FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Aspirin" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Aspirin
Aspirin
Systematic (IUPAC) name
2-acetoxybenzoic acid
Identifiers
CAS number 50-78-2
ATC code A01AD05 B01AC06, N02BA01
PubChem 2244
DrugBank APRD00264
Chemical data
Formula C9H8O4 
Mol. mass 180.160 g/mol
SMILES search in eMolecules, PubChem
Synonyms 2-acetyloxybenzoic acid
2-(acetyloxy)benzoic acid
acetylsalicylate
acetylsalicylic acid
O-acetylsalicylic acid
Physical data
Density 1.40 g/cm³
Melt. point 138–140 °C (280–284 °F)
Boiling point 140 °C (284 °F) (decomposes)
Solubility in water 10 mg/mL (20 °C)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Rapidly and completely absorbed
Protein binding 99.6%
Metabolism Hepatic
Half life 300–650 mg dose: 3.1–3.2hrs
1 g dose: 5 hours
2 g dose: 9 hours
Excretion Renal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

C(AU) C(US) Robert Lynn Asprin (born St. ... Image File history File links Aspirin-skeletal. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 650 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 1014 pixel, file size: 175 KB, MIME type: image/png) Please see the file description page for further information. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A division of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System A Alimentary tract and metabolism A01A Stomatological preparations A01AA Caries prophylactic agents A01AA01 Sodium fluoride A01AA02 Sodium monofluorophosphate A01AA03 Olaflur A01AA04 Stannous fluoride A01AA30 Combinations A01AA51 Sodium fluoride, combinations A01AB Anti-infectives and antiseptics for local oral treatment A01AB02 Hydrogen peroxide... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The DrugBank database available at the University of Alberta is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... H2O and HOH redirect here. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... A drugs efficacy may be affected by the degree to which it binds to the proteins within blood plasma. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... It has been suggested that Effective half-life be merged into this article or section. ... The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ... For other uses, see Australia (disambiguation). ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

Legal status

Unscheduled(AU) GSL(UK) OTC(US) The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... For other uses, see Australia (disambiguation). ... Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to prescription drugs. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

Routes Most commonly oral, also rectal. Lysine acetylsalicylate may be given IV or IM

Aspirin®, or acetylsalicylic acid (IPA: /əˌsɛtɨlsælɨˌsɪlɨk ˈæsɨd/), (acetosal) is a salicylate drug often used as an analgesic (to relieve minor aches and pains), antipyretic (to reduce fever), and as an anti-inflammatory. It also has an antiplatelet ("blood-thinning") effect and is used in long-term, low doses to prevent heart attacks and blood clot formation in people at high risk for developing blood clots.[1] In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Intramuscular injection is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... Salicylic acid is a colorless, crystalline organic carboxylic acid. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... Antipyretics are drugs that prevent or reduce fever by lowering the body temperature from a raised state. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... An antiplatelet drug is a member of a class of pharmaceuticals that decreases platelet aggregation and inhibits thrombus formation. ... Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), more commonly known as a heart attack, is a disease state that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted. ... Blood clot diagram. ...


High doses of aspirin may also be given immediately after an acute heart attack; these doses may inhibit the synthesis of prothrombin and therefore produce a second and different anticoagulant effect,[2] although this is not well understood. Thrombin (activated Factor II) is a coagulation protein that has many effects in the coagulation cascade. ...


The main undesirable side effects of aspirin are gastrointestinal distress—including ulcers and stomach bleeding—and tinnitus, especially in higher doses. Another adverse effect is increased bleeding in menstruating women, due to aspirin's anticoagulant properties. Aspirin is no longer used to control flu-like symptoms or the symptoms of chickenpox in children under 12 years of age due to the risk of Reye's syndrome.[3] An adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) is a term to describe the unwanted, negative consequences sometimes associated with the use of medications. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... Peptic ulcer is a non-malignant ulcer of the stomach (called gastric ulcer) or duodenum (called duodenal ulcer). ... Tinnitus (IPA pronunciation: or ,[1] from the Latin word for ringing[2]) is the perception of sound in the human ear in the absence of corresponding external sound(s). ... The menstrual cycle is the periodic change in a womans body that occurs every month between puberty and menopause and that relates to reproduction. ... Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... Chickenpox is the common name for Varicella zoster, classically one of the childhood infectious diseases caught by and survived by almost every child. ... Reyes syndrome is a potentially fatal disease that causes numerous detrimental effects to many organs, especially the brain and liver. ...


Aspirin was the first-discovered member of the class of drugs known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), not all of which are salicylates, although they all have similar effects and most have some mechanism of action which involves non-selective inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Cyclooxygenase (COX) is an enzyme (EC 1. ...

Contents

History

White willow (Salix alba) is a natural source of salicylic acid

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 362 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (1386 × 2291 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 362 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (1386 × 2291 pixel, file size: 1. ...

Salicylic acid

The Greek physician Hippocrates wrote in the 5th century BC about a bitter powder extracted from willow bark that could ease aches and pains and reduce fevers. This remedy was also mentioned in texts from ancient Sumer, Lebanon, and Assyria. The Cherokee and other Native Americans used an infusion of the bark for fever and other medicinal purposes for centuries.[4] The medicinal part of the plant is the inner bark and was used as a pain reliever for a variety of ailments. The Reverend Edward (Edmund) Stone, a vicar from Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire, England, noted in 1763 that the bark of the willow was effective in reducing a fever.[5] For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... Sumer (or Å umer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies to all speakers... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... Reverend Edward (Edmund) Stone (1702-1768) was a Church of England Reverend who discovered the active ingredient of Aspirin. ... , Chipping Norton is a town in Oxfordshire, England, located north west of Oxford. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


The active extract of the bark, called salicin, after the Latin name for the white willow (Salix alba), was isolated in crystalline form in 1828 by Henri Leroux, a French pharmacist, and Raffaele Piria, an Italian chemist. Piria was able to convert the substance into a sugar and a second component, which on oxidation becomes salicylic acid. Salicylic acid is a colorless, crystalline organic carboxylic acid. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Salix alba L. The White Willow is a willow native to Europe, and western and central Asia. ... Salicylic acid is the chemical compound with the formula C6H4(OH)CO2H, where the OH group is adjacent to the carboxyl group. ...


Salicylic acid was also isolated from the herb meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria, formerly classified as Spiraea ulmaria) by German researchers in 1839. While their extract was somewhat effective, it also caused digestive problems such as gastric irritation, bleeding, diarrhea, and even death when consumed in high doses. This article is about the Eurasian plant, introduced in some parts of America. ... Binomial name Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στομάχι) is an organ in the alimentary canal used to digest food. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause...


Modern development

A French chemist, Charles Frederic Gerhardt, was first to prepare acetylsalicylic acid (named aspirin in 1899) in 1853. In the course of his work on the synthesis and properties of various acid anhydrides, he mixed acetyl chloride with a sodium salt of salicylic acid (sodium salicylate). A vigorous reaction ensued, and the resulting melt soon solidified.[6] Since no structural theory existed at that time Gerhardt called the compound he obtained "salicylic-acetic anhydride" (wasserfreie Salicylsäure-Essigsäure). When Gerhardt tried to dissolve the solid in a diluted solution of sodium carbonate it immediately decomposed to sodium salts of salicylic and acetic acids.[6] This preparation of aspirin ("salicylic-acetic anhydride") was one of the many reactions Gerhardt conducted for his paper on anhydrides, and he did not pursue it further. Charles Fr ric Gerhardt (August 21, 1816 - August 19, 1856) was a French chemist. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Acid anhydrides are chemical compounds that look like, and sometimes are, the product resulting from dehydration of an acid. ... Acetyl chloride, also known as ethanoyl chloride, is an acid chloride derived from acetic acid. ... In chemistry, salt is a term used for ionic compounds composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ...


