917, Eastern European Monographs, 1995
  • Magrini, Luciano. Il Dramma Di Seraievo. Origini e responsabilita della guerra europa, Milan, 1929
  • Owings, W.A. Dolph. The Sarajevo Trial, Documentary Publications, Chapel Hill N.C., 1984
  • Ponting, Clive. Thirteen Days, Chatto & Windus, London, 2002.
  • Treusch, Wolf Sören. Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand und seine Gemahlin werden in Sarajevo ermordet, DLF, Berlin, 2004
World War I
Theatres Main events Specific articles Participants See also

Prelude:
Causes
Sarajevo assassination
The July Ultimatum Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul... European military alliances in 1915. ... The Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum to Serbia or July Ultimatum was an ultimatum or final list of demands delivered to the government of Serbia on July 23, 1914, following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo. ...


Main theatres:
Western Front
Eastern Front
Italian Front
Middle Eastern Theatre
Balkan Theatre
Atlantic Theatre Combatants Belgium, British Empire, France, United States, other Western Allies of WWI Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then General Ferdinand Foch Kaiser Wilhelm II Casualties ~4,800,000 Unknown though considerably higher Following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the German army opened the Western... Combatants German Empire Austria-Hungary Russian Empire Romania Commanders Paul von Hindenburg Erich Ludendorff Conrad von Hötzendorf Nikolay II Grand Duke Nicholas Constantin Prezan The Eastern Front was a theatre of war during World War I in Central and, primarily, Eastern Europe. ... The Italian campaign refers to a series of battles fought between the armies of Italy and Austria Hungary along with their allies in northern Italy between 1915 and 1918. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Triple Entente Strength 2,850,000 2 Casualties 550,000 KIA 3 891,000 WIA 240,000 Sickness 103,731 MIO 250,000 POW 1 1 Ottoman casualties are from Republic of Turkey gov. ... Combatants Central Powers Triple Entente, Serbia, Romania The Balkans Campaign of World War I was fought between Serbia and later Romania who sided with the Allied Powers against the Central Powers, mostly Austria-Hungary and Germany as well as Bulgaria. ... The First Battle of the Atlantic (1914–1918) was a naval campaign of World War I, largely fought in the seas around the British Isles and in the Atlantic Ocean. ...


Other theatres:
African Theatre
Pacific Theatre Combatants Great Britian, South Africa, France, Belgium, Portugal Germany The African Theatre of World War I was a set of unrelated wars for control over German colonies in Africa: the German colonies of Kamerun, Togo, South-West Africa, and German East Africa. ... Combatants Japan, Great Britain, New Zealand, Australia Germany The Asian and Pacific Theatre of World War I was a largely bloodless conquest of a number of German controlled islands in the Pacific Ocean. ...


General timeline:
WWI timeline The following tables list the main events happened during World War I. // 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 Post-1920 Categories: | ...

