FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Assassination" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Assassination
Homicide
Murder

Assassination
Child murder
Consensual homicide
Contract killing
Felony murder
Honour killing
Human sacrifice
Lust murder
Lynching
Mass murder
Murder-suicide
Proxy murder
Ritual murder
Serial killer
Spree killer
Torture murder
Homicide (Latin homicidium, homo human being + caedere to cut, kill) refers to the act of killing another human being. ... Note: for practices of systematically killing very young children, see infanticide. ... Consensual homicide refers to a killing in which the victim wants to die. ... In most countries with judicial systems, a contract to kill a person is unenforceable by law (in the sense that the customer cannot sue for specific performance and the contract killer cannot sue for his pay). ... The felony murder rule is a legal doctrine according to which anyone who commits, or is found to be involved in, a serious crime (a felony), during which any person dies, is guilty of murder. ... Honour killing is most often the killing of a female, but in some cases also a male, and sometimes his/her family members, love-interests or other associates,[1][2] for supposed sexual or marital offences, typically by his/her own relatives or relatives of a purported romantic interest, with... Human sacrifice is the act of killing a human being for the purposes of making an offering to a deity or other, normally supernatural, power. ... A lust murder is a homicide in which the offender searches for erotic satisfaction by taking away the victims life. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Mass murder (massacre) is the act of murdering a large number of people, typically at the same time, or over a relatively short period of time. ... A murder suicide is an act in which an individual kills one or more other persons immediately before, or while killing himself. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ritual murder is murder performed in a ritualistic fashion or on a basis of rituals. ... Serial killers are individuals who have a history of multiple slayings of victims who were usually unknown to them beforehand. ... A spree killer, also known as a rampage killer, is someone who embarks on a murderous assault on his victims in a short time in multiple locations. ... Torture murder is a loosely defined legal term to describe the process used by murderers who kill their victims by slowly torturing them. ...

Manslaughter

in English law
Negligent homicide
Vehicular homicide For a discussion of the law in other countries, see manslaughter In the English law of homicide, manslaughter is a less serious offence than murder with the the law differentiating between levels of fault based on the mens rea (Latin for a guilty mind). Manslaughter may be either: Voluntary where... Negligent homicide is a charge brought against persons, who by inaction, allow others under their care to die. ... In most states in the United States, vehicular homicide is a crime. ...

Non-criminal homicide

Justifiable homicide
Capital punishment The concept of justifiable homicide in criminal law stands on the dividing line between an excuse and an exculpation. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ...

Other types of homicide

Avunculicide
Deicide
Democide
Familicide
Femicide
Feticide
Filicide
Fratricide
Gendercide
Genocide
Infanticide
Mariticide
Matricide
Parricide
Patricide
Prolicide
Regicide
Sororicide
Suicide
Tyrannicide
Uxoricide
Viricide
Vivicide
This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Democide is a term coined by political scientist R. J. Rummel for the murder of any person or people by a government, including genocide, politicide, and mass murder. Rummel created the term as an extended concept to include forms of government murder that are not covered by the legal definition... A familicide is a type of murder or murder-suicide in which at least one spouse and one or more children are killed. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Abortion, in its most common usage, refers to the voluntary or induced termination of pregnancy, generally through the use of surgical procedures or drugs. ... Filicide is the deliberate act of a parent killing his or her own son or daughter. ... Fratricide (from the Latin word frater, meaning: brother and cide meaning to kill) is the act of a person killing his or her brother. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... In sociology and biology, infanticide is the practice of intentionally causing the death of an infant of a given species, by members of the same species - often by the mother. ... Mariticide (not to be confused with matricide); from the Latin maritus (married) & cidium (killing), literally means the murder of ones married partner, but has become most associated with the murder of a husband by his wife. ... Matricide is the act of killing ones mother. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Patricide. ... Patricide is (i) the act of killing ones father, or (ii) a person who kills his or her father. ... Prolicide is the act of killing offspring, either before or soon after birth. ... For other uses, see Regicide (disambiguation). ... This article is about a kind of homicide. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... Tyrannicide literally means the killing of a tyrant. ... Uxoricide (from Latin uxor meaning wife) is murder of ones wife. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

This box: view  talk  edit

Assassination is the targeted killing of a high-profile individual.[1] An added distinction between assassination and other forms of killing is that the assassin has an ideological or political motivation, though many assassins (especially those not part of an organization) also demonstrate insanity[citation needed][dubious ]; other motivations are money (contract killing), revenge, or a military operation. Assassin may refer to: Hashshashin, the historical Muslim sect of Alamut An assassin, a murderer who is politically motivated Sometimes a hitman, a murderer who is motivated by money, is called an assassin Assassin (rap crew), a French rap crew Assassin (character class), a character class found in many role... This article is about fatal harm. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Motivation is a word used to refer to the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior, especially human behavior. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... For other uses, see Money (disambiguation). ... In most countries with judicial systems, a contract to kill a person is unenforceable by law (in the sense that the customer cannot sue for specific performance and the contract killer cannot sue for his pay). ... For other uses, see Revenge (disambiguation). ... Planning, calculating, or the giving or receiving of information. ...


The assassination euphemism targeted killing (extrajudicial execution) is also used for the government-sanctioned killing of opponents.[2] 'Assassination' itself, along with terms such as 'terrorist' and 'freedom fighter', may in this context be considered a loaded term, as it implies an act where the proponents of such killings may consider them justified or even necessary.[2] A euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Freedom fighter is a relativistic local term for those engaged in rebellion against an established organization that is thought to be oppressive. ... Loaded words are words or phrases which have strong emotional overtones or connotations and which evoke strongly positive (or negative) reactions far beyond the specific meaning of the word which is listed in the dictionary. ...

Contents

Etymology

Main article: Hashshashin

The term 'Assassin' may derive from Hashshashin, a militant Ismaili Muslim sect, active in the Middle East from the eighth to the fourteenth centuries. This mystic secret society killed members of the Abbasid and Seljuq élite for political and religious reasons.[3] Hashshashin fortress of Alamut. ... Hashshashin fortress of Alamut. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... For the Europe album, see Secret Society (Europe album). ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... This article is about dynasty which ruled the political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ...


It is speculated that the assassins were drugged for their murders with hashish and opium; assassin derives either from hasishin, the influence of the drugs, or hassansin, after their leader, Hassan-i-Sabah. Hashishinnya was an offensive term depicting this cult by its Muslim and Mongolian detractors. Hashish Hashish (from Arabic: , lit. ... This article is about the drug. ... Artistic Rendering of Hassan-i-Sabbah Hassan-i Sabbah (Persian: حسن صباح) (circa 1034 - 1124) also known as The Old Man of the Mountain, was an Iranian Ismāīlī Nizarī missionary who converted a community in the late 11th century in the heart of the Alborz Mountains of northern Iran. ...


The earliest literary use of the "assassination" is in The Tragedy of Macbeth by William Shakespeare (1605).[4][5] Macbeth is also a Scottish clan. ...


Definition problem

The definition of "assassination" varies among sources, the The American Heritage Dictionary defines "to assassinate": Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is a dictionary of American English published by Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. ...

. . . to murder [a prominent person] by surprise attack, as for political reasons;[6]

however, the Oxford English Dictionary's definition is: The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of...

The action of assassinating; the taking the life of any one by treacherous violence, esp. by a hired emissary, or one who has taken upon him to execute the deed.[7]

Should it include killings wherein the primary motivation is attracting attention to a political cause, wherein the victim is of secondary importance? Should it be limited to the murders of political leaders and figures hostile to the assassin's political agenda? Given that:

  • the killing of someone by treacherous violence
  • the killing of someone in the public view
  • the killing of someone for political, moral, or ideological reasons

Use in history

Assassination, the murder of an opponent or well-known public figure, is one of the oldest tools of power struggles, as well as the expression of certain psychopathic disorders. ...