Six years later, in 1859, von Gilm obtained analytically pure acetylsalicylic acid (which he called "acetylirte Salicylsäure", acetylated salicylic acid) by a reaction of salicylic acid and acetyl chloride.[7] In 1869 Schröder, Prinzhorn and Kraut (Prinzhorn is credited in the paper with conducting the experiments) repeated both Gerhardt's (from sodium salicylate) and von Gilm's (from salicylic acid) syntheses and concluded that both reactions gave the same compound—acetylsalicylic acid. They were first to assign to it the correct structure with the acetyl group connected to the phenolic oxygen.[8] Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1897, Felix Hoffmann, a chemist at Friedrich Bayer & Co., obtained acetylsalicylic acid[9] by a reaction of salicylic acid and acetic anhydride;[10] that is, essentially repeating the Gilm/Kraut procedure but substituting acetic anhydride for acetyl chloride. This synthesis served as the basis for Bayer claims to discovery of aspirin. According to a legend publicized by Bayer, Hoffmann made some of the formula and gave it to his father, who was suffering from the pain of arthritis and could not stand the side-effects of salicylic acid.[9] Much later, in 1949, another Bayer researcher, Arthur Eichengrün, who was 81, "claimed that he had instructed Hoffmann to synthesise acetylsalicylic acid and that the latter had done so without knowing the purpose of the work".[11] In 2000, Walter Sneader of University of Strathclyde in Glasgow reexamined the case and concluded that "Arthur Eichengrün was telling the truth when he wrote that acetylsalicylic acid was synthesized under his direction and that the drug would not have been introduced in 1899 without his intervention".[11] Axel Helmstaedter, General Secretary of the International Society for the History of Pharmacy, subsequently questioned the novelty of Sneader’s research, noting that several earlier articles discussed the Hoffmann-Eichengrün controversy in detail.[12] Bayer countered Sneader in a press release stating that according to the records, Hoffmann and Eichengrün held equal positions, and Eichengrün was not Hoffmann's supervisor. Hoffmann was named on the US Patent as the inventor, which Sneader did not mention. Eichengrün, who left Bayer in 1908, had multiple opportunities to claim the priority and had never before 1949 done it; he neither claimed nor received any percentage of the profit from aspirin sales.[13] This argument did much to obscure the real history of aspirin, whose origin is not the pharmaceutical industry but earlier academic research. Despite the fact that pure aspirin was synthesized by von Gilm and by Kraut's group many years before Hoffmann, Bayer continues to insist that "The active ingredient in Aspirin®, acetylsalicylic acid, was synthesized for the first time in a chemically pure and thus stable form in 1897 by a young chemist working for Bayer, Dr. Felix Hoffmann."[14] 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Felix Hoffman (January 21, 1868 – February 8, 1946) was a German chemist. ... Bayer AG (IPA pronunciation //) (ISIN: DE0005752000, NYSE: BAY, TYO: 4863 ) is a German chemical and pharmaceutical company founded in Barmen, Germany in 1863. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arthur Eichengrün (August 13, 1867 - December 23, 1949) was a German chemist. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... The University of Strathclyde (Scottish Gaelic: ) is a university in Glasgow, Scotland. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ...


It was not until the 1970s that the mechanism of action of aspirin and other NSAIDs was elucidated. This article is about the drug. ...


Trademark issues

The brand name Aspirin was coined by the Bayer company of Germany. The name "aspirin" is composed of a- (from acetylirte, meaning acetylated) -spir- (from the plant genus Spiraea) and -in (a common, easily pronounceable ending for drug names at the time). On March 6, 1899, Bayer registered the name Aspirin as a trademark. Bayer AG (IPA pronunciation //) (ISIN: DE0005752000, NYSE: BAY, TYO: 4863 ) is a German chemical and pharmaceutical company founded in Barmen, Germany in 1863. ... Acetylation describes a reaction, usually with acetic acid, that introduces an acetyl functional group into an organic compound. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Bayer AG (IPA pronunciation //) (ISIN: DE0005752000, NYSE: BAY, TYO: 4863 ) is a German chemical and pharmaceutical company founded in Barmen, Germany in 1863. ... “(TM)” redirects here. ...


Bayer began marketing aspirin in July 1899. It was originally sold as a powder (which is still the preferred form in many European countries) and was an instant success; in 1914, Bayer introduced aspirin tablets.[9]

Advertisement for Aspirin, Heroin, Lycetol, Salophen
Advertisement for Aspirin, Heroin, Lycetol, Salophen

Although Bayer had registered Aspirin as a trademark in 1899, the German Patent Office refused to grant Bayer a patent for the drug based on the grounds that neither the product nor the process of preparation were novel.[9] In 1905, Bayer sued Chemische Fabrik von Heyden in Britain for infringing the British patent on aspirin granted to it in 1900. Hayden claimed that existing prior art, in particular Kraut's work, invalidated Bayer's patent. Bayer advanced the argument that they were first to prepare a pure form of aspirin. The judge agreed with Hayden and invalidated the Bayer patent. A similar struggle took place in the U.S. Circuit court in Chicago; however, in the U.S., Bayer's patent was upheld in 1909.[9] This created a situation where aspirin in the U.S. was three times more expensive than in Canada, and ten times more expensive than in Europe, resulting in rampant smuggling of aspirin, which Bayer unsuccessfully tried to contain.[9] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Deutsches Patent- und Markenamt (DPMA) or German Patent and Trade Mark Office (GPTO) is the German national patent office, with headquarters at Munich. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


After World War I, Bayer lost the right to use the trademark in many countries because the Allies seized and resold its foreign assets. The right to use the aspirin trademark in the United States (along with all other Bayer trademarks) was purchased from the U.S. government by Sterling Drug in 1918. Even before the patent for the drug expired in 1917, Bayer had been unable to stop competitors from copying the formula and using the name elsewhere, so, with a flooded market, the public was unable to recognize aspirin as coming from only one manufacturer, and in 1921, a landmark ruling by Billings Learned Hand established "aspirin" as a genericized trademark.[15] Sterling was ultimately acquired by Bayer in 1994, but this did not restore the U.S. trademark. Other countries (such as Canada and many countries in Europe) still consider aspirin a protected trademark. Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sterling Drug was a global pharmaceutical company based in the United States, later known as Sterling-Winthrop, Inc, whose primary product lines included diagnostic imaging agents, hormonal products, cardiovascular products, analgesics, antihistamines and muscle relaxants. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... Billings Learned Hand (January 27, 1872 – August 18, 1961) — usually called simply Learned Hand — was a famed American judge and an avid supporter of free speech, though he is most remembered for applying economic reasoning to American tort law. ... A genericized trademark, generic trade mark, generic descriptor, or proprietary eponym, is a trademark or brand name which has become the colloquial or generic description for a particular class of product or service. ...


In some countries the name Aspirin is used as a generic name for the drug instead of the manufacturer's trademark. In countries in which Aspirin remains a trademark, the initialism ASA (for acetylsalicylic acid), or another initialism that matches the local-language term, is used as a generic term. A genericized trademark, generic trade mark, generic descriptor, or proprietary eponym, is a trademark or brand name which has become the colloquial or generic description for a particular class of product or service. ... “(TM)” redirects here. ... Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations formed from the initial letter or letters of words, such as NATO and XHTML, and are pronounced in a way that is distinct from the full pronunciation of what the letters stand for. ...


Synthesis

The synthesis of aspirin is classified as an esterification reaction, where the alcohol group from the salicylic acid reacts with an acid derivative (acetic anhydride) to form an ester. Aspirin is commercially synthesized using a two-step process. First, phenol (generally extracted from coal tar) is treated with a sodium base which generates sodium phenolate, which is then reacted with carbon dioxide under high temperature and pressure to yield salicylate, which is acidified, yielding salicylic acid. This process is known as the Kolbe-Schmitt reaction. Esterification is the general name for a chemical reaction in which two chemicals (typically an alcohol and an acid) form an ester as the reaction product. ... Acetic anhydride, also known as ethanoic anhydride, is one of the simplest of acid anhydrides. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... Flash point 79 °C Related Compounds Related compounds Benzenethiol Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a toxic, colourless crystalline solid with a sweet... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Salicylic acid is a colorless, crystalline organic carboxylic acid. ... Salicylic acid is the chemical compound with the formula C6H4(OH)CO2H, where the OH group is adjacent to the carboxyl group. ... The Kolbe-Schmitt reaction/Kolbe process (named after Adolph Wilhelm Hermann Kolbe and R. Schmitt) is a carboxylation chemical reaction that proceeds by heating sodium phenolate (the sodium salt of phenol) with carbon dioxide under pressure (100 atm, 125°C), then treating the product with sulfuric acid. ...

Salicylic acid is then acetylated using acetic anhydride, yielding aspirin and acetic acid as a byproduct. This generally tends to produce low yields due to the relative difficulty of its extraction from an aqueous state. A method of extracting higher yields is to acidify with phosphoric acid and heat the reagents under reflux with a boiling water bath for between 40 to 60 minutes. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1380x279, 10 KB) Summary Diagram of the Kolbe-Schmitt reaction created with ChemDraw. ... Acetylation describes a reaction, usually with acetic acid, that introduces an acetyl functional group into an organic compound. ... Acetic anhydride, also known as ethanoic anhydride, is one of the simplest of acid anhydrides. ... Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3COOH best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. ... This article is about orthophosphoric acid. ...


