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Encyclopedia > Assam
  ?Assam
India
Coordinates: 26°09′N 91°46′E / 26.15, 91.77
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area 78,438 km² (30,285 sq mi)
Capital Dispur
Largest city Guwahati
District(s) 27
Population
Density
26,655,528 (14th)
• 340 /km² (881 /sq mi)
Language(s) Assamese, Bodo, Bengali (Barak Valley)
Governor Ajai Singh
Chief Minister Tarun Gogoi
Established 1947-08-15
Legislature (seats) Unicameral (126)
ISO abbreviation IN-AS
Website: assam.gov.in
† Assam had a legislature since 1937
Seal of Assam
Seal of Assam

Coordinates: 26°09′N 91°46′E / 26.15, 91.77 Assam pronunciation ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm [ɔxɔm]) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. Located south of the eastern Himalayas, Assam comprises the Brahmaputra and the Barak river valleys and the Karbi Anglong and the North Cachar Hills. With an area of 78,438 square kilometres (30,285 sq mi) Assam currently is almost equivalent to the size of Ireland or Austria. Assam is surrounded by the rest of the Seven Sister States: Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and Meghalaya. These states are connected to the rest of India via a narrow strip in West Bengal called the Siliguri Corridor or "Chicken's Neck".[1] Assam also shares international borders with Bhutan and Bangladesh; and cultures, peoples and climate with South-East Asia—important elements in India’s “Look East” Policy. Assam along with rest of the seven sisters states became part of India in 1828 when the British invaded. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links India_Assam_locator_map. ... Image File history File links Locator_Dot. ... Image File history File links Locator_Dot. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Location of Mirzapur and the 82. ... The geography of India is diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, rainforests, hills, and plateaus. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². ... Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh National Capital Territory of Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar... Dispur is the capital of Assam, a state in northeast India. ... , Guwahati is a major city in eastern India, often considered as the gateway to the North-East Region (NER) of the country and is the largest city within the region. ... The divisions of a district. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh National Capital Territory of Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar... -1... Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... Bodo is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken by the Bodo people of north-eastern India and Nepal. ... Bangla redirects here. ... Barak Valley is situated in the southern part of the Indian state of Assam. ... Governors of Assam See Also Assam Governors of India Links Categories: India-related stubs | Assam | Indian politicians | Office-holders | Government of India ... Ajai Singh is the governor of Assam, India, since 2003. ... Chief Ministers of Assam See Also Assam Chief Ministers of India Links Categories: India-related stubs | Assam | Indian politicians | Office-holders | Government of India ... Tarun Kumar Gogoi is the Chief Minister of state of Assam in India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Judiciary Supreme Court of India Chief Justice of India High Courts District Courts Elections Political Parties Local & State Govt. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... ISO 3166-2 is the second part of the ISO 3166 standard. ... ISO 3166-2 for India (ISO 3166-1 : IN) The purpose of this family of standards is to establish a worldwide series of short abbreviations for places, for use on package labels, containers and such. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Image File history File links Assam. ... Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... The Himalayas in Sikkim North-East India is the easternmost region of India consisting of the contiguous Seven Sister States and the state of Sikkim. ... Dispur is the capital of Assam, a state in northeast India. ... , Guwahati is a major city in eastern India, often considered as the gateway to the North-East Region (NER) of the country and is the largest city within the region. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... The Brahmaputra is one of the major rivers of Asia. ... The Barak river flows in southern Assam and Bangladesh. ... Karbi Anglong is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... The NC Hills is dominated by the Hmar tribes External Link: ======== Voice of the Northeast India Sinlung Movement The Hmar Web Portal Hmar Students Association, Delhi Delhithurawn ... The Seven Sister States of India The Seven Sister States are a region in northeastern India, comprising the contiguous states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, and Tripura. ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi:   ) is the easternmost state of India. ... , Nagaland   is a hill state located in the far north-eastern part of India. ... , Manipur   (Bengali: মনিপুর, Meitei Mayek: mnipur) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... , Mizoram   is one of the Seven Sister States in northeastern India on the border with Myanmar. ... Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ... , Meghalaya   is a small state in north-eastern India. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchim Bônggo IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Assam is known for Assam tea, petroleum resources, Assam silk and for its rich biodiversity. It has successfully conserved the one-horned Indian rhinoceros from near extinction, tiger, numerous species of birds and provides one of the last wild habitats for the Asian elephant. It is increasingly becoming a popular destination for wild-life tourism and notably Kaziranga and Manas are both World Heritage Sites.[2] Assam was also known for its Sal tree forests and forest products, much depleted now. A land of high rainfall, Assam is endowed with lush greenery and the mighty river Brahmaputra, whose tributaries and oxbow lakes provide the region with a unique hydro-geomorphic and aesthetic environment. Assam is a black tea named after the region of its production: (Assam, India). ... Petro redirects here. ... Assam silk denotes the three major types of indigenous silks produced in Assam, called Muga, Pat and Eri silk. ... The Biodiversity of Assam, a state in North-East India, makes it a biological hotspot with many rare and endemic plant and animal species. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Indian Rhinoceros range The Indian Rhinoceros or the Great One-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) is a large mammal found in Nepal and in Assam, India. ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Asian Elephant range The Asian or Asiatic Elephant (Elephas maximus), sometimes known by the name of its nominate subspecies (the Indian Elephant), is one of the three living species of elephant, and the only living species of the genus Elephas. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Binomial name Roth Sal (Shorea robusta) is a species of tree native to southern Asia, ranging south of the Himalaya, from Myanmar in the east to India, Bangladesh, and Nepal. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... The Brahmaputra is one of the major rivers of Asia. ... Songhua River, northeast China. ... Surface of the Earth Geomorphology is the study of landforms, including their origin and evolution, and the processes that shape them. ...

Assam and its Environs: As per the plate techtonics, Assam is in the eastern-most projection of the Indian Plate, where the plate is thrusting underneath the Eurasian Plate creating a subduction zone and the Himalayas. Therefore, Assam possesses a unique geomorphic environment, with plains, dissected hills of the South Indian Plateau system and with the Himalayas all around its north, north-east and east.
Assam and its Environs: As per the plate techtonics, Assam is in the eastern-most projection of the Indian Plate, where the plate is thrusting underneath the Eurasian Plate creating a subduction zone and the Himalayas.[3] Therefore, Assam possesses a unique geomorphic environment, with plains, dissected hills of the South Indian Plateau system and with the Himalayas all around its north, north-east and east.
Tea leaves; Assam produces a significant portion of World's tea. Today, 'tea' has become almost a brand identity for the name Assam
Tea leaves; Assam produces a significant portion of World's tea. Today, 'tea' has become almost a brand identity for the name Assam

Contents

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 725 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (785 × 649 pixels, file size: 122 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) created based on an image of NASA I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 725 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (785 × 649 pixels, file size: 122 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) created based on an image of NASA I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...  The Indian plate, shown in red Due to continental drift, the India Plate split from Madagascar and collided with the Eurasian Plate resulting in the formation of the Himalayas. ...  The Eurasian plate, shown in green The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate covering Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia) except that it does not cover the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Verkhoyansk Range in East Siberia. ... Categories: Geology stubs | Plate tectonics ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... Surface of the Earth Geomorphology is the study of landforms, including their origin and evolution, and the processes that shape them. ... Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1250 KB)Closeup of leaves of tea plant Camellia sinensis. ... Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1250 KB)Closeup of leaves of tea plant Camellia sinensis. ...

Etymology

Main article: Etymology of Assam

Assam was known as Pragjyotisha in the Mahabharata; and Kamarupa in the 1st millennium. Assam gets it name from the Ahom kingdom (1228-1826), then known as Kingdom of Assam.[4] The British province after 1838 and the Indian state after 1947 came to be known as Assam. The Etymology of Assam is an issue that often comes up for debate in the Indian state of Assam. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Kamarupa was ruled by the Asura king Naraka. ... In the Gregorian calendar, the 1st millennium is the period of one thousand years that commenced with the year 1 Anno Domini. ... The Ahom Kingdom (1228-1826) was established by Sukaphaa, a Tai prince from Mong Mao, in the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra river, between the extant Chutiya kingdom in the north and the Kachari kingdom in the south. ...


On February 27, 2006 the Government of Assam started a process to change the name of the state to Asom,[5] a controversial move that has been opposed by the people and political organizations.[6] is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Government of Assam is the provincial government of Assam. ...


Physical geography

See also: Biodiversity of Assam
Areca Nut Tree or Tamul Goss; the nut is an important element of cultural symbolism
Areca Nut Tree or Tamul Goss; the nut is an important element of cultural symbolism
A Golden Langur; endangered and are found in Chakrasila Sanctuary in Goalpara district
A Golden Langur; endangered and are found in Chakrasila Sanctuary in Goalpara district
A White-winged Wood Duck or Deohanh, endangered. Mostly found in the Upper Assam Tropical Forests.
A White-winged Wood Duck or Deohanh, endangered. Mostly found in the Upper Assam Tropical Forests.

Geomorphic studies conclude that the Brahmaputra, the life-line of Assam is a paleo-river; older than the Himalayas. The river with steep gorges and rapids in Arunachal Pradesh entering Assam, becomes a braided river (at times 16 km wide) and with tributaries, creates a flood plain (Brahmaputra Valley: 80-100km wide, 1000 km long).[7] The hills of Karbi Anglong, North Cachar and those in and close to Guwahati (also Khasi-Garo Hills) now eroded and dissected are originally parts of the South Indian Plateau system.[7] In the south, the Barak originating in the Barail Range (Assam-Nagaland border), flows through the Cachar district with a 40-50km wide valley and confluences with the Brahmaputra in Bangladesh. Physical Geography of Assam is extremely interesting with its geologic origin, geomorphic characteristics, climate, rich biodiversity, etc. ... The Biodiversity of Assam, a state in North-East India, makes it a biological hotspot with many rare and endemic plant and animal species. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 2747 KB) The Golden Langur has been declared an endangered species. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 2747 KB) The Golden Langur has been declared an endangered species. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1621x1014, 526 KB) White-winged Wood Duck at Bristol Zoo, Bristol, England. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1621x1014, 526 KB) White-winged Wood Duck at Bristol Zoo, Bristol, England. ... The Brahmaputra is one of the major rivers of Asia. ... Grand Canyon, Arizona Noravank Monastery complex and canyon in Armenia. ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi:   ) is the easternmost state of India. ... The speedy deletion of this page is contested. ... Karbi Anglong is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... The NC Hills is dominated by the Hmar tribes External Link: ======== Voice of the Northeast India Sinlung Movement The Hmar Web Portal Hmar Students Association, Delhi Delhithurawn ... The Barak river flows in southern Assam and Bangladesh. ...


Assam is endowed with petroleum, natural gas, coal, limestone and other minor minerals such as magnetic quartzite, kaolin, sillimanites, clay and feldspar.[8] A small quantity of iron ore is available in western districts.[8] Discovered in 1889, all the major petroleum-gas reserves are in Upper parts. A recent USGS estimate shows 399 million barrels (63,400,000 m³) of oil, 1,178 billion cubic feet (33,400,000,000 m³) of gas and 67 million barrels (10,700,000 m³) of natural gas liquids in Assam Geologic Province. [9] Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... -1... Kaolin Kaolinite (Aluminium Silicate Hydroxide) Kaolinite is a mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. ... Sillimanite: Biotite gneiss (Mesozoic and Paleozoic) Sillimanite is an alumino-sillicate mineral with the chemical formula Al2SiO5. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


With the “Tropical Monsoon Rainforest Climate”, Assam is temperate (Summer max. at 35-38 and winter min. at 6-8 degrees Celsius) and experiences heavy rainfall and high humidity.[7] [10] The climate is characterised by heavy monsoon downpours reducing summer temperature and foggy nights and mornings in winter . Thunderstorms known as Bordoicila are frequent during the afternoons. Spring (Mar-Apr) and Autumn (Sept-Oct) are usually pleasant with moderate rainfall and temperature. The degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who first proposed it in 1742. ... A shelf cloud associated with a heavy or severe thunderstorm over Enschede, The Netherlands. ...