1914:
Battle of Liège
Battle of Tannenberg
Invasion of Serbia
First Battle of the Marne
First Battle of Arras
Battle of Sarikamis
1915:
Mesopotamian Campaign
Battle of Gallipoli
Italian Campaign
• Conquest of Serbia
1916:
Battle of Verdun
Battle of the Somme
Battle of Jutland
Brusilov Offensive
Conquest of Romania
Great Arab Revolt
1917:
Second Battle of Arras (Vimy Ridge)
Battle of Passchendaele
Capture of Baghdad
• Conquest of Palestine
1918:
Spring Offensive
Hundred Days Offensive
• Meuse-Argonne Offensive
Armistice with Germany
Armistice with Ottoman Empire
The Battle of Liège was the opening battle of the German invasion into Belgium, and the first battle of World War I. // The plan In 1870, soon after the German military defeated the French in the Franco-Prussian War, German military leader Helmuth von Moltke began formulating a plan... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Austria-Hungary German Empire Bulgaria Triple Entente Serbia Greece Italy Commanders Oskar Potiorek Radomir Putnik Maurice Sarrail Adolphe Guillaumat Franchet dEsperey George Milne Panagiotis Danglis The Serbian Campaign was fought from August 1914, when Austria-Hungary invaded Serbia, thus starting the First World War, until the end of... Combatants France United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Joseph Joffre John French Helmuth von Moltke Karl von Bulow Alexander von Kluck Strength 1,071,000 1,485,000 Casualties Approximately 263,000: 250,000 French casualties (80,000 dead) 13,000 British casualties (1,700 dead) Approximately 250,000 total The... Combatants France German Empire Commanders Louis Maudhuy Crown Prince Rupprecht Strength French Tenth Army Three corps of the German First, Second and Seventh Armies The Battle of Arras (also known as the First Battle of Arras), which began on October 1, 1914, was an attempt by the French Army... Combatants Russia Ottoman Empire Commanders General Vorontsov General Yudenich Enver Pasha Strength 100,000 90,000 (plus aprox. ... The Mesopotamian Campaign was a theater of the First World War fought between Allied forces represented by British and Anglo-Indian troops, and Central forces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Turkey (Ottoman Empire) Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Enver pasha Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions The Battle of Gallipoli (sometimes referred to as the first D-Day) took place on the Turkish peninsula... The Italian campaign refers to a series of battles fought between the armies of Italy and Austria Hungary along with their allies in northern Italy between 1915 and 1918. ... Combatants Austria-Hungary German Empire Bulgaria Triple Entente Serbia Greece Italy Commanders Oskar Potiorek Radomir Putnik Maurice Sarrail Adolphe Guillaumat Franchet dEsperey George Milne Panagiotis Danglis The Serbian Campaign was fought from August 1914, when Austria-Hungary invaded Serbia, thus starting the First World War, until the end of... Combatants France German Empire Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties 378,000; of whom 120,000 died 337,000; of whom 100,000 died The Battle of Verdun, fought from 21... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British & 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10. ... Combatants Royal Navy (Grand Fleet) Kaiserliche Marine (High Seas Fleet) Commanders Sir John Jellicoe, Sir David Beatty Reinhard Scheer, Franz von Hipper Strength 28 battleships, 9 battlecruisers, 8 heavy cruisers, 26 light cruisers, 78 destroyers 16 battleships, 5 battlecruisers, 6 pre-dreadnoughts, 11 light cruisers, 61 torpedo-boats Casualties 6... Combatants Russian Empire Austro-Hungary German Empire Commanders Aleksei Brusilov Conrad von Hötzendorf Alexander von Linsingen Strength 40+ infantry divisions (573,000 men) 15 cavalry divisions (60,000 men) 39 infantry divisions (437,000 men) 10 Cavalry divisions (30,000 men) Casualties ~500,000 men killed and wounded 975... Combatants Central Powers, Bulgaria Romania, Russia Commanders General Falkenhayn General Mackensen General Averescu, General Zaionchovsky Strength 450,000 600,000 Casualties 60,000 roughly 330,000 (50% POWs) The Romanian Campaign was a campaign in the Balkans theatre of World War I fought between Romania and Russia against armies of... Combatants Hashemite Arabs Great Britain Ottoman Empire Commanders Faisal T.E. Lawrence Ahmed Djemal Strength 5,000 (?) 25,000 (?) This article is about the Arab Revolt of 1916. ... Combatants Allies Central Powers Commanders Julian Byng Arthur Currie Ludwig von Falkenhausen Strength 30,000 Unknown Casualties 3,598 dead 7,104 wounded 20,000 The Battle of Vimy Ridge was one of the opening battles in a larger British campaign known as the Battle of Arras. ... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Hubert Gough Herbert Plumer Arthur Currie Max von Gallwitz Erich Ludendorff Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties 448,000 killed and wounded 260,000 killed and wounded The 1917 Battle of Passchendaele, also known as the Third... Combatants The Tigris Corps of British India Sixth Army of the Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Frederick Stanley Maude Khalil Pasha Strength 50,000 men 25,000 men Casualties unknown unknown, more than 9,000 were taken prisoner Baghdad was the southern capital of the Ottoman Empire in 1917. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... The 1918 Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War, which marked the deepest advance by either side since 1914. ... The Hundred Days Offensive was the final offensive in World War I by the Allies against the Central Powers on the Western Front from August 8, 1918 to November 11, 1918. ... The Meuse-Argonne Offensive was a major battle of World War I. It was the biggest operation and victory of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) in that war. ... Front page of the New York Times on Armistice Day, 11 November 1918 The armistice treaty between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on November 11, 1918, and marked the end of the First World War on the Western Front. ... The Armistice of Mudros was signed between the Ottoman Empire (represented by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Beg) and the Allies (represented by the British Admiral Arthur Calthorpe), in the Mudros port in the island of Lemnos on 30 October 1918. ...