The original synthesis of aspirin from salicylic acid involved acetylation with acetyl chloride. The byproduct from this is hydrochloric acid, which is corrosive and environmentally hazardous. As described above, it was then later found that acetic anhydride was a better acylating agent, with the byproduct acetic acid formed, which does not have the unwanted properties of hydrochloric acid and can also be recycled. The salicylic acid/acetic anhydride method is commonly employed in undergraduate teaching labs. Acetyl chloride, also known as ethanoyl chloride, is an acid chloride derived from acetic acid. ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ...

Formulations containing high concentrations of aspirin often smell like vinegar. This is because aspirin can undergo autocatalytic degradation to salicylic acid in moist conditions, yielding salicylic acid and acetic acid. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1668x278, 9 KB) Summary Diagram of the synthesis of aspirin created with ChemDraw. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... A single chemical reaction is said to have undergone autocatalysis, or be autocatalytic, if the reaction product is itself the catalyst for that reaction. ... Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3COOH best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. ...


The acid dissociation constant (pKa) for Acetylsalicylic acid is 3.5 at 25 °C.[16] ASA, being a weak acid, dissociates as shown by the following reaction equation: The acid dissociation constant (Ka), also known as the acidity constant or the acid-ionization constant, is a specific equilibrium constant for the reaction of an acid with its conjugate base in aqueous solution [1]. // When an acid dissolves in water, it partly dissociates forming hydronium ions and its conjugate...

Image File history File links Acetylsalicylic_acid_dissociation. ...

Therapeutic uses

Aspirin is one of the most frequently used drugs in the treatment of mild to moderate pain, including that of migraines,[17] and fever. It is often combined with other analgesics, even though this has never been shown to be more effective or less toxic than aspirin alone. Aspirin has, however, been used in addition to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioid analgesics in the treatment of pain associated with cancer.[18] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


In high doses, aspirin and other salicylates are used in the treatment of rheumatic fever, rheumatic arthritis, and other inflammatory joint conditions. In lower doses, aspirin also has properties as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation, and has been shown to decrease the incidence of transient ischemic attacks and unstable angina in men, and can be used prophylactically. It is also used in the treatment of pericarditis, coronary artery disease, and acute myocardial infarction.[18][19] Low doses of aspirin are also recommended for the prevention of stroke, and myocardial infarction in patients with either diagnosed coronary artery disease or who have an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. It is also possible that women may benefit less from aspirin than men.[20][21] Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease which may develop after a Group A streptococcal infection (such as strep throat or scarlet fever) and can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... angina tonsillaris see tonsillitis. ... Pericarditis is inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart, the pericardium. ... Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD) and atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart). ... Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), more commonly known as a heart attack, is a disease state that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ...


Veterinary uses

Aspirin has been used to treat pain and arthritis in veterinary medicine, primarily in cats and dogs, although it is not particularly recommended, as there are better medications available. Also, dogs are particularly susceptible to the gastrointestinal side effects associated with salicylates.[22] Horses have also been given aspirin for pain relief, although it is not commonly used due to its relatively short-lived analgesic effects. Horses are also fairly sensitive to the gastrointestinal side effects as well. Nevertheless, it has shown promise in its use as an anticoagulant, mostly in cases of laminitis.[23] Aspirin's use in animals should only be done under the direct supervision of a veterinarian. Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Look up veterinarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Experimental uses

There have been some studies in the late 20th century indicating that aspirin may reduce cataract formation, although this is disputed.[24] The role of aspirin in reducing the rates of many forms of cancer has also been widely studied. Human eye cross-sectional view, showing position of human lens. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Additionally, aspirin may be effective in reduction of risk of other cancers as well, including those of the prostate,[25][26] colon,[27][28][29][30] pancreas,[31] upper GI tract,[32] and lung.[33][34] Its potency against tumors of the lung may be due to the fact that such tumors have high amounts of COX-2 enzymes expressed in them, especially adenocarcinomas and tumors caused by asbestosis, and aspirin is known to inhibit both the COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes.[35] Likewise, if there is a specific connection between COX-2 and lung cancer, other COX-2 inhibitors might also have the same effect. It should be pointed out, however, that this research is not complete, and there is currently no well-established medical recommendation on the use of aspirin or other NSAIDs for use in the treatment or prevention of cancer. Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. ... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumour within the pancreatic gland. ... Lung cancer is the malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue, and is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for 1. ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... Cyclooxygenase (COX) is an enzyme (EC 1. ... Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ...


In Relation To Cannabis

A 1998 Journal of Neuroscience article on hippocampal neurotoxicity, it is suggested that aspirin, among other substances, might inhibit the neural death caused in the hippocampus by THC, which is the main psychoactive component of cannabis. "Neuron death induced by THC was inhibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including indomethacin and aspirin, as well as vitamin E and other antioxidants." [36] Neurotoxicity occurs when the exposure to natural or manmade toxic substances ,which are called neurotoxins, alters the normal activity of the nervous system. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... The hippocampus is structurally located inside the medial temporal lobe of the brain. ... The acronym THC has several possible meanings: Teens Hate Chains, a Japanese singing group Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active ingredient in Cannabis Tetrahydrocurcuminoids, extracted from Turmeric as an active ingredient in cosmetics Texas Historical Commission Therapeutic Humane Cannabis Act Thermohaline circulation The History Channel Terminal Handling Charges This page concerning a... Look up Cannabis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Contraindications

  • Aspirin should be avoided by those known to be allergic to ibuprofen or naproxen.
  • Caution should be exercised in those with asthma or NSAID-precipitated bronchospasm.
  • It is generally recommended that one seek medical help if symptoms do not improve after a few days of therapy.
  • Caution should be taken in patients with kidney disease, peptic ulcers, mild diabetes, gout or gastritis; manufacturers recommend talking to one's doctor before using this medicine.
  • Taking aspirin with alcohol or warfarin increases the chance of gastrointestinal hemorrhage (stomach bleeding).
  • Children under the age of 12 are discouraged from using aspirin in cold or flu symptoms as this has been linked with Reye's syndrome.[3]
  • Patients with hemophilia or other bleeding tendencies should not take salicylates.
  • Some sources recommend that patients with hyperthyroidism avoid aspirin because it elevates T4 levels.[37]
  • Aspirin is known to cause hemolytic anemia in people who have the genetic disease glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), particularly in large doses and depending on the severity of the disease.

Ibuprofen (INN) (IPA: ) (from the earlier nomenclature iso-butyl-propanoic-phenolic acid) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) originally marketed as Nurofen and since under various trademarks including Act-3, Advil, Brufen, Dorival, Herron Blue, Panafen, Motrin, Nuprin and Ipren or Ibumetin (Sweden), Ibuprom (Poland), IbuHEXAL, Moment (Italy... Naproxen (INN) (IPA: ) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used for the reduction of mild to moderate pain, fever, inflammation and stiffness caused by conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, ankylosing spondylitis, injury (like fractures), menstrual cramps, tendonitis, bursitis, and the treatment of primary... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ... Bronchospasm is a difficulty in breathing caused by a sudden constriction of the muscles in the walls of the bronchioles. ... See the article on the kidney for the anatomy and function of healthy kidneys and a list of diseases involving the kidney. ... A benign gastric ulcer (from the antrum) of a gastrectomy specimen. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Gastritis is inflammation of the gastric mucosa. ... Alcoholic beverages. ... Warfarin (also known under the brand names of Coumadin, Jantoven, Marevan, and Waran) is an anticoagulant medication that is administered orally or, very rarely, by injection. ... Gastrointestinal hemorrhage can be roughly divided into two clinical syndromes: upper gastrointestinal bleed, characterized by hematemesis and lower gastrointestinal bleed, characterized by melena or hematochezia. ... Reyes syndrome is a potentially fatal disease that causes numerous detrimental effects to many organs, especially the brain and liver. ... Haemophilia or hemophilia is the name of any of several hereditary genetic illnesses that impair the bodys ability to control bleeding. ... Hyperthyroidism (or overactive thyroid gland) is the clinical syndrome caused by an excess of circulating free thyroxine (T4) or free triiodothyronine (T3), or both. ... Thyroxine, or 3:5,3:5 tetra­iodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. ... Hemolytic anemia is anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the body (extravascular). ... Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked recessive hereditary disease featuring nonimmune hemolytic anemia in response to a number of causes. ...