Assam is one of the richest biodiversity zones in the world and consists of tropical rainforests,[11], deciduous forests, riverine grasslands[12], bamboo[13] orchards and numerous wetland[14] ecosystems; Many are now protected as national parks and reserved forests. The Kaziranga, home of the rare Indian Rhinoceros, and Manas are two UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Assam. The state is the last refuge for numerous other endangered species such as Golden Langur (Trachypithecus geei), White-winged Wood Duck or Deohanh (Cairina scutulata), Bengal Florican, Black-breasted Parrotbill, Pygmy Hog, Greater Adjutant and so on. Some other endangered species with significant population in Assam are Tiger, Elephant, Hoolock Gibbon, Jerdon's Babbler and so on. Assam is also known for orchids.[15] Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... For the novel, see Rainforest (novel). ... An Inner Mongolia Grassland. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ... Kaziranga National Park (Assamese: কাজিৰাঙ্গা জাতীয় উদ্যান , Assamese IAST: kājirāṅgā jātiya udyāna, Assamese IPA: kɑ/ɟi/rɑŋ/gɑ, Indian English IPA: kɑ/zi/rɑŋ/gɑ) is an Indian national park located on the south bank of the Brahmaputra river in the state of Assam, India. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Indian Rhinoceros range The Indian Rhinoceros or the Great One-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) is a large mammal found in Nepal and in Assam, India. ... Manas National Park is a National Park, UNESCO Natural World Heritage site, a Project Tiger Reserve, an Elephant Reserve and a Biosphere Reserve in Assam, India. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Binomial name Trachypithecus geei (Khajuria, 1956) Gees Golden Langur (Trachypithecus geei) or simply the Golden Langur is an Old World monkey found primarily in the foothills of the Himalayas along the Assam-Bhutan border. ... Binomial name Cairina scutulata (Müller, 1842) The White-winged Wood Duck (Cairina scutulata) is a species of dabbling duck in the genus Cairina. ... Binomial name (Gmelin, 1789) Synonyms Eupodotis bengalensis The Bengal Florican, Houbaropsis bengalensis, is a bustard, the only member of the genus Houbaropsis. ... Binomial name Paradoxornis flavirostris Gould, 1836 The Black-breasted Parrotbill (Paradoxornis flavirostris) is a 19 cm long, large, thick-billed parrotbill with black patches on the head-sides and throat. ... Binomial name Sus salvanius Hodgson, 1847 Pygmy hogs (Sus salvanius) are an endangered species of small wild pig, previously spread across India, Nepal, and Bhutan but now only found in Assam. ... Binomial name Leptoptilos dubius (Gmelin, 1789) The Greater Adjutant, Leptoptilos dubius, is a large wading bird in the stork family Ciconiidae. ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... Binomial name Bunopithecus hoolock (Harlan, 1834) The Hoolock Gibbon (Bunopithecus hoolock), also known as just the Hoolock, is a primate species from the family of the gibbons (Hylobatidae) and the only one in the genus Bunopithecus. ... Binomial name Chrysomma altirostre (Jerdon, 1862) Synonyms Moupinia altirostris Pyctorhis altirostris Pyctorhis griseigularis Timalia altirostris Jerdons Babbler Chrysomma altirostre is a passerine bird from South Asia. ... Orchid redirects here. ...


The region is prone to natural disasters with annual floods and frequent mild earthquakes. Strong earthquakes are rare; three of these were recorded in 1869, 1897 (8.1 on the Richter scale); and in 1950 (8.6). The Richter magnitude scale, or more correctly local magnitude ML scale, assigns a single number to quantify the amount of seismic energy released by an earthquake. ...


History

Main article: History of Assam

The history of Assam is the history of a confluence of peoples from the east, west and the north; the confluence of the Indo-Aryan, Austro-Asiatic and the Tibeto-Burman cultures. ...

Pre-history

Assam and adjoining regions have evidences of human settlements from all the periods of the Stone ages. The hills at the height of 460 to 615m were popular habitates probably due to availability of exposed doleritic basalt useful for tool-making.[16] Stone Age fishing hook. ...


According to Kalika Purana (c.8th-9th A.D), written in Assam, the earliest ruler was Mahiranga followed by Hatak, Sambar, Ratna and Ghatak; Naraka removed this line of rulers and established his own dynasty. It mentions that the last of the Naraka-bhauma rulers, Narak, was slain by Krishna. Naraka's son Bhagadatta, mentioned in the Mahabharata, fought for the Kauravas in the battle of Kurushetra with an army of kiratas, chinas and dwellers of the eastern coast. Later rulers of Kamarupa frequently drew their lineage from the Naraka rulers. The Kalika Purana is one of the eighteen Upapuranas. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... The term Kaurava (Sanskrit:कौरव) is a Sanskrit term, that means a descendant of Kuru, a legendary king who is the ancestor of many of the characters of the Mahabharata. ... Kamarupa [from kama desire + rupa body, form] Metaphysically, and in our esoteric philosophy it is the subjective form created through the mental and physical desires and thoughts in connection with things of matter, by all sentient beings, a form which survives the death of their bodies. ...


Ancient and medieval

A ferocious lion excavated in Madan Kamdev close to Baihata Cariali in Assam representing the powerful Kamarupa-Palas (c. 9th-10th century A.D.)
A ferocious lion excavated in Madan Kamdev close to Baihata Cariali in Assam representing the powerful Kamarupa-Palas (c. 9th-10th century A.D.)
Rang Ghar, a pavilion built by Pramatta Singha (also Sunenpha; 1744–1751) in Ahom capital Rongpur, now Sibsagar; the Rang Ghar is one of the earliest pavilions of outdoor stadia in South Asia
Rang Ghar, a pavilion built by Pramatta Singha (also Sunenpha; 1744–1751) in Ahom capital Rongpur, now Sibsagar; the Rang Ghar is one of the earliest pavilions of outdoor stadia in South Asia
Assam till 1950s; The new states of Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram formed in the 1960-70s. From Shillong, the capital of Assam was shifted to Dispur, now a part of Guwahati. After the Indo-China war in 1962, Arunachal Pradesh was also separated out.
Assam till 1950s; The new states of Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram formed in the 1960-70s. From Shillong, the capital of Assam was shifted to Dispur, now a part of Guwahati. After the Indo-China war in 1962, Arunachal Pradesh was also separated out.

Ancient Assam known as Kamarupa was ruled by powerful dynasties: the Varmanas (c.350-650A.D.), the Salstambhas (Xalostombho, c.655-900 A.D.) and the Kamarupa-Palas (c.900-1100A.D.). In the reign of the Varman king, Bhaskaravarman (c.600–650A.D.), the Chinese traveler Xuan Zang visited the region and recorded his travels. Later, after weakening and disintegration (after the Kamarupa-Palas), the Kamarupa tradition was somewhat extended till c.1255A.D. by the Lunar I (c.1120-1185A.D.) and Lunar II (c.1155-1255A.D.) dynasties.[16] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sibsagar is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... , Nagaland   is a hill state located in the far north-eastern part of India. ... , Meghalaya   is a small state in north-eastern India. ... , Mizoram   is one of the Seven Sister States in northeastern India on the border with Myanmar. ... Dispur is the capital of Assam, a state in northeast India. ... , Guwahati is a major city in eastern India, often considered as the gateway to the North-East Region (NER) of the country and is the largest city within the region. ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi:   ) is the easternmost state of India. ... Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Kamarupa was ruled by the Asura king Naraka. ... The Varman dynasty ruled Kamarupa (Assam) from 350 to 650. ... Xuanzang, Dunhuang cave, 9th century. ...


Two later dynasties, the Ahoms and the Koch left larger impacts. The Ahoms, originally a Tai group, ruled Assam for nearly 600 years (1228–1826) and the Koch, a Tibeto-Burmese, established sovereignty in c.1510A.D.. The Koch kingdom in western Assam and present North Bengal was at its zenith in the early reign of Naranarayana (c.1540-1587A.D.). It split into two in c.1581A.D, the western part as a Moghul vassel and the eastern as an Ahom satellite state. Since c 13th A.D., the nerve centre of Ahom polity was upper Assam; the kingdom was gradually extended till Karatoya river in the c.17th-18th A.D.. It was at its zenith during the reign of Sukhrungpha or Sworgodeu Rudra Simha (c.1696-1714A.D.). Among other dynasties, the Chutiyas ruled the north-eastern Assam and parts of present Arunachal Pradesh and the Kacharis ruled from Dikhow river to central and southern Assam. With expansion of Ahom kingdom, by c.1520A.D. the Chutiya areas were annexed and since c.1536A.D. Kacharis remained only in Cachar and North Cachar more as an Ahom ally then a competing force. Despite numerous invasions, mostly by the Muslim rulers, no western power ruled Assam until the arrival of the British. The most successful invader Mir Jumla, a governor of Aurangzeb, briefly occupied Garhgaon (c.1662–63A.D.) the then capital, but found it difficult to control people making guerrilla attacks on his forces, forcing them to leave. The decisive victory of the Assamese led by the great general Lachit Borphukan on the Mughals then under command of Raja Ram Singha at Saraighat (1671) has almost ended Mughal ambitions. Mughals were finally expelled in c.1682A.D. from lower Assam. The Ahoms established the Ahom kingdom (1228-1826) in parts of present-day Assam and ruled it for nearly 600 years. ... Koch is German for cook. Koch can refer to the following: Bill Koch - cross-country skier Billy Koch - Major league baseball relief pitcher Carl Ludwig Koch and his son Ludwig Carl Christian Koch - German entomologists specializing in arachnology Carl Wilhelm Otto Koch, (1810 - 1876), mayor of Leipzig Charles G. Koch... Tai peoples include: the Lao of Laos and Northeast Thailand the Northern Thai (Lanna or Thai Yuan) of Thailand the Thai of Thailand the Shan (Thai Yai) of Burma the Thai Lue of Laos and China (also called Dai) the Nung of China, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam the Black Tai (Tai... Koch is German for cook. Koch can refer to the following: Bill Koch - cross-country skier Billy Koch - Major league baseball relief pitcher Carl Ludwig Koch and his son Ludwig Carl Christian Koch - German entomologists specializing in arachnology Carl Wilhelm Otto Koch, (1810 - 1876), mayor of Leipzig Charles G. Koch... The Tibeto-Burman family of languages (often considered a sub-group of the Sino-Tibetan language family) is spoken in various central and south Asian countries, including Myanmar (Burma), northern Thailand, and parts of Western China (Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai (Amdo), Gansu, Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Hunan), Nepal, Bhutan, India (Himachal... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... The Chutiya kingdom[1] (pronounced sutia) was established by Birpal in 1187 in northeastern Assam, with the capital at Sadiya. ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi:   ) is the easternmost state of India. ... The Kachari kingdom was a powerful and advanced kingdom in medieval Assam. ... Cachar is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... The NC Hills is dominated by the Hmar tribes External Link: ======== Voice of the Northeast India Sinlung Movement The Hmar Web Portal Hmar Students Association, Delhi Delhithurawn ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... Garhgaon was the capital of the Ahom kingdom for many years. ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... Lachit Borphukan was a general from Assam, India. ... Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Lahore, Delhi, Agra , Kabul, Lucknow and Bhopal Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Absolute Monarchy , Unitary Government with a federal structure Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605... Saraighat is a place near Guwahati in Assam, on the banks of the river Brahmaputra. ...


British Assam

Ahom palace intrigue, and political turmoil due to the Moamoria rebellion, aided the expansionist Burmese ruler of Ava to invade Assam and install a puppet king in 1821. With the Burmese having reached the East India Company’s borders, the First Anglo-Burmese War ensued. The war ended under the Treaty of Yandaboo[17] in 1826, with the Company taking control of the Lower Assam and installing Purander Singh as king of Upper Assam in 1833. The arrangement lasted till 1838 and thereaftre British annexed the entire region. Initially Assam was made a part of the Bengal Presidency, then in 1906 it was a part of Eastern Bengal and Assam province and in 1912 it was reconstituted into a Chief Commissioners' province. In 1913, a Legislative Council and in 1937 the Assam Legislative Assembly was formed in Shillong, the erstwhile Capital. The British tea planters imported labour from central India adding to the demographic canvas. After few initial unsuccessful attempts to free Assam during 1850s, the Assamese since early 20th century joined and actively supported Indian National Congress against the British. In 1947, Assam inclusive of present Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya became a state of Republic of India (princely states, Manipur and Tripura became Group C provinces) and a district of Assam, Sylhet chose to join Pakistan. The Moamoria rebellion was the conflict between the adherents of the Moamara Sattra and the Ahom kings in the 18th century. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Combatants British Empire Burma Commanders Charles Grant Archibald Campbell Tharrawaddy Min Maha Bandula â€  The First Anglo-Burmese War lasted from 1823 to 1826. ... The Treaty of Yandaboo between the British East India Company and the Burmese King of Ava, signed on February 24, 1826 marked the end of the First Burmese War. ... Bengal, known as Bango ( Bengali:বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bangodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bengali, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... East Bengal was the name used during two periods in the 20th century for a territory that roughly included the modern state of Bangladesh. ... Indian National Congress, Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi:   ) is the easternmost state of India. ... , Nagaland   is a hill state located in the far north-eastern part of India. ... , Mizoram   is one of the Seven Sister States in northeastern India on the border with Myanmar. ... , Meghalaya   is a small state in north-eastern India. ... Sylhet (previously Shilhat and Jalalabad; Sylheti: Bengali: সিলেট, SileÅ£) is a major city in north-eastern Bangladesh. ...


Post British

Since 1947, with increasing economic problems in the region, separatist groups began forming along ethnic lines, and demands for autonomy and sovereignty grew, resulting into fragmentation of Assam.


Since mid-20th century, people from present Bangladesh have been migrating to Assam. In 1961, the Government of Assam passed a legislation making use of Assamese language compulsory; It had to be withdrawn later under pressure from Bengali speaking people in Cachar. In the 1980s the Brahmaputra valley saw a six-year Assam Agitation [18] triggered by the discovery of a sudden rise in registered voters on electoral rolls. It tried to force the government to identify and deport foreigners illegally migrating from neighbouring Bangladesh and changing the demographics. The agitation ended after an accord between its leaders and the Union Government, which remained unimplemented, causing simmering discontent. On the other hand, political parties neglecting the burning problem have used the Bangladeshi card as a vote bank.[19] Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... Cachar is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... The Assam Agitation denotes the period between 1979 and 1985 when the All Assam Students Union and the All Assam Gana Sangram Parishad led a popular agitational program to compel the government to identify and expel alleged illegal immigrants in Assam. ...