Ancient history

Assassination is one of the oldest tools of power politics, dating back at least as far as recorded history. Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, and Julius Caesar can be noted as famous examples. Emperors of Rome often met their end in this way, as did many of the Shia Imams. The practice was also well-known in ancient China. An example of this is Jing Ke's failed assassination of Qin Shi Huang. The ancient Indian military adviser Chanakya wrote about assassinations in detail in his political treatise Arthashastra. Power politics is a state of international relations in which sovereigns protect their own interests by threatening one another with military, economic, or political aggression. ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... This is a list of Roman Emperors with the dates they controlled the Roman Empire. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam. ... The History of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... Jing Ke (Chinese: 荊軻; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching Ko) was a guest residing in the estates of Dan, crown prince of Yan and renowned for his failed assassination of the Chinese emperor Qin Shi Huang who reigned from 221 BC to 210 BC. His story is told in the chapter... The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (259 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE),[1] personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty), and... The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BCE. This Bronze Age civilization was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. ... Chānakya (Sanskrit: चाणक्य) (c. ... The Arthashastra (more precisely Arthaśāstra) is a treatise on statecraft and economic policy which identifies its author by the names Kautilya[1] and Viṣṇugupta,[2] who are traditionally identified with the Mauryan minister Cāṇakya. ...


In the Middle Ages, regicide was rare, but with the Renaissance, tyrannicide - or assassination for personal or political reasons - once again became more common. Rulers like Henry III and Henry IV of France as well as William the Silent of the Netherlands fell to it. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Regicide (disambiguation). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Tyrannicide literally means the killing of a tyrant. ... Henry III of France (September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), also Henry of Poland (also called Henry of Valois, Henryk Walezy), born Alexandre-Édouard of France, was a member of the House of Valois. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... William I (William the Silent). ...

Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, artists depiction from 1865. Assassin John Wilkes Booth on the right.
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, artists depiction from 1865. Assassin John Wilkes Booth on the right.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 561 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 1078 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 561 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 1078 pixel, file size: 3. ... Assassination of Abraham Lincoln From left to right: Major Henry Rathbone, Clara Harris, Mary Todd Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln, and John Wilkes Booth. ... John Wilkes Booth (May 10, 1838 – April 26, 1865) assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Fords Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865. ...

Modern history

As the world moved into the present day and the stakes in political clashes of will continued to grow to a global scale, the number of assassinations concurrently multiplied. In Russia alone, four emperors were assassinated within less than 200 years - Ivan VI, Peter III, Paul I, and Alexander II . Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... H.I.M. Ivan, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, with his mother Anna Leopoldovna Ivan VI of Russia (Иоанн Антонович), (August 23, 1740 - July 16, 1764), reigned as Emperor of Russia 1740 - 1741, was the son of Prince Antony Ulrich of Brunswick-Lüneburg and of the princess Anna Leopoldovna... Peter III (February 21, 1728 – July 17, 1762) (Russian: ) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ...


In the U.S., Presidents Abraham Lincoln, James Garfield, William McKinley, and John F. Kennedy died at the hands of assassins, while many other presidents survived attempts on their lives. Most of these assassinations however turned out to have no more than nebulous political backgrounds, adding a new threat - the mentally deranged assassin. Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Assassination of Abraham Lincoln From left to right: Major Henry Rathbone, Clara Harris, Mary Todd Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln, and John Wilkes Booth. ... Leon Czolgosz shoots President McKinley with a concealed revolver. ... President Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas Governor John Connally in the presidential limousine just moments before his assassination The assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 p. ...


In Europe the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand by Serbian nationalist insurgents is credited for igniting World War I after a succession of minor conflicts, while World War II saw the first known use of specifically trained assassination operatives since the original Assassins[citation needed]. Reinhard Heydrich was killed by Czech partisan killers, and knowledge from decoded transmissions allowed the U.S. to carry out a targeted attack, killing Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto while he was en route via airplane. Adolf Hitler meanwhile was almost killed by his own officers, and survived numerous attempts by other individuals and organizations. Hitler ultimately died by his own hand. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A new plaque commemorating the exact location of the Sarajevo Assassination On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot to death in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Gavrilo Princip, one of a... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... An insurgency is an armed rebellion against a constituted authority, by any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government, or administration. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was an SS-Obergruppenführer, chief of the Reich Security Main Office (including the Gestapo, SD and Kripo Nazi police agencies) and Reichsprotektor (Reich Protector) of Bohemia and Moravia. ... Look up Partisan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders William F. Halsey, Jr. ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto ) (4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II, graduate of Imperial Japanese Naval Academy and an alumnus of U.S. Naval War College and Harvard University (1919–1921). ... Fixed-wing aircraft is a term used to refer to what are more commonly known as aeroplanes in Commonwealth English (excluding Canada) or airplanes in North American English. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany, on July 20, 1944. ... The front cover of Time magazine, May 7, 1945. ...


India's "Father of the Nation", Mohandas K. Gandhi, was shot on January 30, 1948 by Nathuram Godse, for what Godse perceived as his betrayal of the Hindu cause in attempting to seek peace between Hindus and Muslims.[8] Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nathuram Vinayak Godse (Marathi: नथूराम विनायक गोडसे) (May 19, 1910 – November 15, 1949) was the assassin of Mahatma Gandhi. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Gari Melchers, Mural of Peace, 1896. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...


Cold War and beyond

See also: Cold War
See also: War on Terrorism

During the Cold War, there was a dramatic new increase in the number of political assassinations, likely because of the ideological polarization of most of the First and Second worlds, whose adherents were often more than willing to both justify and finance such killings. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is campaign begun by the Bush administration which includes various military, political, and legal actions taken to ostensibly curb the spread of terrorism following the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... A map of countries often considered to have made up the Second World from the 1950s through to the 1980s. ...


Nawabzadah Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan was assassinated by Saad Akbar, a lone assassin in 1951. Conspiracy theorists believe his conflict with certain members of the Pakistan military (Rawalpindi conspiracy) or suppression of Communists and antagonism towards the Soviet Union, were potential reasons for his assassination. A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Assasinated the first Prime Minister of Pakistan, Liaqat Ali Khan. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


During the Kennedy era (which, as noted before, ended in an assassination itself), Cuban President Fidel Castro narrowly escaped death on several occasions at the hands of the CIA. At the same time, the KGB made creative use of assassination to deal with high-profile defectors. President Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas Governor John Connally in the presidential limousine just moments before his assassination The assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 p. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ...


Most major powers were not long in repudiating Cold War assassination tactics, though many allege that this was merely a smoke screen for political benefit and that covert and illegal training of assassins continues today, with Russia, Israel, and other nations accused of still regularly engaging in such operations. In 1986, U.S. President Ronald Reagan (who survived an assassination attempt himself) ordered the Operation El Dorado Canyon air raid on Libya where one of the primary targets was the home residence of Libyan ruler Muammar Gaddafi. Gaddafi escaped unharmed, however his adopted daughter Hanna was one of the civilian casualties. Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Operation El Dorado Canyon was the name of the joint United States Air Force and Navy air-strikes against Libya on April 15, 1986. ... Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi1 (Arabic:   ) (born c. ... Combatants United States Libya Commanders Ronald Reagan Muammar al-Gaddafi Casualties 1 F-111 2 aircrew KIA 3-5 IL-76 transport planes 14 Mig-23 Floggers 2 Helicopters[1] 15 Libyan civilians The United States bombing of Libya (code-named Operation El Dorado Canyon) comprised the joint United States...


In the Philippines, the assassination of Benigno Aquino, Jr. triggered the eventual downfall of the 20-year autocratic rule of President Ferdinand Marcos. Aquino, a former Senator and a leading figure of the political opposition, was assassinated in 1983 at the Manila International Airport (now the Ninoy Aquino International Airport) upon returning home from exile. His death thrust his widow, Corazon Aquino, to the limelight and ultimately, the presidency following the peaceful 1986 EDSA Revolution. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections Chairman: Resurreccion Z. Borra 2013 | 2010 | 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The President of the... Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralín Marcos (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was President of the Philippines from 1966 to 1986. ... The Senate of the Philippines is the upper chamber of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, the Congress of the Philippines. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... An International airport is an airport where flights from other countries land and/or take off. ... The Ninoy Aquino International Airport (Filipino: Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Ninoy Aquino) or NAIA, pronounced nah-eeyah, (IATA: MNL, ICAO: RPLL) is one of the two international airports serving the Metro Manila Area and the main international gateway of the Philippines. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino (born January 25, 1933), widely known as Cory Aquino, was President of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992. ... Combatants Civilians; Defected Troops Marcos Loyalist Troops Commanders Corazon Aquino Archbishop Jaime Cardinal Sin Vice Chief of Staff Fidel Ramos Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos Imelda Marcos Chief of Staff Fabian Ver Casualties None 1 “People Power” redirects here. ...