Adverse effects

  • Gastrointestinal complaints (stomach upset, dyspepsia, heartburn, small blood loss). To help avoid these problems, it is recommended that aspirin be taken at or after meals, or be taken in an enteric coated formulation. Undetected blood loss may lead to hypochromic anemia.[38][39]
  • Severe gastrointestinal complaints (gross bleeding and/or ulceration), requiring discontinuation and immediate treatment. Patients receiving high doses and/or long-term treatment should receive gastric protection with high-dosed antacids, ranitidine or omeprazole.
  • Frequently, central effects (dizziness, tinnitus, hearing loss, vertigo, centrally mediated vision disturbances, and headaches). The higher the daily dose is, the more likely it is that central nervous system side-effects will occur.
  • Sweating, seen with high doses, independent from antipyretic action
  • Long-term treatment with high doses (arthritis and rheumatic fever): often increased liver enzymes without symptoms, rarely reversible liver damage. The potentially fatal Reye's syndrome may occur, if given to pediatric patients with fever and other signs of infections. The syndrome is due to fatty degeneration of liver cells. Up to 30% of those afflicted will eventually die. Prompt hospital treatment may be life-saving.[3]
  • Chronic nephritis with long-term use, usually if used in combination with certain other painkillers. This condition may lead to chronic renal failure.[40]
  • Prolonged and more severe bleeding after operations and post-traumatic for up to 10 days after the last aspirin dose. If one wishes to counteract the bleeding tendency, fresh thrombocyte concentrate will usually work.
  • Skin reactions, angioedema, and bronchospasm have all been seen infrequently.

A form of anemia characterized by a disproportionate reduction of red cell hemoglobin and an increased area of central pallor in the red cells. ... Ranitidine (INN) (IPA: ) is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production, and commonly used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). ... Omeprazole (INN) (IPA: ) is a proton pump inhibitor used in the treatment of dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD/GERD) and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. ... Tinnitus (IPA pronunciation: or ,[1] from the Latin word for ringing[2]) is the perception of sound in the human ear in the absence of corresponding external sound(s). ... For other uses, see Vertigo. ... Reyes syndrome is a potentially fatal disease that causes numerous detrimental effects to many organs, especially the brain and liver. ... Nephritis is inflammation of the kidney. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Angioedema (BE: angiooedema), also known by its eponym Quinckes edema, is the rapid swelling (edema) of the skin, mucosa and submucosal tissues. ... Bronchospasm is a difficulty in breathing caused by a sudden constriction of the muscles in the walls of the bronchioles. ...

Interactions

Aspirin is known to interact with other drugs. For example, acetazolamide and ammonium chloride have been known to enhance the intoxicating effect of salicyclates, and alcohol also enhances the gastrointestinal bleeding associated with these types of drugs as well. Aspirin is known to displace a number of drugs from protein binding sites in the blood, including the anti-diabetic drugs tolbutamide and chlorpropamide, the immunosuppressant methotrexate, phenytoin, probenecid, valproic acid (as well as interfering with beta oxidation, an important part of valproate metabolism) and any nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Corticosteroids may also reduce the concentration of aspirin. The pharmacological activity of spironolactone may be reduced by taking aspirin, and aspirin is known to compete with Penicillin G for renal tubular secretion.[41] Aspirin may also inhibit the absorption of vitamin C.[42][43][44] A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i. ... Acetazolamide, sold under the trade name Diamox®, is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used to treat glaucoma, epileptic seizures, benign intracranial hypertension and altitude sickness. ... Ammonium chloride or Sal Ammoniac (chemically ammonium chloride (NH4Cl); also salmiac, nushadir salt, zalmiak, sal armagnac, sal armoniac, salmiakki, salmiak and salt armoniack) is, in its pure form, a clear white water-soluble crystalline salt with a biting, slightly sour taste. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An anti-diabetic drug or oral hypoglycemic agent is used to treat diabetes mellitus. ... Tolbutamide is a sulfonylurea oral hypoglycemic drug sold under the brand name Orinase. ... Chlorpropamide is a sulphonylurea drug used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ... Amethopterin redirects here. ... Phenytoin sodium (marketed as Dilantin® in the USA and as Epanutin® in the UK, by Parke-Davis, now part of Pfizer) is a commonly used antiepileptic. ... Probenecid is a uricosuric drug, primarily used in treating gout or hyperuricemia, that increases uric acid removal in the urine. ... Valproic acid (VPA) is a chemical compound that has found clinical use as an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug, primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. ... Schematic demonstrating mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation and effects of LCHAD deficiency Beta oxidation is the process by which fatty acids, in the form of Acetyl-CoA molecules, are broken down in the mitochondria to generate Acetyl-CoA, the entry molecule for the Krebs Cycle. ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ... Spironolactone (marketed under the trade names Aldactone, Novo-Spiroton, Spiractin, Spirotone, or Berlactone) is a diuretic and is used as an antiandrogen. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Penicillin (band). ... This article is about the nutrient. ...


Dosage

For adults doses of 300 to 1000 mg are generally taken four times a day for fever or arthritis, with a maximum dose of 8000 mg (8 grams) a day.[45] The correct dose of aspirin depends on the disease or condition that is being treated. For instance, for the treatment of rheumatic fever, doses near the maximal daily dose have been used historically.[46] For the prevention of myocardial infarction in someone with documented or suspected coronary artery disease, doses as low as 75 mg daily (or possibly even lower) are sufficient.


For those under 12 years of age, the dose previously varied with the age, but aspirin is no longer routinely used in children due to the association with Reye's syndrome; paracetamol (known in the United States as acetaminophen) or other NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, are now used instead. Kawasaki disease remains one of the few indications for aspirin use in children, with aspirin initially started at 7.5–12.5 mg per kilogram of body weight, taken four times a day for up to two weeks and then continued at 5 mg/kg once daily for a further six to eight weeks.[47] Reyes syndrome is a potentially fatal disease that causes numerous detrimental effects to many organs, especially the brain and liver. ... Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN), is the active metabolite of phenacetin, a so-called coal tar analgesic. ... Ibuprofen (INN) (IPA: ) (from the earlier nomenclature iso-butyl-propanoic-phenolic acid) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) originally marketed as Nurofen and since under various trademarks including Act-3, Advil, Brufen, Dorival, Herron Blue, Panafen, Motrin, Nuprin and Ipren or Ibumetin (Sweden), Ibuprom (Poland), IbuHEXAL, Moment (Italy... Kawasaki disease, also known as lymph node syndrome, mucocutaneous node disease, infantile polyarteritis and Kawasaki syndrome, is a poorly understood self-limited vasculitis that affects many organs, including the skin and mucous membranes, lymph nodes, blood vessel walls, and the heart. ...


Overdose

Aspirin overdose can be acute or chronic. In acute poisoning, a single large dose is taken; in chronic poisoning, supratherapeutic doses are taken over a period of time. Acute overdose has a mortality rate of 2%. Chronic overdose is more commonly lethal with a mortality rate of 25%; chronic overdose may be especially severe in children.[48] Crude death rate by country Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time. ...


Symptoms

Aspirin overdose has potentially serious consequences, sometimes leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with mild intoxication frequently have nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, lethargy, tinnitus, and dizziness. More significant symptoms occur in more severe poisonings and include hyperthermia, tachypnea, respiratory alkalosis, metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia, hypoglycemia, hallucinations, confusion, seizure, cerebral edema, and coma. The most common cause of death following an aspirin overdose is cardiopulmonary arrest usually due to pulmonary edema.[49] For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Emesis redirects here. ... Tinnitus (IPA pronunciation: or ,[1] from the Latin word for ringing[2]) is the perception of sound in the human ear in the absence of corresponding external sound(s). ... // Pre-syncope is a sensation of feeling faint. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tachypnea is a medical term for breathing which is more rapid than normal. ... Respiratory alkalosis results from increased alveolar respiration (hyperventilation) leading to decreased plasma carbon dioxide concentration. ... In medicine, metabolic acidosis is a state in which the blood pH is low (under 7. ... Hyperkalemia is an elevated blood level (above 5. ... Hypoglycemia (hypoglycaemia in British English) is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. ... A hallucination is a false sensory perception in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion, which is a misperception of an external stimulus. ... Severe confusion of a degree considered pathological usually refers to loss of orientation (ability to place oneself correctly in the world by time, location, and personal identity), and often memory (ability to correctly recall previous events or learn new materal). ... This article is about epileptic seizures. ... Cerebral edema (cerebral oedema in British English) is an excess accumulation of water in the intra- and/or extracellular spaces of the brain. ... In medicine, a coma (from the Greek koma, meaning deep sleep) is a profound state of unconsciousness. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ...