The post 1970s experienced the growth of armed separatist groups like United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) [18] and National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB). In November 1990, the Government of India deployed the Indian army, after which low-intensity military conflicts and political homicides have been continuing for more than a decade. In recent times, ethnicity based militant groups (UPDS, DHD, KLO, HPCD etc.) have also mushroomed. Regional autonomy has been ensured for Bodos in Bodoland Territorial Council Areas (BTCA) and for the Karbis in Karbi Anglong after agitation of the communities due to sluggish rate of development and aspirations for self-government. The United Liberation Front of Asom is a separatist armed opposition group from Assam, among many other such groups in North-East India. ... Flag of the National Democratic Front of Boroland The National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) is an armed group that seeks to obtain a sovereign Bodoland for the Bodo people in Assam. ...


Tea history

Main article: Assam Tea
This 1850 engraving shows the different stages in the process of making tea in Assam.
This 1850 engraving shows the different stages in the process of making tea in Assam.

After discovery of Camellia sinensis (1834) in Assam followed by its tests in 1836-37 in London, the British allowed companies to rent land since 1839. Thereafter tea plantations mushroomed in Upper Assam, where the soil and the climate were most suitable. Problems with the imported labourers from China and hostilities of native Assamese resulted into migration of forced labourers from central-eastern parts of India. After initial trial and error with planting the Chinese and the Assamese-Chinese hybrid varieties, the planters later accepted the local Camellia assamica as the most suitable one for Assam. By 1850s, the industry started seeing some profits. Industry saw initial growth, when in 1861, investors were allowed to own land in Assam and it saw substantial progress with invention of new technologies and machinery for preparing processed tea during 1870s. The cost of Assam tea was lowered down manifold and became competitive than its Chinese variant. Assam is a black tea named after the region of its production: (Assam, India). ... Image File history File links Assam. ... Image File history File links Assam. ... Binomial name (L.) Kuntze Camellia sinensis is the tea plant, the plant species whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea. ... Binomial name Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Camellia sinensis is the tea plant, the plant species whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea. ...


Despite having commercial success, tea labourers remained exploited and worked and lived under poor conditions. In the fear of greater government interference the tea growers formed The Indian Tea Association in 1888 to lobby for the continued status quo. The organization was very successful in this, and even after India’s independence conditions of the labourers have improved very little.[20]


Subdivisions

Districts of Assam:1. Tinsukia, 2. Dibrugarh, 3. Sibsagar, 4. Dhemaji, 5. Jorhat, 6. Lakhimpur, 7. Golaghat, 8. Sonitpur, 9. Karbi Anglong, 10. Nagaon, 11. Marigaon, 12. Darrang, 13. Kamrup Rural, 14. Nalbari, 15. Barpeta, 16. Bongaigaon, 17. Goalpara, 18. Kokrajhar, 19. Dhubri, 20. North Cachar Hills, 21. Cachar, 22. Hailakandi, 23. Karimganj, 24. Kamrup Metropolitan, 25. Baksa, 26. Chirang and 27. Udalguri.
Districts of Assam:1. Tinsukia, 2. Dibrugarh, 3. Sibsagar, 4. Dhemaji, 5. Jorhat, 6. Lakhimpur, 7. Golaghat, 8. Sonitpur, 9. Karbi Anglong, 10. Nagaon, 11. Marigaon, 12. Darrang, 13. Kamrup Rural, 14. Nalbari, 15. Barpeta, 16. Bongaigaon, 17. Goalpara, 18. Kokrajhar, 19. Dhubri, 20. North Cachar Hills, 21. Cachar, 22. Hailakandi, 23. Karimganj, 24. Kamrup Metropolitan, 25. Baksa, 26. Chirang and 27. Udalguri.
Main article: Districts of Assam

Assam is divided into 27 administrative districts.[21] More than half of these districts were carved out during 80s and 90s from original 1. Lakhimpur, 2. Jorhat, 3. Karbi Anglong, 4. Darrang, 5. Nagaon, 6. Kamrup, 7. Goalpara, 8. North Cachar and 9. Cachar districts, delineated by the British. Earlier, during 70s, Dibrugarh was separated out from original Lakhimpur district. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (849x555, 50 KB) Tinsukia Dibrugarh Sibsagar Dhemaji Jorhat Lakhimpur Golaghat Sonitpur Karbi Anglong Nagaon Marigaon Darrang Kamrup Rural Nalbari Barpeta Bongaigaon Goalpara Kokrajhar Dhubri North Cachar Hills Cachar Hailakandi Karimganj Kamrup Metropolitan. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (849x555, 50 KB) Tinsukia Dibrugarh Sibsagar Dhemaji Jorhat Lakhimpur Golaghat Sonitpur Karbi Anglong Nagaon Marigaon Darrang Kamrup Rural Nalbari Barpeta Bongaigaon Goalpara Kokrajhar Dhubri North Cachar Hills Cachar Hailakandi Karimganj Kamrup Metropolitan. ... Tinsukia is a city in the north east of India. ... Dibrugarh is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Sibsagar is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Dhemaji is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Jorhat is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Lakhimpur is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Golaghat is the head-quarter of Golaghat District. ... Sonitpur is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Karbi Anglong is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Nagaon is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Marigaon is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Darrang is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Nalbari is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Barpeta is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Bongaigaon is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Goalpara is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Kokrajhar is a city and a municipal board in Kokrajhar district in the Indian state of Assam. ... Dhubri is the headquarter of Dhubri District, Assam, India. ... North Cachar Hills is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Cachar is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... , Hailakandi is a city and a municipal board in Hailakandi district in the Indian state of Assam. ... Karimganj is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Chirang is the name of the new district formed in the BTC area of Assam. ... Udalguri is a town and a town area committee in Darrang district in the Indian state of Assam. ... Assam, a state of India, has currently (2007) twenty four administrative districts. ... The divisions of a district. ...


These districts are further sub-divided into 49 “Sub-divisions” or Mohkuma.[21] Every district is administered from a district head quarter with the office of the District Collector, District Magistrate, Office of the District Panchayat and usually with a district court. The equivalent terms tehsil, tahsil, tahasil, taluka, taluk, and taluq refer to a unit of government in some countries of the Indian subcontinent. ... The District Collector is a Central Indian Government appointee who is in charge of the governance of a district in a state. ... A magistrate is a judicial officer. ... District courts are a category of courts which exists in several nations. ...


The districts are delineated on the basis of the features such as the rivers, hills, forests, etc and majority of the newly constituted districts are sub-divisions of the earlier districts. For the present districts of Assam and their location, refer the attached map.


The local governance system is organised under the jila-parishad (District Panchayat) for a district, panchayat for group of or individual rural areas and under the urban local bodies for the towns and cities. Presently there are 2489 village panchayats covering 26247 villages in Assam.[22] The 'town-committee' or nagar-xomiti for small towns, 'municipal board' or pouro-xobha for medium towns and municipal corporation or pouro-nigom for the cities consist of the urban local bodies. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Panchayat is a South Asian political system. ... A Municipal Corporation is a legal defintion for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, and towns. ...


For the revenue purposes, the districts are divided into revenue circles and mouzas; for the development projects, the districts are divided into 219 'development-blocks' and for law and order these are divided into 206 police stations or thana.[22]


Demographics

Main article: People of Assam
District-wise Demographic Characteristics in 2001
District-wise Demographic Characteristics in 2001

Total population of Assam was 26.66 million with 4.91 million households in 2001.[23] Higher population concentration was recorded in the districts of Kamrup, Nagaon, Sonitpur, Barpeta, Dhubri, Darang and Cachar. Assam's population was estimated at 28.67 million in 2006 and at 30.57 million by 2011, 34.18 million by 2021 and 35.60 million by 2026.[24] The people of Assam inhabit a multi-ethnic, multi-linguistic and multi-religious society. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (960 × 720 pixels, file size: 12 KB, MIME type: image/png) prepared by me based on 2001 census data I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (960 × 720 pixels, file size: 12 KB, MIME type: image/png) prepared by me based on 2001 census data I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...


In 2001, the census recorded literacy in Assam at 63.30 percent with male literacy at 71.30 and female at 54.60 percents. Urbanisation rate was recorded at 12.90 percent.[25] Children reading. ... Urbanization is the degree of or increase in urban character or nature. ...


Growth of population in Assam has experienced a very high trajectory since the mid-decades of the 20th century. Population grew steadily from 3.29 million in 1901 to 6.70 million in 1941, while it has increased unprecedentedly to 14.63 million in 1971 and 22.41 million in 1991 to reach the present level.[23] The growth in the western and southern districts was of extreme high in nature mostly attributable to rapid influx of population from the then East Pakistan or Bangladesh.[26][19] East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ...

Population Growth Trend 1901 to 2001
Population Growth Trend 1901 to 2001

Assam has many ethnic groups and the People of India project has studied 115 of these. Out of which 79 (69%) identify themselves regionally, 22 (19%) locally, and 3 trans-nationally. The earliest settlers were Austroasiatic, followed by Tibeto-Burman, Indo-Aryan speakers and Tai-Kadai speakers.[27] Forty-five languages are spoken by different communities, including three major language families: Austroasiatic (5), Sino-Tibetan (24) and Indo-European (12). Three of the spoken languages do not fall in these families. There is a high degree of bilingualism. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (960 × 720 pixels, file size: 7 KB, MIME type: image/png) created based on census data I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (960 × 720 pixels, file size: 7 KB, MIME type: image/png) created based on census data I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Austroasiatic languages are a large language family of Southeast Asia and India. ... The Tibeto-Burman linguistic subfamily of the proposed Sino-Tibetan language family is spoken in various central and south Asian countries: Myanmar (Burmese language), Tibet (Tibetan language), northern Thailand (Mong language), Nepal, Bhutan, India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and the Ladakh region of... The Indo-Aryan languages (within the context of Indo-European studies also Indic[1]) are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Tai-Kadai languages, also known simply as Kadai, are a language family found in Southeast Asia and southern China. ... The Austroasiatic languages are a large language family of Southeast Asia and India. ... The Sino-Tibetan languages form a putative language family composed of Chinese and the Tibeto-Burman languages, including some 250 languages of East Asia. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The term bilingualism (from bi meaning two and lingua meaning language) can refer to rather different phenomena. ...


Major religions are Hinduism (64.9%) [28] and Islam (30.9% - grown to the second largest proportional population among Indian states after J&K). [29] Others include Christianity (3.7%), Sikhism, Animism, Buddhism (Khamti, Phake, Aito etc. communities). Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article is about the area administered by India. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ...


Cultural evolution

Main article: Culture of Assam
See also: Bihu, Music of Assam, Assamese literature, Assamese cinema, and Fine Arts of Assam
Development of Hybrid Culture in Assam: Assamese culture developed due to assimilation of ethno-cultural groups under various politico-economic systems in different time. The roots go back to three thousand years when the first assimilation took place between the Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman cultures. Thereafter, western migrations such as those of various branches of Mediterraneans, Indo-scythians /Irano-scythians and Nordics along with the people from northern Indian states such as Magadha have enriched the aboriginal culture and under stronger politico-economic systems, Sanskritisation and Hinduisation intensified. Migration and assimilation of Tai people in the past millennium provided another dimension to its hybridity.
Development of Hybrid Culture in Assam: Assamese culture developed due to assimilation of ethno-cultural groups under various politico-economic systems in different time. The roots go back to three thousand years when the first assimilation took place between the Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman cultures.[16] Thereafter, western migrations such as those of various branches of Mediterraneans, Indo-scythians /Irano-scythians and Nordics along with the people from northern Indian states such as Magadha have enriched the aboriginal culture and under stronger politico-economic systems, Sanskritisation and Hinduisation intensified. Migration and assimilation of Tai people in the past millennium provided another dimension to its hybridity.[16]

Assamese culture is traditionally a hybrid one developed due to assimilation of ethno-cultural groups in the past. Therefore, both local elements or the local elements in Sanskritised forms are distinctly found.[30] The major milestones in evolution of Assamese culture are: The Culture of Assam is traditionally a hybrid one, developed due to cultural assimilation of different ethno-cultural groups under various politico-economic systems in different periods of pre-history and history. ... Bihu is the most important (non-religious) festival of the Assamese culture and of the state of Assam which is situated in the northeastern region of India. ... Timeline and Samples Genres Classical (Carnatic and Hindustani) - Rock - Pop - Hip hop Awards Bollywood Music Awards - Punjabi Music Awards Charts Festivals Sangeet Natak Akademi – Thyagaraja Aradhana – Cleveland Thyagaraja Aradhana Media Sruti, The Music Magazine National anthem Jana Gana Mana, also national song Vande Mataram Music of the states Andaman and... The history of the Assamese literature may be broadly divided into three periods: // The Charyapadas are often cited as the earliest example of Assamese literature. ... Assamese cinema was born in 1935 when Jyoti Prasad Agarwala released his movie Joymoti. ... Fine Arts of Assam has extremely rich tradition. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 614 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,150 × 1,122 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 614 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,150 × 1,122 pixels, file size: 2. ... The Austroasiatic languages are a large language family of Southeast Asia and India. ... The Tibeto-Burman linguistic subfamily of the proposed Sino-Tibetan language family is spoken in various central and south Asian countries: Myanmar (Burmese language), Tibet (Tibetan language), northern Thailand (Mong language), Nepal, Bhutan, India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and the Ladakh region of... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ... Languages French Occitan Greek Italian Portuguese Spanish Catalan Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Protestant Orthodox The Mediterranean race was one of the three sub-categories into which the people of Europe were divided by anthropologists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, following the publication of William Z. Ripleys... The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-Iranian Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 4th century CE. The first... Nordic theory (or Nordicism) was a theory of race prevalent in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. ... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Sanskritization is a term coined by late M.N.Srinivas, the eminent sociologist from India, to define the process by which castes placed lower in the caste hierarchy seek upward mobility by emulating the rituals and practices of the upper or dominant castes. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... The Culture of Assam is traditionally a hybrid one, developed due to cultural assimilation of different ethno-cultural groups under various politico-economic systems in different periods of pre-history and history. ... Hybridity refers in its most basic sense to mix. ...