On August 17, 1988 President of Pakistan Gen. M. Zia ul Haq died along with his staff and the American Ambassador to Pakistan when his C-130 transport plane exploded in mid-air because of an on-flight bomb. The CIA, KGB and Indian secret service RAW all have been implicated by various conspiracy theorists. is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Gen. ... The Lockheed C-130 Hercules, a four-engine turboprop aircraft, is the main tactical air transport aircraft of the United States and UK military forces. ...


During the 1991 Gulf War, the United States also struck many of Iraq’s most important command bunkers with bunker-busting bombs in hopes of killing Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... A bunker buster is a bomb designed to penetrate hardened targets or targets buried deep underground. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ...


Various dictators around the world, such as Saddam Hussein, have also used assassination to remove individual opponents, or to terrorize troublesome population groups.[citation needed] In return, in post-Saddam Iraq, the Shiite-dominated government has used death squads to perform countless extrajudicial executions of Sunni Iraqis, with some alleging that the death squads were trained by the U.S.[9][10][11] Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Execution is a synonym for the actioning of something, of putting something into effect. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


Since the rise of al-Qaeda and similar organizations, who themselves often engage in assassination tactics, both the US administrations of Clinton and Bush have backed assassinations, mostly directed against terrorist leaders like Osama bin Laden, but also against elected political leaders and opponents like Mullah Omar. Most of these attempts were undertaken with remote-controlled missiles and similar tactics, often using remote surveillance for the decision where and when to strike as well. One of the most well-known examples of recent assassinations carried out by the United States was the killing of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi and Sheik Abd-Al-Rahman, both killed as a result of two guided bombs on a safe house outside of Baghdad. Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... Mullah Mohammed Omar (Pashto: ملا محمد عمر) (born c. ... For other uses, see Missile (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Surveillance (disambiguation). ... Wikinews has related news: Abu Musab al-Zarqawi killed in airstrike Abu Musab al-Zarqawi (Arabic: , , Abu Musab from Zarqa)) (October 20, 1966 – June 7, 2006), born as Ahmad Fadeel al-Nazal al-Khalayleh (Arabic: , )was a Jordanian who ran a militant training camp in Afghanistan. ... Sheik Abd-Al-Rahman (? - June 7, 2006) (also Shaykh Abd Al-Rahman or Sheik Abd Al-Rahman) was the spiritual advisor to al-Qaeda in Iraq until his assassination in June 2006. ...


In India, Prime Ministers Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi (neither of whom were related to Mohandas Gandhi), were assassinated in 1984 and 1991. The assassinations were linked to separatist movements in Punjab and northern Sri Lanka, respectively. The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... Rajiv Ratna Gandhi राजीव गाधीं (IPA: ), born in Mumbai, (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 7th Prime Minister of India (and the 2nd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December 2... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). ... This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ...


In Pakistan, former prime minister and opposition leader Benazir Bhutto was assassinated in 2007, while in the process of running for re-election. Bhutto's assassination drew unanimous condemnation from the international community. [12] Benazir Bhutto (Urdu: بینظیر بھٹو, IPA: ; Sindhi:بینظیر ڀُٽو ) (born 21 June 1953 in Karachi) is a Pakistani politician who became the first elected woman to lead a post-colonial Muslim state. ...


Further reasons

As military doctrine

Assassination for military purposes has long been espoused - Sun Tzu, writing around the time 500 B.C., argued in favor of using assassination in his book The Art of War. Nearly 2000 years later Machiavelli also argued assassination could be useful in his book The Prince. In medieval times, an army and even a nation might be based upon and around a particularly strong, canny or charismatic leader, whose loss could paralyze the ability of both to make war. However, in modern warfare a soldier's mindset is generally considered to surround ideals far more than specific leaders, while command structures are more flexible in replacing officer losses. While the death of a popular or successful leader often has a detrimental effect on morale, the organisational system and the belief in a specific cause is usually strong enough to enable continued warfare. Sun Tzu (孫子 also commonly written in pinyin: Sūn Zǐ) was the author of The Art of War, an influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy (for the most part not dealing directly with tactics). ... For other uses, see The Art of War (disambiguation). ... Machiavelli redirects here. ... This article is about the book by Niccolò Machiavelli. ...


There is also the risk that the target could be replaced by an even more competent leader or that such a killing (or a failed attempt) will "martyr" a leader and support his cause (by showing the moral ruthlessness of the assassins). Faced with particularly brilliant leaders, this possibility has in various instances been risked, such as in the attempts to kill the Athenian Alcibiades during the Peloponnesian War. There are a number of additional examples from World War II, the last major total war, which show how assassination was used as a military tool at both tactical and strategic levels: For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (Greek: ; English /ælsɪbaɪədi:z/; 450 BC–404 BC), also transliterated as Alkibiades, was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general. ... Athenian War redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ...

  • The American interception of the Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto airplane during World War II, after his travel route had been decrypted.
  • The American perception that Skorzeny's commandos were planning to assassinate Eisenhower during the Battle of the Bulge played havoc with Eisenhower's personal plans for some time, though it did not affect the battle itself. Skorzeny later denied in an interview with the New York Times[citation needed] that he had ever intended to assassinate Eisenhower during Operation Greif and he said that he could prove it.[13]
  • There was a planned British commando raid to capture or kill the German General Erwin Rommel (also known as "The Desert Fox").[13]

Use of assassination has continued in more recent conflicts: Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto ) (4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II, graduate of Imperial Japanese Naval Academy and an alumnus of U.S. Naval War College and Harvard University (1919–1921). ... Otto Skorzeny (June 12, 1908 – July 6, 1975[1]) was a Standartenführer[2] in the German Waffen-SS during World War II. After fighting on the Eastern Front, he is known as the commando leader who rescued Italian dictator Benito Mussolini from imprisonment after his overthrow. ... For other uses, see Commando (disambiguation). ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... For the 1965 film, see Battle of the Bulge (film). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The 1st SS Panzer Divisions Dash Westward, and Operation Greif Operation Greif was a special false flag operation commanded by the notorious Waffen-SS commando Otto Skorzeny during the Battle of the Bulge. ... Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was perhaps the most famous German field marshal of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname The Desert Fox (Wüstenfuchs,  ) for the skillful military campaigns he waged...

  • During the Vietnam War, partly in response to Viet Cong assassinations of government leaders, the USA engaged in the Phoenix Program to assassinate Viet Cong leaders and sympathizers, and killed between 6,000 and 41,000 individuals, with official 'targets' of 1,800 per month.[14]
  • During World War II, underground factions sympathizing with the Allies have been known to assassinate rival underground leaders to ensure their chances on governing their nation upon liberation from the Axis, as opposed to their rivals. Naturally, the reason given to the assassin would be that the rival leader was an Axis sympathizer.

Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... A Viet Cong soldier, heavily guarded, awaits interrogation following capture in the attacks on Saigon during the festive Tet holiday period of 1968. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Phoenix Program (Vietnamese: Kế Hoạch Phụng Hoàng, a word related to fenghuang, the Chinese phoenix) or Operation Phoenix was a military, intelligence, and internal security coordination program designed by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) during the Vietnam War. ... Capital Grozny Area - total - % water 79th - 15,500 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density 49th _ est. ... Aslan Maskhadov Aslan Aliyevich Maskhadov (Russian: Аслан Алиевич Масхадов) (September 21, 1951 – March 8, 2005) was a leader of the separatist movement in the southern Russian republic of Chechnya. ... Shamil Basayev (Russian: ) (January 14, 1965 – July 10, 2006) was a militant Islamist and a leader of the Chechen separatist movement. ...

As tool of insurgents

Insurgent groups have often employed assassination as a tool to further their causes. Assassinations provide several functions for such groups, namely the removal of specific enemies and as propaganda tools to focus the attention of media and politics on their cause.


The Irish Republican Army guerrillas of 1919-1921 assassinated many RIC Police Intelligence officers during the Irish War of Independence. Michael Collins set up a special unit - the Squad - for this purpose, which had the effect of intimidating many policemen into resigning from the force. The Squad's activities peaked with the assassination of 14 British agents in Dublin on Bloody Sunday in 1920. This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) was one of Irelands two police forces in the early twentieth century, alongside the Dublin Metropolitan Police. ... Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ... For other persons named Michael Collins, see Michael Collins (disambiguation). ... The Squad also known as the Twelve Apostles, were an Irish Republican Army unit founded by Michael Collins to counter the British intelligence efforts during the Irish War of Independence, principally by means of assassination. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Bloody Sunday of 1920 was a day of violence in Dublin on November 21, 1920, during the Irish War of Independence (1919–1921), which led to the deaths of more than 30 people. ...