Toxicity

The toxic dose of aspirin is generally considered greater than 150 mg per kg of body mass. Moderate toxicity occurs at doses up to 300 mg/kg, severe toxicity occurs between 300 to 500 mg/kg, and a potentially lethal dose is greater than 500 mg/kg.[50] This is the equivalent of many dozens of the common 325 mg tablets, depending on body weight. However children cannot tolerate as much aspirin per unit body weight as adults can. Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Treatment

All overdose patients should be conveyed to hospital for assessment immediately. Initial treatment of an acute overdose includes gastric decontamination. This is achieved by administering activated charcoal which adsorbs the aspirin in the gastrointestinal tract. Stomach pumps are no longer routinely used in the treatment of poisonings but are sometimes considered if the patient has ingested a potentially lethal amount less than 1 hour previously.[51] Repeated doses of charcoal have been proposed to be beneficial in aspirin overdose.[52] A study performed found that repeat dose charcoal might not be of significant value.[53] However, most toxicologists will administer additional charcoal if serum salicylate levels are increasing. Activated carbon (also called activated charcoal) is the more general term which includes material mostly derived from charcoal. ... Adsorption is a process that occurs when a liquid or gas (called adsorbate) accumulates on the surface of a solid or liquid (adsorbent), forming a molecular or atomic film (adsorbate). ... Upper and Lower gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), also called the digestive tract, or the alimentary canal, is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... Gastric lavage, also commonly called a stomach pump, is the process of cleaning out the contents of the stomach. ...


Patients are monitored until their peak salicylate blood level has been determined.[54] Blood levels are usually performed 4 hours after ingestion and then every 2 hours after that to determine the maximum level. Maximum levels can be used as a guide to toxic effects expected.[55]


There is no antidote to salicylate poisoning. Frequent blood work is performed to check metabolic, salicylate, and blood sugar levels; arterial blood gas assessments are performed to test for respiratory alkalosis and metabolic acidosis. Patients are monitored and often treated according to their individual symptoms, patients may be given intravenous potassium chloride to counteract hypokalemia, glucose to restore blood sugar levels, benzodiazepines for any seizure activity, fluids for dehydration, and importantly sodium bicarbonate to restore the blood's sensitive pH balance. Sodium bicarbonate also has the effect of increasing the pH of urine, which in turn increases the elimination of salicylate. Additionally, hemodialysis can be implemented to enhance the removal of salicylate from the blood. Hemodialysis is usually used in severely poisoned patients; for example, patients with significantly high salicylate blood levels, significant neurotoxicity (agitation, coma, convulsions), renal failure, pulmonary edema, or cardiovascular instability are hemodialyzed.[54] Hemodialysis also has the advantage of restoring electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities; hemodialysis is often life-saving in severely ill patients. Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος(metavallo), the Greek word for change), in the most general sense, is the ingestion and breakdown of complex compounds, coupled... Salicylic acid is a colorless, crystalline organic carboxylic acid. ... In medicine, blood sugar is a term used to refer to levels of glucose in the blood. ... Arterial blood gas measurement is a blood test that is performed to determine the concentration of oxygen, carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, as well as the pH, in the blood. ... Alkalosis refers to a condition reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma. ... In medicine, metabolic acidosis is a state in which the blood pH is low (under 7. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide composed of potassium and chlorine. ... Hypokalemia is a potentially fatal condition in which the body fails to retain sufficient potassium to maintain health. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... In medicine, blood sugar is a term used to refer to levels of glucose in the blood. ... Benzodiazepine tablets The benzodiazepines are a class of drugs with hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, amnestic and muscle relaxant properties. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... Flash point Non-flammable. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Artificial kidney be merged into this article or section. ... An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... An acid-base reaction is a chemical reaction between an acid and a base. ...


Epidemiology

In the later part of the 20th century the number of salicylate poisonings has declined mainly due to the popularity of other over-the-counter analgesics such as paracetamol (acetaminophen). Fifty-two deaths involving single-ingredient aspirin were reported in the United States in 2000. However, in all but three cases, the reason for the ingestion of lethal doses was intentional, predominantly suicides.[56] Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN), is the active metabolite of phenacetin, a so-called coal tar analgesic. ...


Mechanism of action

Structure of COX-2 inactivated by Aspirin. In the active site of each of the two monomers, Serine 530 has been acetylated. Also visible is the salicylic acid which has transferred the acyl group, and the heme cofactor.
Structure of COX-2 inactivated by Aspirin. In the active site of each of the two monomers, Serine 530 has been acetylated. Also visible is the salicylic acid which has transferred the acyl group, and the heme cofactor.

In 1971, the British pharmacologist John Robert Vane, then employed by the Royal College of Surgeons in London, showed that aspirin suppresses the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes.[57] For this discovery, he was awarded both a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1982 and a knighthood. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 502 pixelsFull resolution (3560 × 2235 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 502 pixelsFull resolution (3560 × 2235 pixel, file size: 1. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Sir John Robert Vane (March 29, 1927 - November 19, 2004) was a British pharmacologist. ... The Royal College of Surgeons of England is an independent professional body committed to promoting and advancing the highest standards of surgical care for patients. ... E1 - Alprostadil I2 - Prostacyclin A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. ... Thromboxane A2 Thromboxane B2 Thromboxane is a member of the family of lipids known as eicosanoids. ... The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ), as designated in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, are awarded for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace. ... Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ...


Aspirin's ability to suppress the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes is due to its competitive and irreversible inactivation of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme. Cyclooxygenase is required for prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis. Aspirin acts as an acetylating agent where an acetyl group is covalently attached to a serine residue in the active site of the COX enzyme. This makes aspirin different from other NSAIDs (such as diclofenac and ibuprofen), which are reversible inhibitors. Cyclooxygenase (COX) is an enzyme (EC 1. ... Serine (IPA ), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. ... my sister died form overdose!!! Diclofenac (marketed as Voltaren, Voltarol, Diclon, Dicloflex Difen, Difene, Cataflam, Pennsaid, Rhumalgan, Modifenac, Abitren and Zolterol) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) taken to reduce inflammation and an analgesic reducing pain in conditions such as in arthritis or acute injury. ... Ibuprofen (INN) (IPA: ) (from the earlier nomenclature iso-butyl-propanoic-phenolic acid) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) originally marketed as Nurofen and since under various trademarks including Act-3, Advil, Brufen, Dorival, Herron Blue, Panafen, Motrin, Nuprin and Ipren or Ibumetin (Sweden), Ibuprom (Poland), IbuHEXAL, Moment (Italy...


Low-dose, long-term aspirin use irreversibly blocks the formation of thromboxane A2 in platelets, producing an inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. This anticoagulant property makes aspirin useful for reducing the incidence of heart attacks. 40 mg of aspirin a day is able to inhibit a large proportion of maximum thromboxane A2 release provoked acutely, with the prostaglandin I2 synthesis being little affected; however, higher doses of aspirin are required to attain further inhibition.[58] Thromboxane A2 is a thromboxane. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ...


Prostaglandins are local hormones (paracrine) produced in the body and have diverse effects in the body, including but not limited to transmission of pain information to the brain, modulation of the hypothalamic thermostat, and inflammation. Thromboxanes are responsible for the aggregation of platelets that form blood clots. Heart attacks are primarily caused by blood clots, and their reduction with the introduction of small amounts of aspirin has been seen to be an effective medical intervention. The side-effect of this is that the ability of the blood in general to clot is reduced, and excessive bleeding may result from the use of aspirin. Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ...

3D model of chemical structure of aspirin
3D model of chemical structure of aspirin

There are at least two different types of cyclooxygenase: COX-1 and COX-2. Aspirin irreversibly inhibits COX-1 and modifies the enzymatic activity of COX-2. Normally COX-2 produces prostanoids, most of which are pro-inflammatory. Aspirin-modified COX-2 produces lipoxins, most of which are anti-inflammatory. Newer NSAID drugs called COX-2 selective inhibitors have been developed that inhibit only COX-2, with the hope for reduction of gastrointestinal side-effects. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 126 KB) Aspirin 3D model made using ghemical, platon and povray. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 126 KB) Aspirin 3D model made using ghemical, platon and povray. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


However, several of the new COX-2 selective inhibitors have been recently withdrawn, after evidence emerged that COX-2 inhibitors increase the risk of heart attack. It is proposed that endothelial cells lining the microvasculature in the body express COX-2, and, by selectively inhibiting COX-2, prostaglandins (specifically PGI2; prostacyclin) are downregulated with respect to thromboxane levels, as COX-1 in platelets is unaffected. Thus, the protective anti-coagulative effect of PGI2 is decreased, increasing the risk of thrombus and associated heart attacks and other circulatory problems. Since platelets have no DNA, they are unable to synthesize new COX once aspirin has irreversibly inhibited the enzyme, an important difference with reversible inhibitors. This article needs cleanup. ...