  • Assimilation in the Kamarupa Kingdom for almost 700 years (under the Varmans for 300 years, Salastambhas and Palas for each 200 years).[16]
  • Establishment of the Ahom dynasty in the 13th century AD and assimilation for next 600 years.[16]
  • Assimilation in the Koch Kingdom (15th-16th century AD) of western Assam and Kachari Kingdom (12th-18th century AD) of central and southern Assam.[16]
  • Vaishnava Movement led by Srimanta Sankardeva (Xonkordeu) and its contribution and cultural changes.
Ôxôm Xahityô Xôbha (est. 1917), the foremost organisation for development of literature; its annual conventions are the major celebrations and workshops portraying literary and cultural development. However, feeling inadequate attention, many groups have created their own Xôbhas.

With rich traditions, the modern culture is greatly influenced by events in the British and the Post-British Era. The language was standardised by the American Baptist Missionaries such as Nathan Brown, Dr. Miles Bronson and local pundits such as Hemchandra Barua with the form available in the Sibsagar (Xiwoxagor) District (the ex-nerve centre of the Ahom Kingdom). A renewed Sanskritisation was increasingly adopted for developing Assamese language and grammar. A new wave of Western and northern Indian influence was apparent in the performing arts and literature. Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Kamarupa was ruled by the Asura king Naraka. ... The Varman dynasty ruled Kamarupa (Assam) from 350 to 650. ... The Mlechchha dynasty (655--900) ruled Kamarupa from their capital at Hadapeshvar in the present-day Tezpur after the fall of the Varman dynasty. ... The Pala dynasty of Kamarupa ruled the kingdom from 900. ... The Ahom Dynasty ruled parts of Assam for nearly 600 years, from the thirteenth century to the nineteenth century. ... The Kamata kingdom appeared in the western part of the older Kamarupa kingdom in the 13th century, after the fall of the Pala dynasty. ... The Kachari kingdom was a powerful and advanced kingdom in medieval Assam. ... Vaishnavism is one of the principal traditions of Hinduism, and is distinguished from other schools by its primary worship of Vishnu (and his associated avatars) as the Supreme God. ... Mahapurusha Srimanta Sankaradeva (1449-1568) is a colossal figure in the cultural and religious history of Assam, India. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Official Logo Axom Xahitya Xabha (Assamese: অসম সাহিত্য সভা, Ôxôm Xahityô Xôbha or Assam Literary Society) was founded in 1917 in Assam, India to promote the culture of Assam and Assamese literature. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... Nathan Brown (22 June 1807 - 1 January 1886) was an American Baptist missionary to India and Japan, Bible translator, and abolitionist. ... Hem Chandra Barua (Assamese: হেমচন্দ্ৰ বৰুৱা), is one of the prominent writers of Assamese of the 19th century. ... Sibsagar is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... The culture of India has been shaped by the long history of India, all the while absorbing customs, traditions and ideas from both immigrants and invaders, yet resiliently preserving the ancient Vedic culture derived from the Indus Valley Civilization. ...


Increasing efforts of standardisation in the 20th century alienated the localised forms present in different areas and with the less-assimilated ethno-cultural groups (many source-cultures). However, Assamese culture in its hybrid form and nature is one of the richest, still developing and in true sense is a 'cultural system' with sub-systems. It is interesting that many source-cultures of Assamese cultural-system are still surviving either as sub-systems or as sister entities, for e.g. Bodo or Khasi or Micing. Today it is important to keep the broader system closer to its roots and at the same time to focus on development of the sub-systems. An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... Cultural system refers to the functional interaction between the different elements of culture in a particular manner. ... A Bodo girl in the traditional Bodo dokhna. ... The Khasi are a tribe in Meghalaya, India and in parts of Bangladesh, who call themselves Hynniew trep (which means the seven huts in the Khasi language). ... 164. ...


Some of the common and unique cultural traits in the region are peoples' respect towards areca-nut and betel leaves, symbolic clothes (Gamosa, Arnai, etc), traditional silk garments and towards forefathers and elderly. Moreover, great hospitality and Bamboo culture are common. Binomial name Areca catechu Linnaeus Areca nut, or pinang, more commonly known as betel nut, is the seed of the betel palm or Areca catechu, a species of palm tree which grows throughout the Pacific, Asia, and parts of east Africa. ... Binomial name Piper betle L. The Betel (Piper betle) is a spice whose leaves have medicinal properties. ... A Gamosa made from Pat silk with intricate designs The Gamosa is an article of great significance for the people of Assam. ... Assam silk denotes the three major types of indigenous silks produced in Assam, called Muga, Pat and Eri silk. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ...


Symbolism

A pair of areca nuts, betel leaves and a 'Gamosa' in a Xorai; this represents cultural symbolism of respect towards the recipient person by the person presenting it
A pair of areca nuts, betel leaves and a 'Gamosa' in a Xorai; this represents cultural symbolism of respect towards the recipient person by the person presenting it

Symbolism is an ancient cultural practice in Assam and is still a very important part of Assamese way of life. Various elements are being used to represent beliefs, feelings, pride, identity, etc. Tamulpan, Xorai and Gamosa are three important symbolic elements in Assamese culture. Tamulpan (the areca nut and betel leaves) or guapan (gua from kwa) are considered along with the Gamosa (a typical woven cotton or silk cloth with embroidery) as the offers of devotion, respect and friendship. The Tamulpan-tradition is an ancient one and is being followed since time-immemorial with roots in the aboriginal Austro-Asiatic culture. Xorai is a traditionally manufactured bell-metal article of great respect and is used as a container-medium while performing respectful offers. Moreover, symbolically many ethno-cultural groups use specific clothes to portray respect and pride. Two extra large Xorais being used by the roadside welcoming visitors to Kaziranga National Park The Xorai is a traditional symbol of Assam. ... A Gamosa made from Pat silk with intricate designs The Gamosa is an article of great significance for the people of Assam. ... Two extra large Xorais being used by the roadside welcoming visitors to Kaziranga National Park The Xorai is a traditional symbol of Assam. ...


There were many other symbolic elements and designs, but are now only found in literature, art, sculpture, architecture, etc or in use today for only religious purposes. The typical designs of assamese-lion, dragon, flying-lion, etc were used for symbolising various purposes and occasions. The archaeological sites such as the Madan Kamdev (c. 9th-10th A.D.) exhibits mass-scale use of lions, dragon-lions and many other figures of demons to show case power and prosperity. The Vaishnava monasteries and many other architectural sites of late medieval period also showcase use of lions and dragons for symbolic effects.


Languages

See also: Assamese language, Assamese literature, and Bodo language

Assamese and Bodo are the major indigenous and official languages while Bengali holds official status in the three districts in the Barak Valley. Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... The history of the Assamese literature may be broadly divided into three periods: // The Charyapadas are often cited as the earliest example of Assamese literature. ... Bodo is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken by the Bodo people of north-eastern India and Nepal. ... Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... Bodo is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken by the Bodo people of north-eastern India and Nepal. ... Bangla redirects here. ...


Traditionally Assamese was the language of the commons (of mixed origin - Austroasiatic, Tibeto-Burman, Magadhan Prakrit) in the ancient Kamarupa and in the medieval kingdoms of Kamatapur, Kachari, Cuteeya, Borahi, Ahom and Koch. Rajbongshi language is also widely spoken by the people of lower assam which covers the entire ancient Kamatapur ruled by Prince Chilaray younger brother of King Naranarayan, Rajbongshi language is also called as kamatapuri/Desi/Goalpariya/Kamatapuri which is widely spoken by the Rajbongshi Community of Assam and West Bengal. Traces of the language is found in many poems by Luipa, Sarahapa, etc in Charyapada (c.7th-8th AD). Modern dialects Kamrupi, Goalpariya, etc are the remnant of this language. Moreover, Assamese in its traditional form was used by the ethno-cultural groups in the region as lingua-franca, which spread during the stronger kingdoms and was required for needed economic integration. Localised forms of the language still exist in Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, North Bengal, Cachar, etc and in the south, languages such as Chatgaia, Siloti, etc exhibit similarities. The form used in the upper Assam was enriched by the advent of Tai-Shans in the 13th century. The Austroasiatic languages are a large language family of Southeast Asia and India. ... The Tibeto-Burman linguistic subfamily of the proposed Sino-Tibetan language family is spoken in various central and south Asian countries: Myanmar (Burmese language), Tibet (Tibetan language), northern Thailand (Mong language), Nepal, Bhutan, India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and the Ladakh region of... Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Kamarupa was ruled by the Asura king Naraka. ... The Kachari kingdom was a powerful and advanced kingdom in medieval Assam. ... The Chutiya kingdom[1] (pronounced sutia) was established by Birpal in 1187 in northeastern Assam, with the capital at Sadiya. ... The Ahom Kingdom (1228-1826) was established by Sukaphaa, a Tai prince from Mong Mao, in the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra river, between the extant Chutiya kingdom in the north and the Kachari kingdom in the south. ... The Kamata kingdom appeared in the western part of the older Kamarupa kingdom in the 13th century, after the fall of the Pala dynasty. ... Charyapada is the oldest known Bengali written form. ... , Nagaland   is a hill state located in the far north-eastern part of India. ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi:   ) is the easternmost state of India. ... North Bengal is a term, for the part of West Bengal, which often denotes Cooch Behar, Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, North Dinajpur, South Dinajpur and Malda districts together. ... Cachar is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Chittagonian is an Indo-European language spoken by the people of Chittagong in Bangladesh and the much of the southeast of the country. ... Sylheti (native name সিলটী Silôţi; Bengali name সিলেটী SileÅ£i) is the language of Sylhet proper, the north-eastern region of Bangladesh and southern districts of Assam around Silchar. ...

A Page from Charyapada: 7th-8th century Specimen of Assamese Literature

Linguistically modern Assamese traces its roots to the version developed by the American Missionaries based on the local form in practice near Sibsagar (Xiwoxagor) district. Assamese (Oxomeeya) is a rich language due to its hybrid nature with its unique characteristics of pronunciation and softness. Assamese literature is one of the richest. Image File history File linksMetadata Charyapada. ... Charyapada is the oldest known Bengali written form. ... Sibsagar is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ...


Bodo is an ancient language of Assam. Spatial distribution patterns of the ethno-cultural groups, cultural traits and the phenomenon of naming all the major rivers in the North East Region with Bodo-Kachari words (e.g. Dihing, Dibru, Dihong, D/Tista, Dikrai, etc) reveal that it was the most important language in the ancient times. Bodo is presently spoken largely in the Lower Assam (Bodo Territorial Council area). After years of neglect, now Bodo language is getting attention and its literature is developing. Other native languages of Tibeto-Burman origin and related to Bodo-Kachari are Mishing, Karbi, Dimaca, Rabha, Tiwa, etc. Bodo is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken by the Bodo people of north-eastern India and Nepal. ... The Himalayas in Sikkim North-East India is the easternmost region of India consisting of the contiguous Seven Sister States and the state of Sikkim. ... Dihing or Burhi Dihing is a large tributary of the Brahmaputra in Upper Assam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Teesta River is one of the most scenic rivers in Eastern India. ... Bodo is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken by the Bodo people of north-eastern India and Nepal. ... The Tibeto-Burman linguistic subfamily of the proposed Sino-Tibetan language family is spoken in various central and south Asian countries: Myanmar (Burmese language), Tibet (Tibetan language), northern Thailand (Mong language), Nepal, Bhutan, India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and the Ladakh region of... Mishing is Sino-Tibetan family of languages spoken by the Mishing people. ... Language(s) Karbi language Religion(s) Related ethnic groups Other tribes of Assam The Karbi, mentioned as the Mikir in the Constitution Order of the Government of India, constitute an important ethnic group in the hill areas of Assam. ... The Dimasa Kacharis are a tribe mostly inhabiting the northern half of the North Cachar Hills, an administrative district in the state of Assam in India, including the ravines of the Jatinga valley and the adjoining land. ... Rabha is a tribe in Assam. ...


There are smaller groups of people speaking Tai-Phake, Tai-Aiton, Tai-Khamti, etc related to Tai-group of languages. The Tai-Ahom language (brought by Sukaphaa and his followers), which is no more a spoken language today is getting attentions for research after centuries long care and preservation by the Bailungs (traditional priests). There are also small groups of people speaking Manipuri, Khasi, Garo, Hmar, Kuki, etc in different parts. The Tai-Kadai languages, also known simply as Kadai, are a language family found in Southeast Asia and southern China. ... Sukaphaa (reign 1228-1268) is the first king of the Ahom kingdom in medieval Assam. ... Manipuri may refer to: Manipuri/Meitei language or Manipuri Language, the predominant language and lingua-franca in the state of Manipur, in northeastern India Manipuri (Bishnupriya Language), an Indo-Aryan language Manipuri dance, one of the major Indian classical dance forms Categories: ... The Khasi are a tribe in Meghalaya, India and in parts of Bangladesh, who call themselves Hynniew trep (which means the seven huts in the Khasi language). ... For other uses see Garo. ... Hmar is the name of one of the numerous tribes of India, spread over a large area in the northeast. ... The term Kuki refers to an ethnic entity that spreads out in a contiguous region in Northeast India, Northwest Burma (Myanmar), and the Chittagong Hill tracts in Bangladesh. ...