This tactic was used again by the Provisional IRA during the Troubles in Northern Ireland (1969-present). Assassination of RUC officers and politicians was one of a number of methods used in the Provisional IRA campaign 1969-1997. The IRA also attempted to assassinate British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher by bombing the Conservative Party Conference in a Brighton hotel. Loyalist paramilitaries retaliated by killing Catholics at random and assassinating Irish nationalist politicians. The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) is a paramilitary group which aimed, through the use of violence, to achieve three goals: (i) British withdrawal from Ireland, (ii) the political unification of Ireland through the merger of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland , and (iii) the creation of an all... For other uses, see Troubles (disambiguation) and Trouble. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was name of the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001. ... From 1969 until 1997, the Provisional Irish Republican Armyconducted an armed campaign in Northern Ireland aimed at overthrowing British rule there and creating a united Ireland. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... For other places with the same name, see Brighton (disambiguation). ... Raising loyalist flags is common in the summer Ulster loyalism is a militant Unionist ideology held mostly by Protestants in Northern Ireland. ... An Irish nationalist is generally one who seeks (greater) independence of Ireland from Great Britain, including since 1921 the goal of a United Ireland. ...


Basque separatists ETA in Spain have assassinated many security and political figures since the late 1960s, notably Luis Carrero Blanco in 1973. Since the early 1990s, they have also targeted academics, journalists and local politicians who publicly disagreed with them, meaning that many needed armed police bodyguards. Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern... For other uses, see ETA (disambiguation). ... Monument to Luis Carrero Blanco in Santoña (Cantabria, Spain) by Juan de Ávalos Luis Carrero Blanco (March 4, 1903, Santoña, Cantabria – December 20, 1973, Madrid, Spain) was a Spanish admiral and statesman. ...


The Red Brigades in Italy carried out assassinations of political figures, as to a lesser extent, did the Red Army Faction in Germany in the 1970s and 1980s. The Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse in Italian, often abbreviated as the BR) were a terrorist group[1] located in Italy and active during the Years of Lead. Formed in 1970, the Marxist-Leninist Red Brigades sought to create a revolutionary state through armed struggle and to separate Italy from the... Red Army Faction Insignia - a Red Star and a Heckler & Koch MP5 The Red Army Faction or RAF (German Rote Armee Fraktion) (in its early stages commonly known as Baader-Meinhof Group [or Gang]), was one of postwar West Germanys most active and prominent militant left-wing groups. ...


Middle Eastern groups, such as the PLO and Hezbollah, have all engaged in assassinations, though the higher intensity of armed conflict in the region compared to western Europe means that many of their actions are either better characterized as guerrilla operations or as random attacks on civilians - especially the technique of suicide bombs. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... A suicide bombing is a bomb attack on people or property, committed by a person who knows the explosion will cause his or her own death (see suicide, suicide weapons). ...


In the Vietnam War, assassinations were routinely carried out by communist insurgents against government officials and private individuals deemed to offend or rival the revolutionary movement. Such attacks, along with widespread military activity by insurgent bands, almost brought the Diem regime to collapse, prior to the US intervention.[15] Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


For money or gain

Individually, too, people have often found reasons to arrange the deaths of others through paid intermediaries. One who kills with no political motive or group loyalty who kills only for money is known as a Hitman or Contract Killer. Note that by the definition accepted above, while such a killer is not, strictly speaking, an assassin, if the killing is ordered and financed towards a political end, then that killing must rightly be termed an assassination, and the hitman an assassin by extension. In most countries with judicial systems, a contract to kill a person is unenforceable by law (in the sense that the customer cannot sue for specific performance and the contract killer cannot sue for his pay). ... In most countries with judicial systems, a contract to kill a person is unenforceable by law (in the sense that the customer cannot sue for specific performance and the contract killer cannot sue for his pay). ...


Entire organizations have sometimes specialized in assassination as one of their services, to be gained for the right price. Besides the original hashshashin, the ninja clans of Japan were rumored to perform assassinations - though it can be pointed out that most of what was ever known about the ninja was rumor and hearsay. Hashshashin fortress of Alamut. ... Jiraiya, ninja and title character of the Japanese folktale Jiraiya Goketsu Monogatari. ... Look up rumour in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hearsay may refer to: Hearsay in English Law and Hearsay in United States law, a legal principle concerning the admission of evidence through repetition of out-of-court statements HearSay, a British pop group Category: ...


In the United States, Murder, Inc., an organization partnered to the Mafia, was formed for the sole purpose of performing assassinations for organized crime. In Russia, the vory (thieves), Russian organised crime syndicates, are often known to provide assassinations for the right price, as well as engaging in it themselves for their own purposes. A professional hitman is called "cleaner" in Russia; he is used to clean away the target. The Finnish as well as the Swedish underworld uses the word "torpedo" for a contract killer. Murder, Inc. ... This article is about the criminal society. ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ...


Psychology

A major study about assassination attempts in the US in the second half of the 20th century came to the conclusion that most prospective assassins spend copious amounts of time planning and preparing for their attempts. Assassinations are thus rarely a case of 'impulsive' action.[16]


However, about 25% of the actual attackers were found to be delusional, a figure that rose to 60% with 'near-lethal approachers' (people apprehended before reaching their target). This incidentally shows that while mental instability plays a role in many modern-age assassinations, the more delusional attackers are less likely to succeed in their attempt. The report also found that around 2/3rds of the attackers had previously been arrested for (not necessarily related) offenses, that around 44% had a history of serious depression, and that 39% had a history of substance abuse.[16] A delusion is commonly defined as a fixed false belief and is used in everyday language to describe a belief that is either false, fanciful or derived from deception. ... For other uses, see Depression. ...


Techniques

Ancient methods

It seems likely that the first assassinations would have been direct and simple: stabbing, strangling or bludgeoning. Substantial planning or coordination would rarely have been involved, as tribal groups were too small, and the connection to the leaders too close. As civilization took root, however, leaders began to have greater importance, and become more detached from the groups they ruled. This would have brought planning, subterfuge and weapons into successful assassination plans.[citation needed] A detail from The Haywain Triptych by Hieronymus Bosch A stabbing is the penetration of a sharp or pointed object at close range. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... Hercules fights the Lernaean Hydra with a club A club or cudgel is perhaps the simplest of all melee weapons. ... Central New York City. ...


The key technique was likely infiltration, with the actual assassination via stabbing, smothering or strangulation. Poisons also started to be used in many forms. Death cap mushrooms and similar plants became a traditional choice of assassins especially if they could not be perceived as poisonous by taste, and the symptoms of the poisoning did not show until after some time.[citation needed] See: espionage, urban exploration, entryism, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Amanita phalloides (Vaill. ...


In ancient Rome, paid mobs were sometimes used to beat political enemies to death.


Modern methods

With the advent of effective ranged weaponry, and later firearms, the position of an assassination target was more precarious. Bodyguards were no longer enough to hold back determined killers, who no longer needed to directly engage or even subvert the guard to kill the leader in question. Additionally the engagement of targets at greater distance dramatically increased the chances for survival of an assassin. It is considered that William the Silent of the Netherlands was the first leader assassinated by firearms (July 10, 1584). A ranged weapon is any weapon that launches a projectile or that is a projectile itself. ... Firearms redirects here. ... William I (William the Silent). ...



Gunpowder and other explosives also allowed the use of bombs or even greater concentrations of explosives for deeds requiring a larger touch; for an example, the Gunpowder Plot could have 'assassinated' almost a thousand people. A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A contemporary sketch of the conspirators. ...


Explosives, especially the car bomb, become far more common in modern history, with grenades and remote-triggered landmines also used, especially in the Middle East and Balkans (the initial attempt on Archduke Franz Ferdinand's life was with a grenade). With heavy weapons, the rocket propelled grenade (RPG) has became a useful tool given the popularity of armored cars (discussed below), while Israeli forces have pioneered the use of aircraft-mounted missiles for assassination,[17] as well as the innovative use of explosive devices. For other uses, see Car bomb (disambiguation). ... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For the Scottish rock band, see Franz Ferdinand (band). ... An RPG-7 captured by the US Army RPG, or Rocket propelled grenade is a loose term describing hand-held, shoulder-launched anti-tank weapons capable of firing an unguided rocket equipped with an explosive warhead. ...