Military engagements
Naval warfare
Air warfare
Cryptography
People
Poison gas
Railways
Technology
Trench warfare
Partition of Ottoman Empire A German trench in the swamp area near the Mazuric Lakes on the Eastern Front. ... British battleship HMS Irresistible abandoned and sinking, 18 March 1915, during the Battle of Gallipoli. ... Nieuport Fighter Aisne, France 1917 Aerial warfare was introduced alongside many other innovations in World War I. Previously wars had been fought on land and at sea, but the advent of aircraft technology allowed a third dimension: a war in the air. ... In cryptography, trench codes were codes used for secrecy by field armies in World War I. A reasonably-designed code is generally more difficult to crack than a classical cipher, but of course suffers from the difficulty of preparing, distributing, and protecting codebooks. ... A poison gas attack in World War I. The use of poison gas was a major military innovation of the First World War. ... The machine gun was one of the decisive technologies during World War I. Picture: British Vickers machine gun crew on the Western Front. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defence. ... Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire is direct consequence of the World War I with the Ottomans involvement in the Middle Eastern theatre. ...


Civilian impact and atrocities:
Armenian Genocide
Assyrian Genocide Armenian Genocide photo. ... Bodies of Assyrians who perished during the Assyrian Genocide 40 Christians dying a day say Assyrian refugees - The Syracuse Herald, 1915. ...


Aftermath:
Aftermath
Casualties
• Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Paris Peace Conference
Treaty of Versailles
• Treaty of St. Germain
• Treaty of Neuilly
Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty of Lausanne
League of Nations Woodrow Wilson and the American peace commissioners during the negotiations on the Treaty of Versailles. ... Pie chart showing deaths by alliance and military/civilian. ... The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest, formerly Brest-Litovsk, between Russia and the Central Powers, marking Russias exit from World War I. The treaty was practically obsolete before the end of the year but is significant as a chief... The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was a conference organized by the victors of World War I to negotiate the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and the defeated Central Powers. ... The Treaty of Versailles (3010) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Central Powers and the German Empire. ... The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new Republic of Austria on the other. ... The Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine, dealing with Bulgaria for its role as one of the Central Powers in World War I, was signed on the November 27, 1919 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. ... The Grand Trianon at Versailles, site of the signing The Treaty of Trianon was the peace agreement imposed on Hungary after World War I by the victorious powers. ... The Treaty of Sèvres of August 10, 1920, was a peace treaty between the Entente and Associated Powers[1] and the Ottoman Empire after World War I. The treaty was signed by the Ottoman Government, but Sultan Mehmed VI never signed that treaty. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly... The League of Nations was an international organization founded after the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. ...

Entente Powers
Russian Empire
France
British Empire
  » United Kingdom
  » Australia
  » Canada
  » India
  » New Zealand
  » Newfoundland
  » South Africa
Italy
Romania
United States
Serbia
Portugal
China
Japan
Belgium
Montenegro
Greece
Armenia
more… European military alliances in 1914. ... Image File history File links Russian_Empire_1914_17. ... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1924) Area Approx. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada-1868-Red. ... Image File history File links Imperial-India-Blue-Ensign. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Newfoundland. ... National motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Capital St. ... Image File history File links South_Africa_Red_Ensign. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946). ... File links The following pages link to this file: Axis Powers Flag of Romania Categories: Flag images ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flaf_of_Serbia_(1882-1918). ... KaraÄ‘orÄ‘e Petrović, leader of Serbian uprising in 1804 Serbia gained its autonomy from the Ottoman Empire in two revolutions in 1804 and 1815, though Turkish troops continued to garrison the capital, Belgrade until 1867. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China_1912-1928. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium. ... Image File history File links Old_Flag_of_Montenegro. ... The history of Montenegro begins in the early Middle Ages, after the arrival of the Slavs into that part of the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... European military alliances in 1914. ...


Central Powers
German Empire
Austria-Hungary
Ottoman Empire
Bulgaria
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Triple Alliance. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria-Hungary. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Warning: Value not specified for common_name Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem At the height of its power (1680) Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326... The flag of the Kingdom of Bulgaria. ...