In the past century migration of Bengalis in the Barak Valley has led to their majority, prompting the government of Assam to include Bengali as the official language in the area. Barak (בָּרָק Lightning, Standard Hebrew Barak, Tiberian Hebrew Bārāq) is one of the Judges from the Book of Judges in the Bible. ...


Festivals

A Bihu dancer with a horn
A Bihu dancer with a horn
Bodo girls performing the Kherai dance.
Bodo girls performing the Kherai dance.
An Assamese woman in Pat Silk performing Sattriya dance.

There are several important traditional festivals in Assam. Bihu is the most important and common and celebrated all over Assam. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (631x743, 375 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Assam Bihu Bihu dance Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (631x743, 375 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Assam Bihu Bihu dance Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Bihu dancers The Bihu dance is a folk dance from the Indian state of Assam related to the festival of Bihu. ... Image File history File links Kerai. ... Image File history File links Kerai. ... A Bodo girl in the traditional Bodo dokhna. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 451 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (965 × 1,283 pixels, file size: 554 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Devika Pulak Borthaur Sattriya Dance of Assam. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 451 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (965 × 1,283 pixels, file size: 554 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Devika Pulak Borthaur Sattriya Dance of Assam. ... image of Sattriya dance Sattriya dance or Sattriya Nritya is one among the eight principal classical dance traditions of India. ... Bihu is the most important (non-religious) festival of the Assamese culture and of the state of Assam which is situated in the northeastern region of India. ...


Bihu is a series of three prominent festivals. Primarily a non-religious festival celebrated to mark the seasons and the significant points of a cultivator's life over a yearly cycle. Three Bihus, rongali or bohag, celebrated with the coming of spring and the beginning of the sowing season; kongali or kati, the barren bihu when the fields are lush but the barns are empty; and the bhogali or magh, the thanksgiving when the crops have been harvested and the barns are full. Bihu songs and Bihu dance are associated to rongali bihu. The day before the each bihu is known as 'uruka'. The first day of 'rongali bihu' is called 'Goru bihu' (the bihu of the cows), when the cows are taken to the nearby rivers or ponds to be bathed with special care. In recent times the form and nature of celebration has changed with the growth of urban centres. Bihu is the most important (non-religious) festival of the Assamese culture and of the state of Assam which is situated in the northeastern region of India. ...


Moreover, there are other important traditional festivals being celebrated every year for different occasions at different places. Many of these are celebrated by different ethno-cultural groups (sub and sister cultures). Few of these are:

  • Me-dam-me-phi
  • Ali-aye-ligang
  • Kherai
  • Garja
  • Hapsa Hatarnai
  • Awnkham Gwrlwi Janai
  • Chojun/Swarak
  • Rongker
  • Sokk-erroi
  • Hacha-kekan
  • Porag

Performing arts

See also: Music of Assam

Assam has rich tradition of performing arts. Ankiya Nat (Onkeeya Naat) is a traditional Vaishnav dance-drama (bhaona) form popular since 15th century A.D. It makes use of large masks of gods, goddesses, demons and animals and in between the plays a Sutradhar (Xutrodhar) keeps on telling the story. The Bihu dance and Hucory performed during the Bohag Bihu, Kushan nritra of Rajbongshi's, Bagurumba and Bordoicikhla dance of Bodos, Mishing Bihu, Banjar Kekan performed during Chomangkan by Karbis are some of the major folk dances. Sattriya (Xotriya) dance related to Vaishnav tradition is a classical form of dance. Moreover, there are several other age-old dance-forms such as Barpeta’s Bhortal Nritya, Deodhoni Nritya, Oja Paali, Beula Dance, Ka Shad Inglong Kardom, Nimso Kerung, etc. The tradition of modern moving theatres is typical of Assam with immense popularity of many large theatre groups such as Kohinoor, Apsara, Hengul, etc. Timeline and Samples Genres Classical (Carnatic and Hindustani) - Rock - Pop - Hip hop Awards Bollywood Music Awards - Punjabi Music Awards Charts Festivals Sangeet Natak Akademi – Thyagaraja Aradhana – Cleveland Thyagaraja Aradhana Media Sruti, The Music Magazine National anthem Jana Gana Mana, also national song Vande Mataram Music of the states Andaman and... Bihu is the most important (non-religious) festival of the Assamese culture and of the state of Assam which is situated in the northeastern region of India. ... A Bodo girl in the traditional Bodo dokhna The Bodos, also called the Boros, are an ethnic community that is concentrated mostly in the north-western parts of Assam in India. ... 164. ...


At the same time musical tradition is also rich. Folk songs and music related to Bihu and other festivals dates back to time-immemorial. Borgeet, the popular Vaishnav songs are written and composed in 15th century. Assam has large numbers of traditional musical instruments including several types of drums, string instruments, flutes, cymbals, pipes, etc. For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... A string instrument (also stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... This article pertains to the musical instrument. ... It is also possible that you want to know about the Cymbalum instrument. ... The word pipe can refer to: The basic cylindrical pipe shape a tubular man-made channel, generally round in cross section, in steel or concrete for transporting or guiding a fluid substance see plumbing and pipeline transport used in construction as column, truss element or space frame in mechanical engineering...


The indigenous folk music has substantially influenced the growth of a modern idiom, that finds expression in the music of such artists like Bhupen Hazarika, Anima Choudhury Nirmalendu Choudhury & Utpalendu Choudhury, Luit Konwar Rudra Baruah, Parvati Prasad Baruva, Jayanta Hazarika, Khagen Mahanta among many others. Among the new generation, Zubeen Garg and Jitul Sonowal have a great fan following. Bhupen Hazarika is a multi-faceted artist from Assam, a state in the north-eastern part of India. ... Luit Konwar Rudra Baruah was one of the foremost music pioneers of Assam. ... Parvati Prasad Baruva (1904-1964) was a poet par excellence, a dramatist and a filmmaker from Assam and he has contributed immensely to modern Assamese literature. ... Jayanta Hazarika (-1977) was a great singer and composer in the world of Assamese music. ... Zubeen Garg (born 18 November 1972). ...


Traditional crafts

Main article: Traditional crafts of Assam
See also: Assam silk
Bell metal made xorai and xophura are important parts of culture; offerings with respect are made using these during festivals and religious ceremonies and are seen as respectable items
Bell metal made xorai and xophura are important parts of culture; offerings with respect are made using these during festivals and religious ceremonies and are seen as respectable items
A beautifully made traditional brass dish from Assam
A beautifully made traditional brass dish from Assam
A colourful page of manuscript painting from Assam; The medieval painters used locally manufactured painting materials such as the bright colours of hangool and haital and papers manufactured from aloewood bark
A colourful page of manuscript painting from Assam; The medieval painters used locally manufactured painting materials such as the bright colours of hangool and haital and papers manufactured from aloewood bark

Assam has a rich tradition of crafts; presently, Cane and bamboo craft, bell metal and brass craft, silk and cotton weaving, toy and mask making, pottery and terracotta work, wood craft, jewellery making, musical instruments making, etc remained as major traditions.[31] Historically, Assam also excelled in making boats, traditional guns and gunpowder, ivory crafts, colours and paints, articles of lac, agarwood products, traditional building materials, utilities from iron, etc. Assam has maintained a rich tradition of various traditional crafts for more than two thousand years. ... Assam silk denotes the three major types of indigenous silks produced in Assam, called Muga, Pat and Eri silk. ... Bell metal is a hard alloy used for making bells. ... Hangool and haital are unique medieval products of Assam used as paints. ... Arts and crafts comprise a whole host of activities and hobbies that are related to making things with ones own hands and skill. ... For the US TV series, see Cane (TV series). ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... Bell metal is a hard alloy used for making bells. ... Brazen redirects here. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... A teddy bear A toy is an object used in play. ... For other uses, see Mask (disambiguation). ... Pottery on display in Dilli Haat, Delhi, India. ... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... For the Korean music group, see Jewelry (group). ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... This article is about the video game. ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... Lac is the scarlet resinous secretion of the insect Laccifer lacca. ... Agarwood or eaglewood is the most expensive wood in the world. ...


Cane and bamboo craft provide the most commonly used utilities in daily life, ranging from household utilities, weaving accessories, fishing accessories, furniture, musical instruments, construction materials, etc. Utilities and symbolic articles such as Xorai and Bota made from bell metal and brass are found in every Assamese household.[32][33] Hajo and Sarthebari (Xorthebaary) are the most important centres of traditional bell-metal and brass crafts. Assam is the home of several types of silks, the most prestigious are: Muga - the natural golden silk, Pat - a creamy-bright-silver coloured silk and Eri - a variety used for manufacturing warm clothes for winter. Apart from Sualkuchi (Xualkuchi), the centre for the traditional silk industry, in almost every parts of the Brahmaputra Valley, rural households produce silk and silk garments with excellent embroidery designs. Moreover, various ethno-cultural groups in Assam make different types of cotton garments with unique embroidery designs and wonderful colour combinations. Hajo is an ancient pilgrimage centre for three religions: Hindus, Buddhists, and Muslims. ... Sarthebari is a town and a town area committee in Barpeta district in the Indian state of Assam. ... Assam silk denotes the three major types of indigenous silks produced in Assam, called Muga, Pat and Eri silk. ... Sualkuchi is a census town in Kamrup district in the Indian state of Assam. ... The Brahmaputra is one of the major rivers of Asia. ...


Moreover, Assam possesses unique crafts of toy and mask making mostly concentrated in the Vaishnav Monasteries, pottery and terracotta work in lower Assam districts and wood craft, iron craft, jewellery, etc in many places across the region. A teddy bear A toy is an object used in play. ... For other uses, see Mask (disambiguation). ... Pottery on display in Dilli Haat, Delhi, India. ... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... For the Korean music group, see Jewelry (group). ...


Fine arts

Main article: Fine Arts of Assam
See also: Culture of Assam

The archaic Mauryan Stupas discovered in and around Goalpara district are the earliest examples (c. 300B.C. to c. 100A.D.) of ancient art and architectural works. The remains discovered in Daparvatiya (Doporboteeya) archaeological site with a beautiful doorframe in Tezpur are identified as the best examples of art works in ancient Assam with influence of Sarnath School of Art of the late Gupta period. Many other sites also exhibit development of local art forms with local motifs and sometimes with similarities with those in the Southeast Asia. There are currently more than forty discovered ancient archaeological sites across Assam with numerous sculptural and architectural remains. Moreover, there are examples of several Late-Middle Age art and architectural works including hundreds of sculptures and motifs along with many remaining temples, palaces and other buildings. The motifs available on the walls of the buildings such as Rang Ghar, Joydoul, etc are remarkable examples of art works. Fine Arts of Assam has extremely rich tradition. ... The Culture of Assam is traditionally a hybrid one, developed due to cultural assimilation of different ethno-cultural groups under various politico-economic systems in different periods of pre-history and history. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... A stupa A stupa (from the Sanskrit) is a type of Buddhist structure found across the Indian subcontinent and Asia. ... Goalpara is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Sarnath (also Mrigadava, Migadāya, Rishipattana, Isipatana) is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Painting is an ancient tradition of Assam. Xuanzang (7th century CE) mentions that among the Kamarupa king Bhaskaravarma's gifts to Harshavardhana there were paintings and painted objects, some of which were on Assamese silk. Many of the manuscripts such as Hastividyarnava (A Treatise on Elephants), the Chitra Bhagawata and in the Gita Govinda from the Middle Ages bear excellent examples of traditional paintings. The medieval Assamese literature also refers to chitrakars and patuas. A portrait of Xuanzang Xuanzang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsüan-tsang; CantoneseIPA: jyn4tsɔŋ1; CantoneseJyutping: jyun4zong1) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler and translator that brought up the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period. ... Kamarupa [from kama desire + rupa body, form] Metaphysically, and in our esoteric philosophy it is the subjective form created through the mental and physical desires and thoughts in connection with things of matter, by all sentient beings, a form which survives the death of their bodies. ... Harsha or Harshavardhana (606-648) was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India as paramount monarch for over forty years. ... Assam silk denotes the three major types of indigenous silks produced in Assam, called Muga, Pat and Eri silk. ... Hastividyarnava or A Treatise on Elephants is a medieval manuscript of Assam with excellent works of traditional paintings. ... The history of the Assamese literature may be broadly divided into three periods: // The Charyapadas are often cited as the earliest example of Assamese literature. ...


There are several renowned contemporary artists in Assam. The Guwahati Art College in Guwahati is a government institution for tertiary education. Moreover, there are several art-societies and non-government initiatives across the state and the Guwahati Artists Guild is a front-runner organisation based in Guwahati. , Guwahati is a major city in eastern India, often considered as the gateway to the North-East Region (NER) of the country and is the largest city within the region. ...