A sniper with a precision rifle is often used in fictional assassinations. However, there are certain difficulties associated with long-range shooting, including finding a hidden shooting position with a clear line-of-sight, detailed advance knowledge of the intended victim's travel plans, the ability to identify the target at long range, and the ability to score a first-round lethal hit at long range, usually measured in hundreds of meters. A dedicated sniper rifle is also expensive and relatively rare, often costing thousands of dollars because of the high level of precision machining and hand-finishing required to achieve extreme accuracy.[18] For other uses, see Sniper (disambiguation). ... The M40, United States Marine Corps standard-issue sniper rifle. ...


Despite their comparative disadvantages, easy-to-acquire and hard-to-trace handguns are much more commonly used than rifles. Of 74 principal incidents evaluated in a major study about assassination attempts in the US in the second half of the 20th century, 51% were undertaken by a handgun, 30% with a rifle or shotgun, while 15% of the attempts used knives and 8% explosives (usage of multiple weapons/methods was reported in 16% of all cases).[16] A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ...


A 2006 case in the UK concerned the assassination of Alexander Litvinenko who was given a lethal dose of radioactive polonium-210, possibly passed to him in aerosol form sprayed directly onto his food. Litvinenko, a former KGB agent, had been granted asylum in the UK in 2000 after citing persecution in Russia. Shortly before his death he issued a statement accusing Vladimir Putin, the Russian president, of involvement in his assassination. President Putin denies he had any part in Litvinenko's death.[19] On November 1, 2006, former lieutenant colonel of the Russian Federations Federal Security Service Alexander Litvinenko suddenly fell ill and was hospitalised. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ... List of Presidents of Russia Boris Yeltsin1 (July 10, 1991 – December 31, 1999) two terms. ...


Counter-measures

Early forms

One of the earliest forms of defense against assassins is without doubt the bodyguard. He acts as a shield for the potential target, keeps lookout for potential attackers (sometimes in advance, for example on a planned tour), and is literally supposed to put himself 'in harm's way' - both by his simple presence, forming a barrier in front of the target[16][20] and by shielding the target during any attack. He is also, if possible, to neutralize an attacker as fast as possible, and thus often carries weapons (where legal or possible). Bodyguards of Viktor Yushchenko (far left) after leaving Gdansk city hall. ...


This bodyguard function was often executed by the leader's most loyal warriors, and was extremely effective throughout most of early human history, leading to attempts via subterfuge, such as poison (which was answered by the food taster). A food taster is a person that eats food to be served to someone else to confirm that it is safe to eat and does not contain toxins or poisons. ...


Notable examples of bodyguards would include the Roman Praetorian Guard or the Ottoman janissaries - although, in both cases, it should be noted that the protectors often became assassins themselves, exploiting their power to make the head of state a virtual hostage at their whim or eliminating threatening leaders altogether. The fidelity of individual bodyguards is an important question as well, especially for leaders who oversee states with strong ethnic or religious divisions. Failure to realize such divided loyalties leads to assassinations such as that of Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, assassinated by two Sikh bodyguards in 1984. The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish: ينيچرى (yeniçeri) meaning new soldier) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ...


Modern strategies

With the advent of gunpowder, ranged assassination (via bombs or firearms) became possible. One of the first reactions was to simply increase the guard, creating what at times might seem a small army trailing every leader; another was to begin clearing large areas whenever a leader was present, to the point where entire sections of a city might be shut down. In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ...


As the 20th century dawned, the prevalence of assassins and their capabilities skyrocketed, and so did measures to protect against them. For the first time, armored cars or armored limousines were put into service for safer transport, with modern versions rendering them virtually invulnerable to small arms fire and smaller bombs and mines.[21] Bulletproof vests also began to be used, though they were of limited utility, restricting movement and leaving the head unprotected - as such they tended to be worn only during high-profile public events if at all. Military armored cars A French VBL reconnaissance vehicle. ... Small arms captured in Fallujah, Iraq by the US Marine Corps in 2004 The term small arms generally describes any number of smaller infantry weapons, such as firearms that an individual soldier can carry. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Access to famous persons, too, became more and more restrictive;[22] potential visitors would be forced through numerous different checks before being granted access to the official in question, and as communication became better and information technology more prevalent, it has become next-to-impossible for a would-be killer to get close enough to the personage at work or in private life to effect an attempt on his or her life, especially given the common use of metal and bomb detectors. For the Bobby Womack album, see Communication (1972 album). ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Inductive sensor. ... The Longest Walk: a British Army ATO approaches a suspect device in Northern Ireland. ...


Most modern assassinations have been committed either during a public performance or during transport, both because of weaker security and security lapses, such as with US President John F. Kennedy and former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, or as part of coups d'état where security is either overwhelmed or completely removed, such as with Patrice Lumumba and likely Salvador Allende.[23] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Benazir Bhutto (Urdu: بینظیر بھٹو, IPA: ; Sindhi:بینظیر ڀُٽو ) (born 21 June 1953 in Karachi) is a Pakistani politician who became the first elected woman to lead a post-colonial Muslim state. ... Coup redirects here. ... Patrice Émery Lumumba (2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was an African anti-colonial leader and the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo after he helped to win its independence from Belgium in June 1960. ... Salvador Isabelino Allende Gossens[1] (July 26, 1908 – September 11, 1973) was President of Chile from November 1970 until his death during the coup détat of September 11, 1973. ...


The methods used for protection by famous people have sometimes evoked negative reactions by the public, with some resenting the separation from their officials or major figures. One example might be traveling in a car protected by a bubble of clear bulletproof glass, such as the Popemobile of Pope John Paul II (built following an extremist's attempt at his life). Politicians themselves often resent this need for separation - which has at times caused tragedy when they sent their bodyguards from their side for personal or publicity reasons, as U.S. President William McKinley did during the public reception at which he was assassinated.[22] Strictly, Bulletproof glass would be glass that is capable of stopping all manner of bullets fired at it. ... Pope John Paul II on a popemobile Another popemobile, produced by Fiat Popemobile is an informal name for the specially designed motor vehicle used by the Pope during public appearances. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ...


Other potential targets go into seclusion, and are rarely heard from or seen in public, such as writer Salman Rushdie. A related form of protection is the use of body doubles, a person built similar to the person he is expected to impersonate. These persons are then made up, as well as in some cases altered to look like the target, with the body double then taking the place of the person in high risk situations. Adolf Hitler and Saddam Hussein are known to have used body doubles.[24] According to Joe R. Reeder, a former under secretary for the U.S. Army from 1993-1997 writing in Fox News, Fidel Castro had also used body doubles, though no details were specified.[24] A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (born June 19, 1947) is an Indian-British novelist and essayist. ... A political decoy is a person employed to impersonate a politician, in order to draw attention away from the real person or to take risks on their behalf. ... Cosmetics or makeup are substances to enhance the beauty of the human body, apart from simple cleaning. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ...


In the final analysis, counter-measures can never be fully effective. If the assassin is committed beyond reason (i.e. insane) or without concern for his own for self-preservation (suicide attacker), then the task of protecting a person will be made much more difficult. ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, knowing that he or she will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). ...


Notable assassinations and attempts

See also: List of assassins

The following is a list of some of the most notable assassinations and assassination attempts. It is not intended to be exhaustive. The following is a list of assassins with short comments on the assassination(s) that made them famous. ...


Related lists

The following is a list of assassins with short comments on the assassination(s) that made them famous. ... This is a list of assassinations that have failed. ... This is an list of persons who were assassinated; that is, important people who were murdered, usually for ideological or political reasons. ... This is a list of U.S. Presidential assassination attempts. ...