• Category: World War I
A war to end all wars
Female roles
Literature
Total war
Spanish flu
Veterans
World War I (then known as The Great War) was at the time and in the years just after described as the war to end all wars (or, in the jargon of the French Poilus: la der des der, i. ... Rosie the Riveter: We Can Do It! - Many women first found economic strength in World War II-era manufacturing jobs. ... World War I has inspired great novels, drama and poetry. ... This article is about the military doctrine of total war. ... Public Notice The Spanish Flu Pandemic (less misleadingly called the 1918 flu pandemic) was a pandemic in 1918 and 1919 caused by an unusually severe and deadly strain of the subtype H1N1 of the species Influenza A virus (which apparently killed via cytokine storm, explaining the severe nature and unusual... The following is a list of known surviving veterans of the First World War (28 July 1914 – 11 November 1918). ...


Contemporaneous conflicts:
First Balkan War
Second Balkan War
Maritz Rebellion
Easter Rising
Russian Revolution
Russian Civil War
Finnish Civil War
North Russia Campaign
• Wielkopolska Uprising
Polish–Soviet War
Turkish War of Independence also known as the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922)

// Combatants Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Montenegro Greece Serbia Commanders Nizam Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Esat Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Serbia: Radomir Putnik, Petar Bojović, Stepa Stepanović Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Strength 350,000 men Bulgaria... The Second Balkan War was fought in 1913 between Bulgaria on one side and Greece and Serbia on the other side. ... The Maritz Rebellion or the Boer Revolt or the Five Shilling Rebellion1, occurred in South Africa in 1914 at the start of World War I, in which men who supported the recreation of the old Boer republics rose up against the government of the Union of South Africa. ... Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Pádraig Pearse, James Connolly General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the system of autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal Provisional Government (Duma), resulting in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Combatants Red Army (Bolsheviks) White Army (Monarchists, SRs, Anti-Communists) Green Army (Peasants and Nationalists) Black Army (Anarchists) Commanders Leon Trotsky Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Lavr Kornilov, Alexander Kolchak, Anton Denikin, Pyotr Wrangel Alexander Antonov, Nikifor Grigoriev Nestor Makhno Strength 5,427,273 (peak) +1,000,000 Casualties 939,755... Combatants Whites: White Guards, German Empire, Swedish volunteers Reds: Red Guards, Bolshevist Russia Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Ali Aaltonen, Eero Haapalainen, Eino Rahja, Kullervo Manner Strength 80,000-90,000 Finns, 550 Swedish volunteers, 13,000 Germans[1] 80,000-90,000 Finns, 4,000-10,000 Russians[1... North Russia Campaign Arkhangelsk Oblast May 1918 – Sept 1919 Polar Bear Expedition Russian Civil War North Russia Relief Force // Introduction The North Russia Campaign (also known as the Northern Russian Expedition or the Allied Intervention in North Russia) was the involvement of international troops part of the Allied Intervention in... Soldiers of the Great Polish Army Wielkopolska Uprising of 1918–1919 (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1918–19 roku) was a military insurrection of the Polish people in the Greater Poland region (also called the Grand Duchy of Poznań) against the German/Prussian forces. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Joseph Stalin Józef Piłsudski Edward Rydz-Śmigły Strength 950,000 including reserves 5 million 360,000 including reserves 738,000 Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 100,000 - 150,000 Unknown, dead estimated at... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Combatants Greece Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Gen Leonidas Paraskevopoulos, Gen Anastasios Papoulas, Gen Georgios Hatzianestis Ali Fethi Okyar, Ismet Inonu, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Fevzi Çakmak Strength 200,000 men 120,000 men (plus thousands more volunteers) Casualties 23,500 dead; 20,820 captured 20,540 dead; 10,000 wounded The...

More information on World War I:

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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Assassination in Sarajevo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3993 words)
The day of the assassination, June 28, is June 15 in the Julian calendar, the feast of St.
In Serbia, it is called Vidovdan and commemorates the 1389 Battle of Kosovo against the Ottomans at which the Sultan was assassinated in his tent by a Serb; it is an occasion for Serbian patriotic observances.
It could be argued that this assassination set in train most of the major events of the 20th century, with its reverberations lingering into the 21st.
Talk:Assassination in Sarajevo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1923 words)
Assassination in Sarajevo is a former good article candidate.
It may also be worth noting that the assassination was one of the finest examples of Chaos Theory in action.
I had recently seen on a documentary regarding the assassination and it was stated that the gun's that were supplied to the assassins were made by Browning.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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