Economy

In the 1950s, per capita income in Assam was little higher than that in India. In 2000-01, in Assam it was INR 6,157 at constant prices (1993-94) and INR 10,198 at current prices; almost 40 percent lower than that in India. According to the recent estimates, per capita income in Assam has reached INR 6756 (1993-94 constant prices) in 2004-05, which is still much lower than India's.
In the 1950s, per capita income in Assam was little higher than that in India. In 2000-01, in Assam it was INR 6,157 at constant prices (1993-94) and INR 10,198 at current prices; almost 40 percent lower than that in India.[34] According to the recent estimates,[35] per capita income in Assam has reached INR 6756 (1993-94 constant prices) in 2004-05, which is still much lower than India's.
A tea garden in Assam: tea is grown at elevations near sea level, giving it a malty sweetness and an earthy flavor, as opposed to the more floral aroma of highland (e.g. Darjeeling, Taiwanese) teas.
A tea garden in Assam: tea is grown at elevations near sea level, giving it a malty sweetness and an earthy flavor, as opposed to the more floral aroma of highland (e.g. Darjeeling, Taiwanese) teas.

Image File history File links Assam_historical_pci. ... Image File history File links Assam_historical_pci. ... Per capita income means how much each individual receives, in monetary terms, of the yearly income generated in their country. ... INR may stand for: International normalized ratio, a laboratory test of blood coagulation the currency code for the Indian Rupee the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences the US Department of States Bureau of Intelligence and Research This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 366 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (800 × 1,309 pixels, file size: 949 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Another view of a Tea Garden in assam. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 366 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (800 × 1,309 pixels, file size: 949 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Another view of a Tea Garden in assam. ... Darjeeling tea has traditionally been prized above all other black teas, especially in the UK and the countries comprising the former British Empire. ... In Taiwan most people drink tea, and tea is not only a drink, but also a culture. ...

Macro-economy

Economy of Assam today represents a unique juxtaposition of backwardness amidst plenty.[36] Growth rate of Assam’s income has not kept pace with that of India’s; differences increased rapidly since 1970s.[37] Indian economy grew at 6 percent per annum over the period of 1981 to 2000, the same of Assam was only 3.3 percent.[38] In the Sixth Plan period Assam experienced a negative growth rate of 3.78 percent when India's was positive at 6 percent.[37] In the post-liberalised era (after 1991), the differences widened further. GDP redirects here. ...


According to recent analysis, Assam’s economy is showing signs of improvement. In 2001-02, the economy grew (at 1993-94 constant prices) at 4.5 percent, to fall to 3.4 percent in the next financial year.[39] During 2003-04 and 2004-05, the economy grew (at 1993-94 constant prices) more satisfactorily at 5.5 and 5.3 percent respectively.[39] The advanced estimates placed the growth rate for 2005-06 at above 6 percent.[40] Assam's GDP in 2004 is estimated at $13 billion in current prices. Sectoral analysis again exhibits a dismal picture. The average annual growth rate of agriculture, which was only 2.6 percent per annum over 1980s has unfortunately fallen to 1.6 percent in the 1990s.[41] Manufacturing sector has shown some improvement in the 1990s with a growth rate of 3.4 percent per annum than 2.4 percent in the 1980s.[41] Since past five decades, the tertiary sector has registered the highest growth rates than the other sectors, which even has slowed down in the 1990s than in 1980s.[41]


Agriculture

Accounts for more than a third of Assam’s income and employs 69 percent of workforce.[42] Assam's biggest contribution to the world is tea. It produces some of the finest and expensive teas and has its own variety Camellia assamica. Assam also accounts for fair share of India’s production of rice, rapeseed, mustard, jute, potato, sweet potato, banana, papaya, areca nut and turmeric. It is also a home of large varieties of citrus fruits, leaf vegetables, vegetables, useful grasses, herbs, spices, etc. Assam is a black tea named after the region of its production: (Assam, India). ... Binomial name Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Camellia sinensis is the tea plant, the plant species whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Brassica napus L. Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapaseed and (one particular cultivar) Canola, is a bright yellow flowering member (related to mustard) of the family Brassicaceae. ... Look up Mustard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about vegetable fibre. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.) Lam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name L. This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name Areca catechu Linnaeus Areca nut, or pinang, more commonly known as betel nut, is the seed of the betel palm or Areca catechu, a species of palm tree which grows throughout the Pacific, Asia, and parts of east Africa. ... Binomial name Linnaeus Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae which is native to tropical South Asia. ... For other uses, see Citrus (disambiguation). ... Leaf vegetables, also called greens or leafy greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. ... Vegetables on a market Vegetable is a nutritional and culinary term denoting any part of a plant that is commonly consumed by humans as food, but is not regarded as a culinary fruit, nut, herb, spice, or grain. ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything). ...


Assam’s agriculture yet to experience modernisation in real sense. With implications to food security, per capita food grain production has declined in past five decades.[43] Productivity has increased marginally; but still lower comparing to highly productive regions. For instance, yield of rice (staple food of Assam) was just 1531 kg per hectare against India’s 1927 kg per hectare in 2000-01[43] (which itself is much lower than Egypt’s 9283, USA’s 7279, South Korea’s 6838, Japan’s 6635 and China’s 6131 kg per hectare in 2001[44]). On the other hand, after having strong domestic demand, 1.5 million hectares of inland water bodies, numerous rivers and 165 varieties of fishes,[45] fishing is still in its traditional form and production is not self-sufficient.[46] Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For the computer security term, see Phishing. ...


Industry

Apart from tea and petroleum refineries, Assam has few industries of significance. Industrial development is inhibited by its physical and political isolation from neighbouring countries such as Myanmar, China and Bangladesh and from other growing Southeast Asian economies. The region is landlocked, situated in the eastern periphery of India and is linked to the mainland by a flood and cyclone prone narrow corridor, known as the Siliguri Corridor or Chicken's Neck, with weak transport infrastructure. The international airport in Guwahati is yet to find airlines providing direct international flights. The Brahmaputra suitable for navigation does not possess sufficient infrastructure for international trade and success of such a navigable trade route will be dependent on proper channel maintenance and diplomatic and trade relationships with Bangladesh. Anthem: Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw , Largest city Yangon (Rangoon) Official languages Burmese Recognised regional languages Jingpho, Shan, Karen, Mon, Rakhine Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Senior General Than Shwe  -  Vice Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Vice-Senior General... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Flooding near Key West, Florida, United States from Hurricane Wilmas storm surge in October 2005 For other uses, see Flood (disambiguation). ... This article is about the meteorological phenomenon. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lokopriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport (IATA: GAU, ICAO: VEGT), also known as Borjhar Airport, is the airport of Guwahati, Assam, India. ... The Brahmaputra is one of the major rivers of Asia. ... This article is about determination of position and direction on or above the surface of the earth. ... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ...

Processed Assam tea

Assam is a major producer of crude oil, exploited by the Assam Oil Company Ltd., and natural gas in India and is the second place in the world (after Titusville in the United States) where petroleum was discovered. Asia’s first successful mechanically drilled oil well was drilled in Makum (Assam) way back in 1867. Most of the oilfields are located in the Upper Assam region. Assam has four oil refineries located in Guwahati, Digboi, Numaligarh and Bongaigaon with a total capacity of 7 Million Metric Tonnes per annum. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Titusville is a city located in Crawford County, Pennsylvania. ... Petro redirects here. ... , Guwahati is a major city in eastern India, often considered as the gateway to the North-East Region (NER) of the country and is the largest city within the region. ... Digboi is an oil town in northern Assam (in North East India). ... Bongaigaon is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ...


Although having a poor overall industrial performance, several other industries have nevertheless been started, including a chemical fertiliser plan at Namrup, petrochemical industries at Namrup and Bongaigaon, paper mills at Jagiroad, Panchgram and Jogighopa, sugar mills at Barua Bamun Gaon, Chargola, Kampur, cement plant at Bokajan & Badarpur, cosmetics plant (HLL) at Doom Dooma, etc. Moreover, there are other industries such as jute mill, textile and yarn mills, silk mill, etc. Unfortunately many of these industries are facing loss and closer due to lack of infrastructure and improper management practices.[citations needed] Fertilizers are chemicals given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil or by foliar spraying. ... , Namrup is a small town situated close to the foothills of the great Patkai Mountain Range in the extreme northeastern part of Assam, India. ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... , Namrup is a small town situated close to the foothills of the great Patkai Mountain Range in the extreme northeastern part of Assam, India. ... Bongaigaon is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Jagiroad is a census town in Marigaon district in the Indian state of Assam. ... Jogighopa is a large industrial city located on the banks of the Brahmaputra River in the Bongaigaon district in the state of Assam, India In the city are the remains of the five rock cut rock-cut caves, excellent examples of Salasthambha period architecture The architectural site is being preserved... Badarpur is a town and a town area committee in Karimganj district in the state of Assam, India. ... DoomDooma is a town and a town area committee in Tinsukia district in the state of Assam, India. ...


Education

Cotton College in Guwahati initiated modern tertiary education and research in Assam and has been continuing classical and high-educational standards for more than hundred years; many of the buildings in the college are excellent examples of Assamese architecture with colonial flavours
Cotton College in Guwahati initiated modern tertiary education and research in Assam and has been continuing classical and high-educational standards for more than hundred years; many of the buildings in the college are excellent examples of Assamese architecture with colonial flavours

Assam has several institutions for tertiary education and research. The major institutions are: Cotton College is a premier institution for higher education located in the heart of Guwahati city in Panbazar area. ...

Gauhati University, the first University of North East India, located in Jalukbari area in the western part Guwahati city, Assam, India the university was established in the year 1948. ... , Guwahati is a major city in eastern India, often considered as the gateway to the North-East Region (NER) of the country and is the largest city within the region. ... Dibrugarh University was set up in 1965 under the provisions of the Dibrugarh University Act, 1965 enacted by the Assam Legislative Assembly. ... Dibrugarh is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... // Assam University The Assam University came into being by an Act of Parliament in May 1989. ... , Silchar (Bengali: Shilchôr, Assamese: শিলচৰ Xilsôr, Sylheti: শিলচর Hilsôr) is the headquarters of Cachar district in the state of Assam in India. ... Tezpur University was established as an Indian Central University by an Act of Parliament in 1994. ... , Tezpur is a city and a municipal board in Sonitpur in the Indian state of Assam. ... The Assam Agricultural University was established in 1969 under the Assam Agricultural University Act l968 (Assam Act XXIV of l968) vide Governors notification LJL l8/67/l0 dated the January 2, l969[citation needed]. The objectives of the University are: making provision for imparting education to the people in... Jorhat is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati (IIT Guwahati or IITG), an autonomous institute for education and research in science, engineering and technology located in Guwahati, in north east India. ... NIT Silchar located in the verdant plains of Silchar in southern Assam in the North Eastern Corner of India. ... , Tezpur is a city and a municipal board in Sonitpur in the Indian state of Assam. ... , Tezpur is a city and a municipal board in Sonitpur in the Indian state of Assam. ... , Tezpur is a city and a municipal board in Sonitpur in the Indian state of Assam. ...

Places

A View of Guwahati; the city known as Pragjyotishapura (city of eastern light) in the ancient times has a past extended to more than two thousand years
A View of Guwahati; the city known as Pragjyotishapura (city of eastern light) in the ancient times has a past extended to more than two thousand years

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 358 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 716 pixel, file size: 94 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tasiruddin Ahmed I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 358 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 716 pixel, file size: 94 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tasiruddin Ahmed I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

Cities and towns

History of urban development goes back to almost two thousand years in the region. Existence of ancient urban areas such as Pragjyotishapura (Guwahati), Hatapesvara (Tezpur), Durjaya, etc and medieval towns such as Charaideu, Garhgaon, Rongpur, Jorhat, Khaspur, Guwahati, etc are well recorded.[16]


Guwahati is the largest urban centre and a million plus city in Assam. The city has experienced multifold growth during past three decades to grow as the primate city in the region; the city's population was approximately 0.9 million (considering GMDA area) during the census of 2001. The other important urban areas are Dibrugarh, Jorhat, Tinsukia (Tinicukiya), Sibsagar (Xiwoxagor), Silchar (Silcor), Tezpur, Nagaon, Lakhimpur, Bongaigaon, etc. Population growth in the Barak Valley town of Silchar is also astonishing during past two decades. Nalbari, Mangaldoi, Barpeta, Kokrajhar, Goalpara, Dhubri (Dhubury), etc are other towns and district head quarters. On the other hand Duliajan, Digboi, Namrup, Moran, Bongaigaon, Numaligarh, Jogighopa, etc are major industrial towns. Currently, there are around 125 total urban centres in the state. , Guwahati is a major city in eastern India, often considered as the gateway to the North-East Region (NER) of the country and is the largest city within the region. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... A primate city is a major city that works as the financial, political, and population center of a country and is not rivaled in any of these aspects by any other city in that country. ... Guwahati Metropolitan Development Authority or GMDA is a state parastatal agency of Government of Assam created for the Guwahati metropolitan area. ... Dibrugarh is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Jorhat is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Tinsukia is a city in the north east of India. ... Sibsagar is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... , Silchar (Bengali: Shilchôr, Assamese: শিলচৰ Xilsôr, Sylheti: শিলচর Hilsôr) is the headquarters of Cachar district in the state of Assam in India. ... , Tezpur is a city and a municipal board in Sonitpur in the Indian state of Assam. ... Nagaon is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Lakhimpur is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Bongaigaon is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Nalbari is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Mangaldoi is a city and a municipal board in Darrang district in the Indian state of Assam. ... Barpeta is the headquarter of Barpeta District, Assam, India. ... Kokrajhar is a city and a municipal board in Kokrajhar district in the Indian state of Assam. ... Goalpara is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Dhubri is the headquarter of Dhubri District, Assam, India. ... Duliajan No. ... Digboi is an oil town in northern Assam (in North East India). ... , Namrup is a small town situated close to the foothills of the great Patkai Mountain Range in the extreme northeastern part of Assam, India. ... Look up Moran in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bongaigaon is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Numaligarh is a town in Assam, India. ... Jogighopa is a large industrial city located on the banks of the Brahmaputra River in the Bongaigaon district in the state of Assam, India In the city are the remains of the five rock cut rock-cut caves, excellent examples of Salasthambha period architecture The architectural site is being preserved...