References

  1. ^ Assassin (from Wordnet, Princeton University)
  2. ^ a b Commentary: Targeted killing... - Cohen, Ariel, Washington Post, Thursday 25 March 2004
  3. ^ Secret Societies Handbook, Michael Bradley, Cassell Illustrated, 2005. ISBN 978-1844034161
  4. ^ "Assassination". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, second edition, 1989
  5. ^ Inventing English: A Portable History of the Language, Seth Lerer, 2007
  6. ^ Assassination (from the American Heritage Dictionary)
  7. ^ Cited from - "Assassination". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, second edition, 1989.
  8. ^ BBC World: The life and death of Mahatma Gandhi Retrieved on 2008-01-02
  9. ^ "The Salvador Option" - The Pentagon may put Special-Forces-led assassination or kidnapping teams in Iraq - Newsweek, Friday 14 January 2005
  10. ^ CBS: Death Squads In Iraqi Hospitals - CBS Evening News, Wednesday 4 October 2006
  11. ^ Is the U.S. Training Iraqi Death Squads to Fight the Insurgency? - Democracy Now, Thursday, December 1st, 2005
  12. ^ http://canadianpress.google.com/article/ALeqM5iMb1loHZGB66_sDe0r78rgKiE5kQ The Canadian Press: Benazir Bhutto shot dead at suicide bombing of rally; 20 feared dead - The Canadian Press, Thursday 27 December 2007
  13. ^ a b Commando Extraordinary - Foley, Charles; Legion for the Survival of Freedom, 1992, page 155
  14. ^ CIA and Operation Phoenix in Vietnam - McGehee, Ralph; from a usenet discussion citing numerous references, 19 February 1996
  15. ^ Viet Cong - Pike, Douglas, The MIT Press; New Ed edition, Wednesday 16 December 1970
  16. ^ a b c d Assassination in the United States: An Operational Study - Fein, Robert A. & Vossekuil, Brian, Journal of Forensic Sciences, Volume 44, Number 2, March 1999
  17. ^ Hamas leader killed in Israeli airstrike - CNN, Saturday 17 April 2004
  18. ^ Iraqi insurgents using Austrian rifles from Iran - The Daily Telegraph, Tuesday 13 February 2007
  19. ^ Putin 'Deplores' Spy Death - Sky News Friday 24 November 2006
  20. ^ Lincoln - Appendix 7, Report of the President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, 1964
  21. ^ How to choose the appropriate bulletproof cars (from Alpha-armouring.com website, includes examples of protection levels available)
  22. ^ a b The Need For Protection Further Demonstrated - Appendix 7, Report of the President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, 1964
  23. ^ Salvador Allende Gossens (biography from the Encarta website)
  24. ^ a b It's Bin Laden ... or Is It? - Fox News, Thursday 20 December 2001
  25. ^ "Killed the Matabele God: Burnham, the American scout, may end uprising" (June 25, 1896). New York Times. ISSN 0093-1179. 
  26. ^ Complete Transcript of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassination Conspiracy Trial (from The King Center website)

WordNet is a semantic lexicon for the English language. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... ... The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is a dictionary of American English published by Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... Democracy Now! is an independent, award-winning news and opinion radio program airing on over 300 stations across North America every weekday, as well as both satellite television networks. ... The Canadian Press (CP) is a Canadian news agency established in 1917 as a vehicle to permit Canadian newspapers of the day to exchange their news and information. ... Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... Sky News is a 24-hour British domestic and international television news channel that started broadcasting on 5 February 1989 as part of the then four-channel Sky Television service, as well as a hourly news radio service in the UK. Broadcast of a 24-hour radio service is due... Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The MLK National Historic Site honors the life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ...

External links

  • Assassinology.org a website dedicated to the study of assassination, with particular reference to post-2000 assassinations created by Kris Hollington, author of How to Kill: The Definitive History of the Assassin [1].
  • CNN A short article on the U.S. policy banning political assassination since 1976 from CNN.com/Law CENTER, November 4, 2002. See also Ford's 1976 executive order. However, Executive Order 12333 which prohibited the CIA from assassinations was relaxed by the George W. Bush administration.
  • David, Steven R. Fatal Choices: Israel's Policy of Targeted Killing (PDF) at Johns Hopkins University. A paper prepared for the BESA Center Conference on Democracy and Limited War, 4-6 June 2002; revised July 2002.
  • Follendore III, Roy D. Targeted Killing. November 5, 2002
  • Jeffreys-Jones, Rhodri Cloak and Dollar (A History of American Secret Intelligence)
  • Kretzmer, David Targeted Killing of Suspected Terrorists: Extra-Judicial Executions or Legitimate Means of Defence? (PDF)
  • Lee, Robert.The History Guy: Biofiles: American Domestic Terrorists and Assassins, April 16, 2005
  • Tinetti, John Lawful Targeted Killing or Assassination: A Roadmap for Operators in the Global War on Terror; Joint Military Operations Dept., Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island.
  • Luft, Gal The Logic of Israel's Targeted Killing Middle East Quarterly Winter 2003 • Volume X: Number 1
  • McDonnell, Thomas Michael Assassination/Targeted Killing of Suspected Terrorists — A Violation of International Law? in Jus in Bello An International Criminal Law Weblog from Pace Law School 1 December 2005
  • Snow, Jonathan L. The Targeted Killing of Sheikh Ahmed Yassin. March 26, 2004
  • Sofaer, Abraham D. Responses to Terrorism. Targeted killing is a necessary option. March 26, 2004
  • Statman, Daniel Targeted Killing Vol. 5, Theoretical Inquiries in Law (Online Edition): No. 1, Article 7, 2004.