Furthermore, aspirin has two additional modes of actions, contributing to its strong analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties:

  • It uncouples oxidative phosphorylation in cartilaginous (and hepatic) mitochondria, by diffusing from the inner membrane space as a proton carrier back into the mitochondrial matrix, where it ionizes once again to release protons. In short, aspirin buffers and transports the protons. (Note: This effect in high doses of aspirin actually causes fever due to the heat released from the electron transport chain, instead of its normal antipyretic action.)
  • It induces the formation of NO-radicals in the body that enable the white blood cells (leukocytes) to fight infections more effectively. This has been found recently by Dr. Derek W. Gilroy, winning Bayer's International Aspirin Award 2005.[59]

More recent data suggest that salicylic acid and its derivatives will modulate signaling through NF-κB.[60] NF-κB is a transcription factor complex that plays a central role in many biological processes, including inflammation. The Electron Transport Chain. ... NF-κB, or Nuclear Factor kappa B, is a nuclear transcription factor found in all cell types and is involved in cellular responses to stimuli such as stress, cytokines, free radicals, ultraviolet irradiation, and bacterial or viral antigens. ... In molecular biology, a transcription factor is a protein that binds DNA at a specific promoter or enhancer region or site, where it regulates transcription. ...


See also

Aspergum (generic name Aspirin Gum-Oral)[1] is the United States trademark name for an analgesic chewing gum, whose active ingredient is aspirin. ... Copper(II) aspirinate is an aspirin chelate of copper(II) cations (Cu2+). It is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ... Salicylic acid is the chemical compound with the formula C6H4(OH)CO2H, where the OH group is adjacent to the carboxyl group. ...