Growth Dynamism in Major Urban Areas
Growth Dynamism in Major Urban Areas

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 365 pixelsFull resolution‎ (955 × 436 pixels, file size: 156 KB, MIME type: image/png) Depicts position of top 12 (at per their ranks in 2001) urban areas in Assam in terms of population. ...

Destinations

A Crimson Sunbird at Kaziranga
A Crimson Sunbird at Kaziranga
The famous Rhinoceros of Assam at Kaziranga
The famous Rhinoceros of Assam at Kaziranga
Orchids are abundantly found in Assam; a variety - Bhatou Phul or Vanda coerulea, the 'Blue Orchid
Orchids are abundantly found in Assam; a variety - Bhatou Phul or Vanda coerulea, the 'Blue Orchid

Assam has several attractive destinations; majority of these are National Parks, Wildlife and Bird Sanctuaries,[47] areas with archaeological interests and areas with unique cultural heritage. Moreover, as a whole, the region is covered by beautiful natural landscapes. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Binomial name Aethopyga siparaja (Raffles, 1822) The Crimson Sunbird, Aethopyga siparaja, is a sunbird. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Indian Rhinoceros range The Indian Rhinoceros or the Great One-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) is a large mammal found in Nepal and in Assam, India. ... Species See text Vanda W. Jones ex R. Br. ... This article is about national parks. ... The Culture of Assam is traditionally a hybrid one, developed due to cultural assimilation of different ethno-cultural groups under various politico-economic systems in different periods of pre-history and history. ...

  • Kaziranga National Park
  • Manas National Park
  • Nameri National Park
  • Dibru-Saikhowa National Park
  • Orang National Park
  • Joydihing Rainforest
  • Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Chakrasila Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Burasapori Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Bornodi Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Sonai-rupai Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Nambor Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Laokhowa Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Gibon Wildlife Sanctuary
  • East Karbi-Anglong Wildlife Sanctuary (Proposed)
  • Karbi-Anglong Wildlife Sanctuary (Proposed)
  • Podumani Bherjan Borajan Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Bordoibum Beelmukh Bird Sanctuary (Proposed)
  • Panidihing Bird Sanctuary
  • Deepor Beel Bird Sanctuary
  • Guwahati archaeological region
  • Hajo archaeological region
  • Madan Kamdev
  • Sibsagar archaeological region
  • Charaideo
  • Surya Pahar Goalpara archaeological region
  • Tezpur archaeological region
  • Kapili Valley archaeological region
  • Dhansiri/Dhonxiri Valley archaeological region
  • Maibong

Kaziranga National Park (Assamese: কাজিৰাঙ্গা জাতীয় উদ্যান , Assamese IAST: kājirāṅgā jātiya udyāna, Assamese IPA: kɑ/ɟi/rɑŋ/gɑ, Indian English IPA: kɑ/zi/rɑŋ/gɑ) is an Indian national park located on the south bank of the Brahmaputra river in the state of Assam, India. ... Manas National Park is a National Park, UNESCO Natural World Heritage site, a Project Tiger Reserve, an Elephant Reserve and a Biosphere Reserve in Assam, India. ... Located in the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas in the Sonitpur District of Assam, India. ... A national wildlife park found in Tinsukia, Assam, India. ... A national park located in the north banks of the Brahmaputra River near Tezpur, Assam, India. ... Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary is a wildlife preserve in the state of Assam in India. ... Deepor Beel, a Ramsar list wetland of international importance, on south western part of Guwahati city. ... Majuli or Majoli is a river island in the Brahmaputra river, in the Indian state of Assam. ... Sualkuchi is a census town in Kamrup district in the Indian state of Assam. ... Sarthebari is a town and a town area committee in Barpeta district in the Indian state of Assam. ... Digboi is an oil town in northern Assam (in North East India). ... Ledo may refer to Ledo Pizza, a restaurant chain extending from Pennsylvania to Florida. ... The Ledo Road was built during World War II so that the Western Allies could continue to supply the Chinese after the Japanese cut the Burma Road. ... Haflong is the headquarters of North Cachar Hills district in the state of Assam in India Categories: India geography stubs ... Jatinga , a village on a ridge, is located in the North Cachar Hills district, Assam State in India. ... , Guwahati is a major city in eastern India, often considered as the gateway to the North-East Region (NER) of the country and is the largest city within the region. ... Hajo is an ancient pilgrimage centre for three religions: Hindus, Buddhists, and Muslims. ... Sibsagar is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Charaideo is the first capital of Ahom kingdom established by the first Ahom king Sukaphaa in 1253. ... Goalpara is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... , Tezpur is a city and a municipal board in Sonitpur in the Indian state of Assam. ... Maibong is a town and a town area committee in North Cachar Hills district in the Indian state of Assam. ...

See also

  • Traditional crafts of Assam
  • Textiles and dresses of Assam
  • WikiProject Assam

The Ahoms established the Ahom kingdom (1228-1826) in parts of present-day Assam and ruled it for nearly 600 years. ... The Ahom Kingdom (1228-1826) was established by Sukaphaa, a Tai prince from Mong Mao, in the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra river, between the extant Chutiya kingdom in the north and the Kachari kingdom in the south. ... Assam Rifles is an Indian paramilitary unit. ... Assamese cinema was born in 1935 when Jyoti Prasad Agarwala released his movie Joymoti. ... Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... Official Logo Axom Xahitya Xabha (Assamese: অসম সাহিত্য সভা, Ôxôm Xahityô Xôbha or Assam Literary Society) was founded in 1917 in Assam, India to promote the culture of Assam and Assamese literature. ... The Biodiversity of Assam, a state in North-East India, makes it a biological hotspot with many rare and endemic plant and animal species. ... Bodo is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken by the Bodo people of north-eastern India and Nepal. ... A Bodo girl in the traditional Bodo dokhna. ... Charyapada is the oldest known Bengali written form. ... Assamese cuisine is a mixture of different indigenous as well as external influences with a lot of regional variations. ... The Culture of Assam is traditionally a hybrid one, developed due to cultural assimilation of different ethno-cultural groups under various politico-economic systems in different periods of pre-history and history. ... Assam, a state of India, has currently (2007) twenty four administrative districts. ... The Etymology of Assam is an issue that often comes up for debate in the Indian state of Assam. ... Fine Arts of Assam has extremely rich tradition. ... The history of Assam is the history of a confluence of peoples from the east, west and the north; the confluence of the Indo-Aryan, Austro-Asiatic and the Tibeto-Burman cultures. ... Kamarupa is the ancient name of the kingdom/region that consisted of the Brahmaputra valley and adjoining region. ... Language(s) Karbi language Religion(s) Related ethnic groups Other tribes of Assam The Karbi, mentioned as the Mikir in the Constitution Order of the Government of India, constitute an important ethnic group in the hill areas of Assam. ... 164. ... Mishing is Sino-Tibetan family of languages spoken by the Mishing people. ... Timeline and Samples Genres Classical (Carnatic and Hindustani) - Rock - Pop - Hip hop Awards Bollywood Music Awards - Punjabi Music Awards Charts Festivals Sangeet Natak Akademi – Thyagaraja Aradhana – Cleveland Thyagaraja Aradhana Media Sruti, The Music Magazine National anthem Jana Gana Mana, also national song Vande Mataram Music of the states Andaman and... The people of Assam inhabit a multi-ethnic, multi-linguistic and multi-religious society. ... Physical Geography of Assam is extremely interesting with its geologic origin, geomorphic characteristics, climate, rich biodiversity, etc. ... Assam has maintained a rich tradition of various traditional crafts for more than two thousand years. ... There is a wide variety of clothing and textiles involved with Assamese culture. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Dixit 2002
  2. ^ World Heritage Centre 2007
  3. ^ Wandrey 2004 p3–8
  4. ^ Sarma, Satyendra Nath (1976) Assamese Literature, Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, p2. “While the Shan invaders called themselves Tai, they came to be referred to as Āsām, Āsam and sometimes as Acam by the indigenous people of the country. The modern Assamese word Āhom by which the Tai people are known is derived from Āsām or Āsam. The epithet applied to the Shan conquerors was subsequently transferred to the country over which they ruled and thus the name Kāmarūpa was replaced by Āsām, which ultimately took the Sanskritized form Asama, meaning ‘unequalled, peerless or uneven’”
  5. ^ Times News Network, February 28, 2006
  6. ^ Editorial, The Assam Tribune, January 6, 2007.
  7. ^ a b c Singh (ed.) 1993.
  8. ^ a b NEDFi & NIC-Assam 2002
  9. ^ Wandrey 2004 p17
  10. ^ Purdue University 2004
  11. ^ Borthakur 2002
  12. ^ Birdlife International, UK Indo-Gangetic Grasslands
  13. ^ National Mission on Bamboo Applications 2004
  14. ^ Sharma 2003
  15. ^ ENVIS Assam 2003
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h Barpujari 1990
  17. ^ Aitchison 1931, p230–233 (web-version from Project South Asia, South Dakota State University, USA)
  18. ^ a b Hazarika 2003
  19. ^ a b The Governor of Assam 1998
  20. ^ MacFarlane, Alan and Iris MacFarlane 2003
  21. ^ a b Revenue Department, Government of Assam
  22. ^ a b Directorate of Information and Public Relations, Government of Assam
  23. ^ a b The Government of Assam 2002-03
  24. ^ The National Commission on Population 2006
  25. ^ Director of Census Operations, Census of India 2001
  26. ^ Hussain 2004
  27. ^ Taher 1993
  28. ^ http://www.censusindia.net/religiondata/ 2001 Indian Census Data
  29. ^ http://www.censusindia.net/religiondata/ 2001 Indian Census Data
  30. ^ Kakati 1962
  31. ^ Assam Tourism 2002
  32. ^ Ranjan
  33. ^ Nath
  34. ^ Government of Assam, Economic Survey of Assam 2001-2002 in Assam Human Development Report, 2003 p25
  35. ^ Government of Assam, Economic Survey of Assam 2005-2006
  36. ^ National Commission for Women 2004
  37. ^ a b UNDP 2004 p22-23
  38. ^ UNDP 2004 p22
  39. ^ a b Government of Assam, Economic Survey of Assam 2004-2005
  40. ^ Government of Assam, Economic Survey of Assam 2005-2006
  41. ^ a b c UNDP 2004 p24-25
  42. ^ Government of Assam, Economic Survey of Assam 2001-2002 in Assam Human Development Report, 2003 p32
  43. ^ a b UNDP 2004 p33
  44. ^ FAO Statistics Division 2007
  45. ^ Assam Small Farmers’ Agri-business Consortium
  46. ^ UNDP 2004 p37
  47. ^ Directorate of Information and Public Relations 2002
  • Aitchison, C. U. ed (1931), The Treaty of Yandaboo, A Collection of Treaties, Engagements and Sanads: Relating to India and Neighbouring Countries. Vol. XII., Calcutta: Government of India Central Publication Branch 
  • Assam Small Farmers’ Agri-business Consortium, Fish Species of AssamPDF (400 KiB) 
  • Assam Tourism 2002, Government of Assam, Arts and Crafts of Assam in About Assam, <http://www.assamtourism.org/arts.htm>. Retrieved on 3 June 2007 
  • Barpujari, H. K. (ed.) (1990), The Comprehensive History of Assam, 1st edition, Guwahati, India: Assam Publication Board 
  • Birdlife International, UK, Indo-Gangetic GrasslandsPDF (431 KiB) 
  • Borthakur, Ahir Bhairab (January 15, 2002), “Call of the wild”, Down To Earth 
  • Directorate of Information and Public Relations, Government of Assam, Area of the National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries in Assam, 2002, <http://janasanyogassam.nic.in/assamataglance.htm>. Retrieved on 29 May 2006 
  • Directorate of Information and Public Relations, Government of Assam, Assam at a Glance, <http://janasanyogassam.nic.in/assamataglance.htm>. Retrieved on 25 May 2007 
  • Dixit, K. M. (August 2002), “Chicken's Neck (Editorial)”, Himal South Asian, <http://www.himalmag.com/2002/august/lastpage.htm> 
  • Editorial (6 January 2007), “Assam or Asom?”, The Assam Tribune, <http://www.assamtribune.com/scripts/details.asp?id=jan0607edit> 
  • ENVIS Assam (April-June 2003), “Endemic Orchids of AssamPDF (6.46 MiB)”, ENVIS Assam, Assam Science Technology and Environment Council 2: 8 
  • FAO Statistics Division, 2007, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAOSTAT, <http://faostat.fao.org/site/340/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=340>. Retrieved on 5 June 2006 
  • Government of Assam. "Chapter 2, Income, Employment and Poverty Economic Survey of Assam 2001-2002 in Assam Human Development Report, 2003" (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-06-06.
  • Government of Assam (2006). "Economic Survey of Assam 2004-2005 in NEDFi, Assam Profile, NER Databank" (html). Retrieved on 2007-06-06.
  • Government of Assam. "Economic Survey of Assam 2005-2006 in NEDFi, Assam Profile, NER Databank" (html). Retrieved on 2007-06-06.
  • Government of Assam 2002-03, Statistics of Assam, <http://www.assamgov.org/generalinformation/assamstatistics.html>. Retrieved on 3 June 2007 
  • Governor of Assam (8 November 1998). "Report on Illegal Migration into Assam". Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  • Hazarika, Sanjoy (2003), Strangers of the Mist, Penguin Books Australia Ltd. 
  • Hussain, Wasbir (September 20, 2004), “Assam: Demographic Jitters, Weekly Assessments & Briefings”, South Asia Intelligence Review 3-10 
  • Kakati, Banikanta (1962), Assamese, Its Formation and Development, 2nd edition, Guwahati, India: Lawyer's Book Stall 
  • MacFarlane, Alan & MacFarlane, Iris (2003), Green Gold, The Empire of Tea, Ch.6-11, Random House, London 
  • Nath, T.K., Bamboo Cane and Assam, Guwahati, India: Industrial Development Bank of India, Small Industries Development Bank of India 
  • National Commission for Women (2004). "Situational Analysis of Women in Assam" (PDF). Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  • National Commission on Population, Census of India (2006). "Population Projections for India and States 2001-2026" (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-05-15.
  • National Mission on Bamboo Applications, Assam, State Profile, <http://www.bambootech.org/subsubTOP.asp?subsubid=101&subid=37&sname=STATE>. Retrieved on 25 May 2007 
  • NEDFi & NIC-Assam, North East India Databank, <http://nerdatabank.nic.in/as_minerals.htm>. Retrieved on 20 May 2007 
  • Purdue University, The Köppen Classification of Climates, <http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/tropical/lecture_04/lec_04.html>. Retrieved on 25 May 2007 
  • Ranjan, M.P.; Iyer, Nilam & Pandya, Ghanshyam, Bamboo and Cane Crafts of Northeast India, National Institute of Design 
  • Revenue Department, Government of Assam, Revenue Administration - Districts and Subdivisions, <http://revenueassam.nic.in/>. Retrieved on 25 May 2007 
  • Sharma, Pradip (April-June 2003), “An Overview on Wetlands in AssamPDF (6.46 MiB)”, ENVIS Assam, Assam Science Technology and Environment Council 2: 7 
  • Singh, K. S (ed) (2003) People of India: Assam Vol XV Parts I and II, Anthropological Survey of India, Seagull Books, Calcutta
  • Singh, R. L. (1993), India, A Regional Geography, Varanasi, India: National Geographical Society of India 
  • Taher, Mohammad (1993) The Peopling of Assam and contemporary social structure in Ahmad, Aijazuddin (ed) Social Structure and Regional Development, Rawat Publications, New Delhi
  • Times News Network (28 February 2006), “Assam to fall off the map, turn Asom”, The Times of India, <http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1431357.cms> 
  • UNDP (2004), Chapter 2, Income, Employment and Poverty in Assam Human Development Report, 2003PDF, Government of Assam 
  • Wandrey, C. J. (2004), “Sylhet-Kopili/Barail-Tipam Composite Total Petroleum System, Assam Geologic Province, IndiaPDF (1.73 MiB)”, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2208-D 
  • World Heritage Centre, UNESCO. World Heritage List. Retrieved on 2007-06-06.