[[{Category:Assassination| ]] The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Executive Order 12333 extends the powers and responsibilities of US intelligence agencies and directs the leaders of other US federal agencies to co-operate fully with CIA requests for information. ... The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Middle East Quarterly (MEQ) is a quarterly journal devoted to subjects relating to the Middle East. ... The laws of war (Jus in bello) define the conduct and responsibilities of belligerent nations, neutral nations and individuals engaged in warfare, in relation to each other and to protected persons, usually meaning civilians. ... Pace University School of Law (most often referred to as Pace Law School) is located in White Plains, New York, in Westchester County, some 25 miles north of New York City. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Assassin Year (AD format) Target Result Comments
Jing Ke 210 BC Chinese Emperor Qin Shi Huang Survived One of the earliest documented attempts.
Marcus Junius Brutus, Gaius Cassius Longinus, and others 44 BC Roman Dictator Julius Caesar Killed Resulted in Civil War and indirectly to the end of the Roman Republic
Willam-p-Goodman 1007 Morgen Hasdon the 8th Killed assassination of prince Morgen Hasdon by back stab when walking in home town
Balthasar Gérard 1584 Dutch Stadtholder William the Silent Killed The first assassination carried out with a firearm.
Guy Fawkes 1605 King James I of England, Parliament of England Survived See the Gunpowder Plot.
François Ravaillac 1610 King Henri IV of France Killed Religious murder.
Charlotte Corday 1791 French revolutionary Jean-Paul Marat Killed Later often seen as a patriotic act.
John Bellingham 1812 UK Prime Minister Spencer Perceval Killed First and only U.K. Prime Minister to be assassinated.
John Wilkes Booth 1865 US President Abraham Lincoln Killed
Charles J. Guiteau 1881 US President James Garfield Killed Died 80 days following the shooting.
Ignacy Hryniewiecki 1881 Tsar Alexander II of Russia Killed Assassination plot concluded with bombs.
Frederick Russell Burnham 1896 Mlimo, the Ndebele religious leader Killed Effectively ended the Second Matabele War.[25]
Leon Czolgosz 1901 US President William McKinley Killed
Alexandros Schinas 1913 King George I of Greece Killed Possible conspiracy.
Gavrilo Princip 1914 Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand Killed Considered the start of World War I.
Raoul Villain 1914 French socialist leader Jean Jaurès Killed The assassin was tried and acquitted in 1919.
Fritz Joubert Duquesne 1916 Lord Kitchener, British Field Marshal and Secretary of State for War Killed Killed on the HMS Hampshire by an act of sabotage.
Eligiusz Niewiadomski 1922 First Polish President Gabriel Narutowicz Killed Killed five days after his inauguration, while attending the opening of an art exhibit at the Zachęta Gallery in Warsaw.
Vlado Chernozemski 1934 Alexander I of Yugoslavia Killed Killed in Marseille during a state visit.
Claus von Stauffenberg 1944 German dictator Adolf Hitler Survived See the July 20 plot.
Nathuram Godse 1948 Political and Spiritual Leader Mahatma Gandhi Killed
Talduwe Somarama 1959 Prime Minister of Sri Lanka Solomon Bandaranaike Killed Assassinated by a Buddhist monk as part of a conspiracy.
Jean Bastien-Thiry and the OAS 1962 French President Charles de Gaulle Survived
Nguyen Van Cu and Pham Phu Quoc 1962 President of the Republic of Vietnam Ngo Dinh Diem Survived See 1962 South Vietnamese Presidential Palace bombing
Lee Harvey Oswald 1963 US President John F. Kennedy Killed Official reports have concluded that Oswald acted alone, however significant doubts remain for many.
Jack Ruby 1963 Lee Harvey Oswald Killed
Norman 3X Butler, Thomas 15X Johnson, Talmadge Hayer 1965 Activist Malcolm X Killed Tensions and departure from the Nation of Islam
James Earl Ray /
Loyd Jowers
1968 Political activist Martin Luther King Killed Ray was convicted on a guilty plea but later recanted, while a 1999 civil trial convicted Jowers and 'unknown others', while also noting that 'governmental agencies were parties' to the plot.[26]
Sirhan Sirhan 1968 US Senator Robert F. Kennedy Killed
Prince Faisal bin Musa'id 1975 Saudi King Faisal Killed
Dan White 1978 San Francisco Mayor George Moscone and Supervisor Harvey Milk Killed Killed over not reappointing Dan White supervisor
Kim Jae-kyu 1979 South-Korean President Park Chung-hee Killed See Park Chung-hee assassination
Mark David Chapman 1980 John Lennon Killed An act to become famous.
John Hinckley, Jr. 1981 US President Ronald Reagan Survived To impress actress Jodie Foster.
Khalid Islambouli 1981 Egyptian President Anwar Al Sadat Killed Rare attack carried out by a group.
Mehmet Ali Ağca 1981 Catholic Pope John Paul II Survived
Group of Army Officers 1981 Bangladeshi President Ziaur Rahman Killed Plotted by a faction of officers of Bangladesh Army led by General Abul Monjur.
Satwant Singh and Beant Singh 1984 Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi Killed Assassinated by personal bodyguards.
Provisional Irish Republican Army 1984 British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Survived Detonated a bomb at the Grand Hotel during the Conservative Party Conference in Brighton.
Unknown assassin 1986 Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme Killed Killed by a handgun on his way home from a cinema on a street in central Stockholm.
Thenmuli Rajaratnam 1991 Former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi Killed Killed in an explosion triggered by a LTTE suicide bomber.
Janusz Walus 1993 South African Communist Party leader Chris Hani Killed Anti-Communist killing
Unknown Suicide Bomber 1993 Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa Killed Attack carried out by LTTE on May Day parade.
Yigal Amir 1995 Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin Killed Attack carried out by Israeli opposed to Oslo Accords.
Dipendra 2001 King Birendra of Nepal Killed See Nepalese royal massacre.
Volkert van der Graaf 2002 Dutch Election Candidate Pim Fortuyn Killed The attack took place in a parking lot outside a radio studio in Hilversum, where Fortuyn had just given an interview.
Maxime Brunerie 2002 French President Jacques Chirac Survived Attempted to shoot the President during the Bastille Day Military Parade.
Unknown 2007 Benazir Bhutto Killed Killed while entering a vehicle upon leaving a political rally for the Pakistan People's Party in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
Jing Ke (Chinese: 荊軻; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching Ko) was a guest residing in the estates of Dan, crown prince of Yan and renowned for his failed assassination of the Chinese emperor Qin Shi Huang who reigned from 221 BC to 210 BC. His story is told in the chapter... The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (259 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE),[1] personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty), and... Marcus Junius Brutus (85–42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ... Caius Cassius Longinus featured on a denarius (42 BC). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Balthasar Gérard (in Dutch Gerards or Gerardts) (1557-1584) was the assassin of the Dutch independence leader, William the Silent, also known as William I of Orange. ... William I (William the Silent). ... For other uses, see Guido Fawkes (disambiguation). ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... A contemporary sketch of the conspirators. ... François Ravaillac brandishing his dagger, in a 17th-century engraving François Ravaillac (1578[1] – May 27, 1610) was a French factotum in the courts of Angoulême and sometime tutor, a religious Catholic zealot who murdered his king, Henry IV of France, an act known as regicide. ... By Frans Pourbus the younger. ... Charlotte Corday by Paul Jacques Aimé Baudry, painted 1860: Under the Second Empire, Marat was seen as a revolutionary monster and Corday as a heroine of France, represented in the wall-map. ... Marat redirects here. ... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... John Bellingham (c. ... Spencer Perceval (1 November 1762 – 11 May 1812) was a British statesman and Prime Minister. ... John Wilkes Booth (May 10, 1838 – April 26, 1865) assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Fords Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Charles Julius Guiteau (September 8, 1841 – June 30, 1882) was an American lawyer who assassinated President James A. Garfield on July 2, 1881. ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831–September 19, 1881) was a major general in the United States Army, member of the U.S. House of Representatives, and the twentieth President of the United States. ... Ignacy Hryniewiecki (Игнатий Гриневицкий in Russian, or Ignatiy Grinevitskiy) (August of 1855, or fall of 1856 - 1881), Polish-Russian revolutionary, murderer of Tsar Alexander II of Russia. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Frederick Russell Burnham, DSO (May 11, 1861 – September 1, 1947), was an American scout and world traveling adventurer known for his service to the British Army in colonial Africa and for teaching woodcraft to Robert Baden-Powell, thus becoming one of the inspirations for the founding of the international Scouting... There are two versions of Ndebele in South Africa, they both belong to the Nguni group of Bantu Languages. ... Burnham & Armstrong after the assassination of Mlimo. ... Leon Frank Czolgosz (choll-gosh), (1873 – October 29, 1901) (often anglicized to , also used his mothers maiden name Nieman and variations thereof[1]) was the assassin of U.S. President William McKinley. ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... Alexandros Schinas Alexandros (Alekos) Schinas (1870s, Volos - May 6, 1913), was a Greek[1] anarchist who assassinated King George I of Greece in Thessaloniki in 1913. ... George I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: , Georgios A Vasileus ton Ellinon; December 24, 1845 – March 18, 1913) was King of Greece from 1863 to 1913. ... Gavrilo Princip (Serbian Cyrillic: Гаврило Принцип, IPA: ) (July 25, 1894) – April 28, 1918) was an ethnic Serb, but later proclaimed to be a Yugoslav Nationalist[1], with links to a group known as the Mlada Bosna, who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914. ... For the Scottish rock band, see Franz Ferdinand (band). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Raoul Villain (1885-1936) assassinated the French socialist leader Jean Jaurès on the 31 August 1914 at the Paris café Le café du croissant in the Montmartre area around 21:40h, the day before mobilization for the First World War began. ... Jean Jaurès. ... Frederick “Fritz” Joubert Duquesne (sometimes spelt Du Quesne pronounced in English as “Doo-Cain’’) (born Cape Colony 21 September 1877, died New York City 24 May 1956) was a South African Boer soldier, prisoner of war, big game hunter, journalist, war correspondent, Anglophobe, stockbroker, saboteur, spy, and adventurer whose hatred... Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, ADC, PC (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916) was an Anglo-Irish British Field Marshal, diplomat and statesman popularly referred to as Lord Kitchener. ... HMS Hampshire was a Devonshire-class armoured cruiser of the Royal Navy. ... Eligiusz Niewiadomski Eligiusz Niewiadomski ( December 1, 1869 in Warsaw - January 31, 1923), was a Polish modernist painter and art critic, who belonged to the right-wing National Democratic Party in renascent Poland in the early 20th century. ... Gabriel Narutowicz , (March 17, 1865 – December 16, 1922) was the first elected President of the Republic of Poland. ... ZachÄ™ta (lit. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Vlado Chernozemski Vlado Chernozemski (Bulgarian: ) (October 19, 1897 - October 9, 1934), born Velichko Dimitrov Kerin (Bulgarian: ), was a Bulgarian revolutionary and assassin . ... Alexander I of Yugoslavia also called King Alexander Unificator (Serbo-Croatian: Kralj Aleksandar I KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević/Краљ Александар I Карађорђевић) (Cetinje, Principality of Montenegro, 16 December 1888 – Marseille, France, 9 October 1934) of the Royal House of KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević was the first king of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–34) and... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines The Old Port of Marseille Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban... Claus Philipp Maria Schenk Graf[1] von Stauffenberg (15 November 1907 – 21 July 1944) was a German army officer and one of the leading figures of the failed July 20 Plot of 1944 to kill Adolf Hitler and seize power in Germany. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany, on July 20, 1944. ... Nathuram Vinayak Godse (Marathi: नथूराम विनायक गोडसे) (May 19, 1910 – November 15, 1949) was the assassin of Mahatma Gandhi. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... // Talduwe Somarama was a serving Buddhist monk who shot and killed Solomon West Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike, the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka (then called Ceylon) in 1959. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Solomon West Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike (1899-September 26, 1959) was Prime Minister (1956-59) of Ceylon (later Sri Lanka). ... Jean Bastien-Thiry (October 19, 1927 – March 11, 1963) was a French military air weaponry engineer who attempted to assassinate President of France Charles de Gaulle. ... The Organisation de larmée secrète (OAS; Secret Army Organization) was a short-lived French right-wing terrorist group formed in January 1961 to resist the granting of independence to the French colony of Algeria (Algérie française). ... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ... Lieutenant Nguyen Van Cu (born 1934 in Vietnam) was pilot in the Republic of Vietnam Air Force, best known for being one of two mutinous pilots involved in the 1962 South Vietnamese Presidential Palace bombing on February 27, 1962, which aimed to assassinate President Ngo Dinh Diem and his immediate...   «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). ... Reunification Palace formerly the South Vietnamese Presidential Palace. ... Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was, according to four United States government investigations, the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Jack Leon Ruby (1911 – January 3, 1967) was born Jacob Rubenstein, and changed his name to Jack Leon Ruby in December 1947. ... Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was, according to four United States government investigations, the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Thomas 15X Johnson was one of the convicted assassins of Malcolm X. Talmadge Hayer, also a convicted assassin, claimed Johnson was innocent of the crime. ... Talmadge Hayer was one of the convicted assassins of Malcolm X. He was 22 years old at the time of the killing. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... The person who killed Martin Luther King Jr. ... Loyd Jowers was the owner of a restaurant, (Jims Grill) near the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, where Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. ... “Martin Luther King” redirects here. ... A plea bargain is an agreement in a criminal case in which a prosecutor and a defendant arrange to settle the case against the defendant. ... This article is about Robert F. Kennedys assassin. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... Faisal bin Musaid bin Abdul Aziz (April 4, 1944, Riyadh - June 18, 1975, Riyadh) (Arabic: فيصل بن مساعد بن عبد العزيز آل سعود) was the assassin and nephew of King Faisal. ... Faisal ibn Abdelaziz Al Saud, King of Saudi Arabia (1324-1395 AH) (1903 or 1906—March 25, 1975) (Arabic: فيصل بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1964 to 1975. ... This article is about the San Francisco Supervisor. ... Mayor Moscone George Richard Moscone (November 24, 1929 – November 27, 1978) was the mayor of San Francisco, California from January 1976 until his assassination in November 1978. ... For other uses, see Harvey Milk (disambiguation). ... Kim Jae-kyu (March 6, 1926–May 24, 1980) was a South Korean military and intelligence officer. ... This is a Korean name; the family name is Park Park Chung-hee (November 14, 1917 – October 26, 1979) was a former ROK Army general and the leader of the Republic of Korea from 1961 to 1979. ... The assassination of Park Chung-hee, the former president of South Korea, occurred on October 26, 1979 at a secret house in the Blue House compound connected with Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA) in Gungjeong-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul, South Korea, at 7:41pm. ... Mark David Chapman (born May 10, 1955 in Fort Worth, Texas) is the man who shot and killed British musician and activist John Lennon on December 8, 1980 in New York City. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... John Warnock Hinckley, Jr. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Alicia Christian Jodie Foster (born November 19, 1962)[1] is a two-time Academy Award-winning American actress, director and producer. ... Image:Sadat assassination. ... “Sadat” redirects here. ... Mehmet Ali AÄŸca (born January 9, 1958) is a Turkish assassin, who shot and wounded Pope John Paul II on May 13, 1981. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... Ziaur Rahman (Bengali: Ziaur Rôhman) (January 19, 1936 — May 30, 1981) was the 6th President of Bangladesh and the founder of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Major General Muhammad Abul Monjur (? - 1981) was a Bangladeshi army officer responsible for organising the assassination of Ziaur Rahman on May 30, 1981 in Chittagong. ... Satwant Singh (son of Tarlok Singh, of Agwan village in Gurdaspur District) and Beant Singh were bodyguards to the Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi, who on October 31, 1984 assassinated her at her residence. ... Beant Singh (Left) & Satwant Singh (Right) Beant Singh was one of the bodyguards to the former Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... The Grand Hotel, Brighton, 2004 Night View of the Grand Hotel, Brighton, 2006 The Brighton hotel bombing was the attack by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) on the Grand Hotel in the English resort city of Brighton in the early morning of October 12, 1984. ... Sven Olof Joachim Palme ( ) (30 January 1927 – 28 February 1986) was a Swedish politician. ... Thenmuli Rajaratnam (?? - 1991) was the assassin who killed Rajiv Gandhi, herself, and 16 others in a suicide bombing on May 21, 1991, in the Indian town of Sriperumbudur, near Chennai. ... Rajiv Ratna Gandhi राजीव गाधीं (IPA: ), born in Mumbai, (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 7th Prime Minister of India (and the 2nd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December 2... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... Janusz WaluÅ› (born 1953 in Zakopane) is a Polish immigrant to South Africa who assassinated Chris Hani on April 10, 1993. ... SACP symbol South African Communist Party (SACP) is a political party in South Africa. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The following is a list of Sri Lankan presidents. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... This article is about the holidays celebrated on May 1. ... Yigal Amir (‎, born May 23, 1970) is the Israeli assassin of Prime Minister of Israel Yitzhak Rabin. ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... His Majesty King Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev of Nepal (June 27, 1971 - June 4, 2001) was the reigning monarch of Nepal from June 1 to June 4, 2001. ... Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev (December 28, 1945 - June 1, 2001) was king of Nepal from 1972 until 2001, and the son of King Mahendra, whom he succeeded. ... The Nepalese royal massacre occurred on Saturday, June 1, 2001, at Narayanhity Royal Palace, the official residence of the Nepalese monarchy. ... Volkert van der Graaf (born July 9, 1969) is an animal welfare activist and is the confessed murderer of Dutch politician Pim Fortuyn. ... Wilhelmus Simon Petrus (Pim) Fortuyn (pronounced , (February 19, 1948 – May 6, 2002), was a controversial, openly gay, charismatic[1] populistic right-wing politician in the Netherlands who formed his own party Lijst Pim Fortuyn (List Pim Fortuyn or LPF). ... Maxime Brunerie is a man who tried to murder French President Jacques Chirac in 14th July 2002, but failed. ... “Chirac” redirects here. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... Mounted Republican Guards escort the command vehicle of the President. ... Benazir Bhutto (Urdu: بینظیر بھٹو, IPA: ; Sindhi:بینظیر ڀُٽو ) (born 21 June 1953 in Karachi) is a Pakistani politician who became the first elected woman to lead a post-colonial Muslim state. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
JFK Assassination Web Sites (0 words)
Mike Russ' John F. Kennedy Assassination Information Center is strong on witness testimony, and has the invaluable technical reports of the House Select Committee on Assassinations which address issues such as the nature of Kennedy's wounds and the authenticity of the Backyard Photos.
Ralph Schuster's John F. Kennedy Assassination Homepage, from Germany, is further evidence of world-wide interest in the assassination.
JFK Assassination Presidential Limousine SS100X is exactly what the name implies: a site dedicated to the car in which Kennedy was riding when he was shot.
Lilly | In the Crosshairs: Lifting the Ban on Assassination (2025 words)
Properly used, assassination can save lives on both sides of a conflict, and it often serves as the only means of retribution against non-government criminal organizations that resist capture, such as Israel's assassination of the Black September terrorists or the United States' ongoing hunt for Osama bin Laden and the leaders of al Qaeda.
Removing the ban on assassination would also provide officers in the field a choice that they presently do not have: to remove an individual, which is not allowed, or to remove the entire building, which he happens to occupy.
Assassination should be maintained as a military operation in situations where it has a high chance of successfully achieving its goal.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m