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Further reading

Language and literature

  • Bara, Mahendra (1981), The Evolution of the Assamese Script, Jorhat, Assam: Asam Sahitya Sabha 
  • Barpujari, H. K. (1983), Amerikan Michanerisakal aru Unabimsa Satikar Asam, Jorhat, Assam: Asam Sahitya Sabha 
  • Barua, Birinchi Kumar (1965, c1964), History of Assamese Literature, Guwahati: East-West Centre Press 
  • Barua, Hem (1965), Assamese Literature, New Delhi: National Book Trust 
  • Brown, William Barclay (1895), An Outline Grammar of the Deori Chutiya Language Spoken in Upper Assam with an Introduction, Illustrative Sentences, and Short Vocabulary, Shillong: The Assam Secretariat Printing Office 
  • Dhekial Phukan, Anandaram 1829-1859 (1977), Anandaram Dhekiyal Phukanar Racana Samgrah, Guwahati: Lawyer's Book Stall 
  • Endle, Sidney (1884), Outline of the Kachari (Baro) Language as Spoken in District Darrang, Assam, Shillong: Assam Secretariat Press 
  • Gogoi, Lila (1972), Sahitya-Samskriti-Buranji, Dibrugarh: New Book Stall 
  • Gogoi, Lila (1986), The Buranjis, Historical Literature of Assam, New Delhi: Omsons Publications 
  • Goswami, Praphulladatta (1954), Folk-Literature of Assam, Guwahati: Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies in Assam 
  • Gurdon, Philip Richard Thornhagh (1896), Some Assamese Proverbs, Shillong: The Assam Secretariat Printing Office 
  • Kakati, Banikanta (1959), Aspects of Early Assamese Literature, Guwahati: Gauhati University 
  • Kay, S. P. (1904), An English-Mikir Vocabulary, Shillong: The Assam Secretariat Printing Office 
  • Medhi, Kaliram (1988), Assamese Grammar and Origin of the Assamese Language, Guwahati: Assam Publication Board 
  • Miles, Bronson (1867), A Dictionary in Assamese and English, Sibsagar, Assam: American Baptist Mission Press 
  • Morey, Stephen (2005), The Tai languages of Assam : a grammar and texts, Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, ISBN 0858835495 

History

  • Antrobus, H. (1957), A History of the Assam Company, Edinburgh: Private Printing by T. and A. Constable 
  • Barabaruwa, Hiteswara 1876-1939 (1981), Ahomar Din, Guwahati: Assam Publication Board 
  • Barooah, Nirode K. (1970), David Scott In North-East India, 1802-1831, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers 
  • Barua, Harakanta 1813-1900 (1962), Asama Buranji, Guwahati: Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies, Assam 
  • Barpujari, H. K. (1963), Assam in the Days of the Company, 1826-1858, Guwahati: Lawyer's Book Stall 
  • Barpujari, H. K. (1977), Political History of Assam. Department for the Preparation of Political History of Assam, Guwahati: Government of Assam 
  • Barua, Kanak Lal, An Early History of Kamarupa, From the Earliest Time to the Sixteenth Century, Guwahati: Lawyers Book Stall 
  • Barua, Kanak Lal, Studies in the Early History of Assam, Jorhat, Assam: Asam Sahitya Sabha 
  • Baruah, Swarna Lata (1993), Last days of Ahom monarchy : a history of Assam from 1769-1826, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers 
  • Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1949), Anglo-Assamese Relations, 1771-1826, Guwahati: Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies in Assam 
  • Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1947), Annals of the Delhi Badshahate, Guwahati: Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies, Government of Assam 
  • Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1957), Atan Buragohain and His Times, Guwahati: Lawyer's Book Stall 
  • Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1962), Deodhai Asam Buranji, Guwahati: Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies 
  • Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1928), Early British Relations with Assam, Shillong: Assam Secretariat Press 
  • Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1947), Lachit Barphukan and His Times, Guwahati: Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies, Government of Assam 
  • Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1964), Satasari Asama Buranji, Guwahati: Gauhati University 
  • Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1975), Swargadew Rajeswarasimha, Guwahati: Assam Publication Board 
  • Buchanan, Francis Hamilton 1762-1829 (1963), An Account of Assam, Guwahati: Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies 
  • Duara Barbarua, Srinath (1933), Tungkhungia Buranji, Bombay: H. Milford, Oxford University Press 
  • Gait, Edward Albert 1863-1950 (1926), A History of Assam, Calcutta: Thacker, Spink & Co. 
  • Gogoi, Padmeswar (1968), The Tai and the Tai Kingdoms, Guwahati: Gauhati University 
  • Guha, Amalendu (1983), The Ahom Political System, Calcutta: Centre for Studies in Social Sciences 
  • Hunter, William Wilson 1840-1900 (1879), A Statistical Account of Assam, London: Trubner & Co. 

Tradition and Culture

  • Barkath, Sukumar (1976), Hastibidyarnnara Sarasamgraha (English & Assamese), 18th Century, Guwahati: Assam Publication Board 
  • Barua, Birinchi Kumar (1969), A Cultural History of Assam, Guwahati: Lawyer's Book Stall 
  • Barua, Birinchi Kumar (1960), Sankardeva, Guwahati: Assam Academy for Cultural Relations 
  • Gandhiya, Jayakanta (1988), Huncari, Mukali Bihu, aru Bihunac, Dibrugarh 
  • Goswami, Praphulladatta (1960), Ballads and Tales of Assam, Guwahati: Gauhati University 
  • Goswami, Praphulladatta (1988), Bohag Bihu of Assam and Bihu Songs, Guwahati: Assam Publication Board 
  • Mahanta, Pona (1985), Western Influence on Modern Assamese Drama, Delhi: Mittal Publications 
  • Medhi, Kaliram (1978), Studies in the Vaisnava Literature and Culture of Assam, Jorhat, Assam: Asam Sahitya Sabha 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Assam
The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... The history of Assam is the history of a confluence of peoples from the east, west and the north; the confluence of the Indo-Aryan, Austro-Asiatic and the Tibeto-Burman cultures. ... The political structure of Assam in India is headed by the ceremonial post of the Governor. ... The people of Assam inhabit a multi-ethnic, multi-linguistic and multi-religious society. ... Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh National Capital Territory of Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar... Dispur is the capital of Assam, a state in northeast India. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Assam, a state of India, has currently (2007) twenty four administrative districts. ... Barpeta is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Bongaigaon is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about: Cachar Cachar (Assamese and Sylheti: কাছাড় KasaÅ—, Bengali: কাছাড় KachhaÅ—) is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Chirang is the name of the new district formed in the BTC area of Assam. ... Darrang is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Dhubri is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Dibrugarh is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Dhemaji is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Golaghat is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Goalpara is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Hailakandi is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Jorhat District is one of the twenty three districts of Assam state, India. ... Karbi Anglong is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Kokrajhar is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Kamrup was the mighty Kingdom ruled by Narayana Dynasty before the British broke the Kingdom into two big districts. ... Karimganj is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Lakhimpur is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Marigaon is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... North Cachar Hills is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Nagaon is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Nalbari is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Sibsagar District is one of the twenty three districts of Assam state, India. ... Sonitpur is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Tinsukia District is one of the twenty three districts of Assam state, India. ... Barpeta is the headquarter of Barpeta District, Assam, India. ... Bongaigaon is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Dhubri is the headquarter of Dhubri District, Assam, India. ... Dibrugarh is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Diphu is the headquarters of Karbi Anglong district in the state of Assam in India. ... Goalpara is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... , Guwahati is a major city in eastern India, often considered as the gateway to the North-East Region (NER) of the country and is the largest city within the region. ... Jorhat is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Karimganj is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Nagaon is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... North Lakhimpur is a city and a municipal board in Lakhimpur district in the Indian state of Assam. ... Sibsagar is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... , Silchar (Bengali: Shilchôr, Assamese: শিলচৰ Xilsôr, Sylheti: শিলচর Hilsôr) is the headquarters of Cachar district in the state of Assam in India. ... , Tezpur is a city and a municipal board in Sonitpur in the Indian state of Assam. ... Tinsukia is a city in the north east of India. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... Andhra redirects here. ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi:   ) is the easternmost state of India. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... , Chhattisgarh (Chhattisgarhi/Hindi: छत्तीसगढ़, IPA: )  , a state in central India, formed when the sixteen Chhattisgarhi-speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh gained statehood on November 1, 2000. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... This article is for the Indian state. ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... , Himachal Pradesh (Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश, IPA:  ) is a state in the north-west of India. ... This article is about the area administered by India. ... , Jharkhand   (Hindi: झाड़खण्ड, Bengali: ঝাড়খণ্ড,IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... This article is about the Indian region. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... , Manipur   (Bengali: মনিপুর, Meitei Mayek: mnipur) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... , Meghalaya   is a small state in north-eastern India. ... , Mizoram   is one of the Seven Sister States in northeastern India on the border with Myanmar. ... , Nagaland   is a hill state located in the far north-eastern part of India. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... , Uttarakhand (Hindi: उत्तराखण्ड or उत्तराखंड), is a state located in the northern part of India. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchim Bônggo IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... A Union Territory is an administrative division of India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... , Chandigarh,  (Punjabi: , Hindi: ) also called City Beautiful, is a city in India that serves as the capital of two states, Punjab and Haryana, and is a union territory of India. ... Dadra and Nagar Haveli (Gujarati: દાદરા અને નગર હવેલી, Hindi: दादरा और नगर हवेली, Urdu: دادرہ اور نگر حویلی, Portuguese: Dadrá e Nagar-Aveli) is a Union Territory in western India. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Daman and Diu (Portuguese: Gujarati is the main language; use of Portuguese is declining because it is not official or taught at school (but still spoken by 10% in Daman). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Union Territory. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
ASSAM - Main Page (333 words)
Assam is surrounded by highlands and plateaus on three sides except the western one where the Brahmaputra Valley merges with the Gangetic Plain.
The literacy rate of Assam is 64.28 and it holds the 24th position in this regard among the Indian States.
Assam ranks 26th in human resource development index and 21st in poverty index in India according the Human Development Report 2001.
Assam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3017 words)
Assam and adjoining regions have evidence of human settlement from all periods of the Stone ages.
Kalika Purana, a sanskrit text compiled in Assam in the 9th and 10th century, mentions that the last of the Naraka rulers, Narakasura, was slain by Krishna.
Assam is the second place in the world (after Titusville in the United States) where petroleum was discovered.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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