References

  1. ^ [1] American Heart Association: Aspirin in Heart Attack and Stroke Prevention "The American Heart Association recommends aspirin use for patients who've had a myocardial infarction (heart attack), unstable angina, ischemic stroke (caused by blood clot) or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs or "little strokes"), if not contraindicated. This recommendation is based on sound evidence from clinical trials showing that aspirin helps prevent the recurrence of such events as heart attack, hospitalization for recurrent angina, second strokes, etc. (secondary prevention). Studies show aspirin also helps prevent these events from occurring in people at high risk (primary prevention)."
  2. ^ Julian, D G; D A Chamberlain, S J Pocock (1996-09-24). "A comparison of aspirin and anticoagulation following thrombolysis for myocardial infarction (the AFTER study): a multicentre unblinded randomised clinical trial". bmj 313 (7070): 1429-1431. British Medical Journal. Retrieved on 2007-10-04. 
  3. ^ a b c Macdonald S (2002). "Aspirin use to be banned in under 16 year olds". BMJ 325 (7371): 988. PMID 12411346. 
  4. ^ Paul B. Hemel and Mary U. Chiltoskey, Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History, Sylva, NC: Herald Publishing Co. (1975); cited in Dan Moerman, A Database of Foods, Drugs, Dyes and Fibers of Native American Peoples, Derived from Plants.[2] A search of this database for "salix AND medicine" finds 63 entries.
  5. ^ Stone, E (1763). "An Account of the Success of the Bark of the Willow in the Cure of Agues". Philosophical Transactions 53: 195–200. 
  6. ^ a b Gerhardt C (1853). "Untersuchungen über die wasserfreien organischen Säuren". Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie 87: 149–179. 
  7. ^ von Gilm H (1859). "Acetylderivate der Phloretin- und Salicylsäure". Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie 112 (2): 180–185. 
  8. ^ Schröder, Prinzhorn, Kraut K (1869). "Uber Salicylverbindungen". Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie 150 (1): 1–20. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f by Charles C. Mann and Mark L. Plummer (1991). The aspirin wars: money, medicine, and 100 years of rampant competition. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press, 25–36. ISBN 0-87584-401-4. 
  10. ^ Hoffmann H. US Patent 644,077 dated February 27, 1900. US Patent Office. Retrieved on 2007-05-20.
  11. ^ a b Sneader W (2000). "The discovery of aspirin: a reappraisal". BMJ 321 (7276): 1591–4. PMID 11124191. 
  12. ^ Helmstaedter A (2001). Aspirin history: Is there a need for a reappraisal ?. bmj.com Rapid Responses for Sneader, 321 (7276) 1591–1594. Retrieved on 2007-05-20.
  13. ^ Bayer AG: Zum Vortrag von Dr. Walter Sneader über die Entwicklung der Acetylsalicylsäure (German). Retrieved on 2007-05-20.
  14. ^ Aspirin FAQ's. Bayer Healthcare. Retrieved on 2007-05-20.
  15. ^ Bayer Co. v. United Drug Co., 272 F. 505 (S.D.N.Y. 1921). Free full text at Harvard Law School's Berkman Center for Internet & Society. Retrieved on 2007-09-07.
  16. ^ Acetylsalicylic acid. Jinno Laboratory, School of Materials Science, Toyohashi University of Technology (March 1, 1996). Retrieved on 2007-09-07.
  17. ^ Aukerman G, Knutson D, Miser WF (2002). "Management of the acute migraine headache". Am Fam Physician 66 (11): 2123–30. PMID 12484694.  Free full text
  18. ^ a b Katzung, Bertram G. (1998). "Basic and Clinical Pharmacology", 7th ed., Stamford, Connecticut: Appleton & Lange. ISBN 0-8385-0565-1.
  19. ^ ISIS-2 Collaborative group (1988). "Randomized trial of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin, both, or neither among 17,187 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-2.". Lancet (2): 349-60. PMID 2899772. 
  20. ^ "Aspirin may be less effective heart treatment for women than men", University of Michigan, April 26, 2007.. Retrieved on 2007-09-09. 
  21. ^ Dorsch MP, Lee JS, Lynch DR, Dunn SP, Rodgers JE, Schwartz T, Colby E, Montague D, Smyth SS (24 Apr 2007). "Aspirin Resistance in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease with and without a History of Myocardial Infarction". Ann Pharmacother (May). DOI:10.1345/aph.1H621.. PMID 17456544. 
  22. ^ Crosby, Janet Tobiassen (2006). Veterinary Questions and Answers. About.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-05.
  23. ^ Cambridge H, Lees P, Hooke RE, Russell CS (1991). "Antithrombotic actions of aspirin in the horse". Equine Vet J 23 (2): 123–7. PMID 1904347. 
  24. ^ Chew EY, Williams GA, Burton TC, Barton FB, Remaley NA, Ferris FL (1992). "Aspirin effects on the development of cataracts in patients with diabetes mellitus. Early treatment diabetic retinopathy study report 16". Arch Ophthalmol 110 (3): 339–42. PMID 1543449. 
  25. ^ Bosetti, et al. (2006). "Aspirin and the risk of prostate cancer". Eur J Cancer Prev 15 (1): 43–5. PMID 16374228. 
  26. ^ Menezes, et al. (2006). "Regular use of aspirin and prostate cancer risk (United States)". Cancer Causes Control 17 (3): 251–6. PMID 16489532. 
  27. ^ Thun MJ, Namboodiri MM, Heath CW (1991). "Aspirin use and reduced risk of fatal colon cancer". N Engl J Med 325 (23): 1593–6. PMID 1669840. 
  28. ^ Baron, et al. (2003). "A randomized trial of aspirin to prevent colorectal adenomas". N Engl J Med 348 (10): 891–9. PMID 12621133. 
  29. ^ Chan, et al. (2004). "A Prospective Study of Aspirin Use and the Risk for Colorectal Adenoma". Ann Intern Med 140 (3): 157–66. PMID 14757613. 
  30. ^ Chan, et al. (2005). "Long-term Use of Aspirin and Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs and Risk of Colorectal Cancer". JAMA 294 (8): 914–23. PMID 16118381. 
  31. ^ Schernhammer, et al. (2004). "A Prospective Study of Aspirin Use and the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer in Women". J Natl Cancer Inst 96 (1): 22–28. PMID 14709735. 
  32. ^ Bosetti, et al. (2003). "Aspirin use and cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract". Br J Cancer 88 (5): 672–74. PMID 12618872. 
  33. ^ Akhmedkhanov, et al. (2002). "Aspirin and lung cancer in women". Br J cancer 87 (11): 1337–8. PMID 12085255. 
  34. ^ Moysich KB, Menezes RJ, Ronsani A, et al (2002). "Regular aspirin use and lung cancer risk". BMC Cancer 2: 31. PMID 12453317.  Free full text
  35. ^ Wolff, et al. (1998). "Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in human lung carcinoma". Cancer Research 58 (22): 4997–5001. 
  36. ^ http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/abstract/18/14/5322
  37. ^ www.patient.co.uk/showdoc/40001339/.
  38. ^ Sopena F (2007). "How to advise aspirin use in patients who need NSAIDs.". Curr Pharm Des. 13 (22): 2248-60. PMID 17691998. 
  39. ^ Walker J (2007). "Does enteric-coated aspirin result in a lower incidence of gastrointestinal complications compared to normal aspirin?". Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 6 (4): 519-22. PMID 17669925. 
  40. ^ Griffin MR (2000). "Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and acute renal failure in elderly persons.". Am J Epidemiol 151: 488-96. 
  41. ^ Katzung, Bertram G. (1998), p. 584.
  42. ^ 'The Effects of Aspirin on the Metabolic Availability of Ascorbic Acid in Human Beings' The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and New Drugs , 1973; 13:480–486 Published 1973. Accessed 31 July 2007.
  43. ^ 'Vitamin C-aspirin interactions' Int J Vitam Nutr Res Suppl. 1982;23:83–90. Published 1982. Accessed 31 July 2007.
  44. ^ 'Impairment of absorption of ascorbic acid following ingestion of aspirin in guinea pigs' Biochem Pharmacol. 1982 Dec 15;31(24):4035–8. Published 1982. Accessed 31 July 2007.
  45. ^ (March 2003) British National Formulary, 45, British Medical Journal and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. 
  46. ^ Aspirin monograph: dosages, etc
  47. ^ (2006) British National Formulary for Children. British Medical Journal and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. 
  48. ^ Gaudreault P, Temple AR, Lovejoy FH Jr. (1982). "The relative severity of acute versus chronic salicylate poisoning in children: a clinical comparison". Pediatrics 70 (4): 566-9. PMID 7122154. 
  49. ^ Thisted B, Krantz T, Stroom J, Sorensen MB. (1987). "Acute salicylate self-poisoning in 177 consecutive patients treated in ICU". Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 31 (4): 312-6. PMID 3591255. 
  50. ^ Temple AR. (1981). "Acute and chronic effects of aspirin toxicity and their treatment". Arch Intern Med 141 (3 Spec No): 364-9. PMID 7469627. 
  51. ^ Vale JA, Kulig K; American Academy of Clinical Toxicology; European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists. (2004). "Position paper: gastric lavage.". J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42 (7): 933-43. PMID 15641639. 
  52. ^ Hillman RJ, Prescott LF. (1985). "Treatment of salicylate poisoning with repeated oral charcoal". Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 291 (6507): 1472. PMID 3933714. 
  53. ^ Kirshenbaum LA, Mathews SC, Sitar DS, Tenenbein M. (1990). "Does multiple-dose charcoal therapy enhance salicylate excretion?". Arch Intern Med 150 (6): 1281–3. PMID 2191636. 
  54. ^ a b Dargan PI, Wallace CI, Jones AL. (2002). "An evidenced based flowchart to guide the management of acute salicylate (aspirin) overdose". Emerg Med J 19 (3): 206-9. PMID 11971828. 
  55. ^ Meredith TJ, Vale JA. (1986). "Non-narcotic analgesics. Problems of overdosage". Drugs 32 (Suppl 4): 117–205. PMID 3552583. 
  56. ^ Litovitz TL, Klein-Schwartz W, White S, Cobaugh DJ, Youniss J, Omslaer JC, Drab A, Benson BE (2001). "2000 Annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System". Am J Emerg Med 19 (5): 337-95. PMID 11555795. 
  57. ^ John Robert Vane (1971). "Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis as a mechanism of action for aspirin-like drugs.". Nature - New Biology 231 (25): 232–5. PMID 5284360. 
  58. ^ Tohgi, H; S Konno, K Tamura, B Kimura and K Kawano (1992). "Effects of low-to-high doses of aspirin on platelet aggregability and metabolites of thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin". Stroke Vol 23: 1400–1403. Retrieved on 2007-09-05. 
  59. ^ "New mechanism of action of Aspirin discovered," in Medical News Today, October 2, 2005.
  60. ^ McCarty, MF; KI Block (2006). "Preadministration of high-dose salicylates, suppressors of NF-kappaB activation, may increase the chemosensitivity of many cancers: an example of proapoptotic signal modulation therapy.". Integr Cancer Ther. Vol 5 (3): 252-268. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (S.D.N.Y.) is the federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the following counties: New York (Manhattan), Bronx, Westchester, Putnam, Rockland, Orange, Dutchess, and Sullivan. ... Harvard Law School (colloquially, Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... There is more than one place named Stamford. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New England Journal of Medicine (New Engl J Med or NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society. ... Otherwise known as the doctors prescribing Bible the British National Formulary (BNF) contains a wide spectrum of information on prescribing and pharmacology, among others indications, side effects and costs of the prescription of all medication drugs available on the National Health Service. ... The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ... The Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (RPSGB) is the regulatory and professional body for pharmacists in England, Scotland and Wales. ... The British National Formulary for Children (BNF-C) is the standard UK paediatric reference for prescribing and pharmacology, among others indications, side effects and costs of the prescription of all medication drugs available on the National Health Service. ... The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ... The Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (RPSGB) is the regulatory and professional body for pharmacists in England, Scotland and Wales. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... Buprenorphine, is an opioid drug with partial agonist and antagonist actions. ... Butorphanol (INN) is a morphinan-type synthetic opioid analgesic marketed in the U.S. under the trade name Stadol. ... Codeine (INN) or methylmorphine is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. ... Dextropropoxyphene is an analgesic in the opioid category. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... Dihydrocodeine, also called DHC and Paracodeine and by the brand names of Synalgos DC, Panlor DC, Panlor SS, SS Bron, Drocode, Paracodin, Codidol, Didor Continus, Dicogesic, and DF-118 amongst others, is a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic prescribed for postoperative pain, severe dyspnea, or as an antitussive. ... Fentanyl is an opioid analgesic, first synthesized by Janssen Pharmaceutica (Belgium) in the late 1950s, with a potency many times that of morphine. ... Hydrocodone or dihydrocodeinone (marketed as Vicodin, Anexsia, Dicodid, Hycodan (or generically Hydromet), Hycomine, Lorcet, Lortab, Norco, Novahistex, Hydroco, Tussionex, Vicoprofen, Xodol) is a semi-synthetic opioid derived from two of the naturally occurring opiates, codeine and thebaine. ... Hydromorphone is a drug developed in Germany in the 1920s and introduced to the mass market beginning in 1926. ... Ketobemidone structure Ketobemidone is a powerful opioid analgesic. ... Levorphanol is an opioid medication used to treat severe pain. ... Methadone is a synthetic opioid, used medically as an analgesic and in the treatment of narcotic addiction. ... This article is about the drug. ... Nicomorphine (Vilan) is the 3,6-dinicotinate ester of morphine. ... This article is about the drug. ... Not to be confused with oxytocin. ... Oxymorphone (Opana, Numorphan) or 14-Hydroxydihydromorphinone is a powerful semi-synthetic opioid analgesic that is derived from thebaine, and is approximately 6–8 times more potent than morphine. ... Pethidine (INN) or meperidine (USAN) (also referred to as: isonipecaine; lidol; operidine; pethanol; piridosal; Algil®; Alodan®; Centralgin®; Demerol®; Dispadol®; Dolantin®; Dolestine®; Dolosal®; Dolsin®; Mefedina®) is a fast-acting opioid analgesic drug. ... Tramadol (INN) (IPA: ) is an atypical opioid which is a centrally acting analgesic, used for treating mild to moderate pain. ... Tapentadol (INN) is a centrally-acting analgesic with a unique dual mode of action as an agonist at the μ-opioid receptor and as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. ... Salicylic acid is the chemical compound with the formula C6H4(OH)CO2H, where the OH group is adjacent to the carboxyl group. ... Diflunisal is a generic NSAID (Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drug). ... Ethenzamide is a common analgesic and antiinflammatory drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ... Salicylic acid is a colorless, crystalline organic carboxylic acid. ... Salicylamide is the common name for the substance o-hydroxybenzamide, or amide of salicyl. ... Pyrazole Phenazone Ampyrone Phenylbutazone Pyrazolone, a five-membered-ring lactam, is a derivative of pyrazole that has an additional keto (=O) group. ... Ampyrone is a metabolite of aminopyrine with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. ... Metamizole sodium is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), commonly used in the past as a powerful painkiller and fever reducer. ... Phenazone, or phenazon, is an analgesic. ... Cannabinoids are a group of terpenophenolic compounds present in Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L). ... Look up Cannabis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “THC” redirects here. ... AM404 AM404 also known as N-arachidonoylphenolamine is an active metabolite of Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) responsible for all or part of its analgesic action. ... Aniline, phenylamine or aminobenzene is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2 (or C6H7N). ... Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN), is the active metabolite of phenacetin, a so-called coal tar analgesic. ... Phenacetin, introduced in 1887, was used principally as an analgesic. ... Ziconotide is a non-opioid, non local anesthetic used for the amelioration of chronic pain. ... Ibuprofen (INN) (IPA: ) (from the earlier nomenclature iso-butyl-propanoic-phenolic acid) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) originally marketed as Nurofen and since under various trademarks including Act-3, Advil, Brufen, Dorival, Herron Blue, Panafen, Motrin, Nuprin and Ipren or Ibumetin (Sweden), Ibuprom (Poland), IbuHEXAL, Moment (Italy... Ketoprofen, (RS)2-(3-benzoylphenyl)-propionic acid (chemical formula C16H14O3) is one of the propionic acid class of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic effects. ... Mefenamic acid is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to treat pain, including menstrual pain. ... Naproxen (INN) (IPA: ) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used for the reduction of mild to moderate pain, fever, inflammation and stiffness caused by conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, ankylosing spondylitis, injury (like fractures), menstrual cramps, tendonitis, bursitis, and the treatment of primary... my sister died form overdose!!! Diclofenac (marketed as Voltaren, Voltarol, Diclon, Dicloflex Difen, Difene, Cataflam, Pennsaid, Rhumalgan, Modifenac, Abitren and Zolterol) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) taken to reduce inflammation and an analgesic reducing pain in conditions such as in arthritis or acute injury. ... Flurbiprofen is an NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) used to treat the inflammation and pain of arthritis. ... Diflunisal is a generic NSAID (Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drug). ... Indomethacin (USAN) or indometacin (INN) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly used to reduce fever, pain, stiffness, and swelling. ... Ketorolac or ketorolac tromethamine (marketed as Toradol® - generics have been approved) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in the family of propionic acids, often used as an analgesic, antipyretic (fever reducer), and anti-inflammatory. ... Meloxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to relieve the symptoms of arthritis, primary dysmenorrhoea, pyrexia; and as an analgesic, especially where there is an inflammatory component. ... Piroxicam (marketed in the U.S. under the trade name Feldene) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to relieve the symptoms of Rheumatoid and Osteoarthritis, primary dysmenorrhoea, Post Operative Pain; and act as an analgesic, especially where there is an inflammatory component. ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Salicylic acid is a colorless, crystalline organic carboxylic acid. ... Diflunisal is a generic NSAID (Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drug). ... Ethenzamide is a common analgesic and antiinflammatory drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ... Salicylic acid is a colorless, crystalline organic carboxylic acid. ... my sister died form overdose!!! Diclofenac (marketed as Voltaren, Voltarol, Diclon, Dicloflex Difen, Difene, Cataflam, Pennsaid, Rhumalgan, Modifenac, Abitren and Zolterol) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) taken to reduce inflammation and an analgesic reducing pain in conditions such as in arthritis or acute injury. ... Etodolac is the International Nonproprietary Name (INN) of 1,8-diethyl-1,3,4,9-tetrahydropyrano-[3,4-b]indole-1-acetic acid (empirical formula C17H21NO3), also sold under the trade name Lodine. ... Indometacin (INN) or Indomethacin (USAN and former BAN) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly used to reduce fever, pain, stiffness, and swelling. ... Nabumetone is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug of the arylalkanoic acid family (which includes diclofenac. ... Sulindac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug of the arylalkanoic acid class that is marketed in the U.S. as Clinoril. ... Carprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is used by veterinarians as a supportive treatment for the relief of arthritic symptoms in geriatric dogs. ... Flurbiprofen is an NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) used to treat the inflammation and pain of arthritis. ... Ibuprofen (INN) (IPA: ) (from the earlier nomenclature iso-butyl-propanoic-phenolic acid) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) originally marketed as Nurofen and since under various trademarks including Act-3, Advil, Brufen, Dorival, Herron Blue, Panafen, Motrin, Nuprin and Ipren or Ibumetin (Sweden), Ibuprom (Poland), IbuHEXAL, Moment (Italy... Ketoprofen, (RS)2-(3-benzoylphenyl)-propionic acid (chemical formula C16H14O3) is one of the propionic acid class of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic effects. ... Ketorolac or ketorolac tromethamine (marketed as Toradol® - generics have been approved) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in the family of propionic acids, often used as an analgesic, antipyretic (fever reducer), and anti-inflammatory. ... Loxoprofen (INN) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in the propionic acid derivatives group. ... Naproxen (INN) (IPA: ) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used for the reduction of mild to moderate pain, fever, inflammation and stiffness caused by conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, ankylosing spondylitis, injury (like fractures), menstrual cramps, tendonitis, bursitis, and the treatment of primary... Oxaprozin (brand name: Daypro®) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), used to relieve the inflammation, swelling, stiffness, and joint pain associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. ... Suprofen is an NSAID marketed in a 1% solution under the trade name Profenal. ... Tiaprofenic acid is pharmaceutical, belonging to the class called NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs) used to treat pain, especially arthritic pain. ... Mefenamic acid is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to treat pain, including menstrual pain. ... Phenylbutazone, often known as bute, is a crystalline substance having the structure shown at right. ... Meloxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to relieve the symptoms of arthritis, primary dysmenorrhoea, pyrexia; and as an analgesic, especially where there is an inflammatory component. ... Piroxicam (marketed in the U.S. under the trade name Feldene) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to relieve the symptoms of Rheumatoid and Osteoarthritis, primary dysmenorrhoea, Post Operative Pain; and act as an analgesic, especially where there is an inflammatory component. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Celecoxib (INN) (IPA: ) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute pain, painful menstruation and menstrual symptoms, and to reduce numbers of colon and rectum polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. ... Etoricoxib (brand name Arcoxia®) is a new COX-2 selective inhibitor from Merck & Co. ... Injectible prodrug of valdecoxib. ... Rofecoxib (IPA: ) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) developed by Merck & Co. ... Valdecoxib is a prescription drug used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and painful menstruation and menstrual symptoms. ... Lumiracoxib (rINN) is a COX-2 selective inhibitor non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, manufactured by Novartis and sold in 21 countries, including the United Kingdom, Mexico, Germany, South Africa, Australia, Argentina and Brazil, under the trade name Prexige® (sometimes misquoted as Prestige by the media). ... Nimesulide structure formula Nimesulide is a prescription non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic properties. ... my sister died form overdose!!! Diclofenac (marketed as Voltaren, Voltarol, Diclon, Dicloflex Difen, Difene, Cataflam, Pennsaid, Rhumalgan, Modifenac, Abitren and Zolterol) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) taken to reduce inflammation and an analgesic reducing pain in conditions such as in arthritis or acute injury. ... Flurbiprofen is an NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) used to treat the inflammation and pain of arthritis. ... Ibuprofen (INN) (IPA: ) (from the earlier nomenclature iso-butyl-propanoic-phenolic acid) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) originally marketed as Nurofen and since under various trademarks including Act-3, Advil, Brufen, Dorival, Herron Blue, Panafen, Motrin, Nuprin and Ipren or Ibumetin (Sweden), Ibuprom (Poland), IbuHEXAL, Moment (Italy... Indometacin (INN) or Indomethacin (USAN and former BAN) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly used to reduce fever, pain, stiffness, and swelling. ... Ketoprofen, (RS)2-(3-benzoylphenyl)-propionic acid (chemical formula C16H14O3) is one of the propionic acid class of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic effects. ... Naproxen (INN) (IPA: ) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used for the reduction of mild to moderate pain, fever, inflammation and stiffness caused by conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, ankylosing spondylitis, injury (like fractures), menstrual cramps, tendonitis, bursitis, and the treatment of primary... Piroxicam (marketed in the U.S. under the trade name Feldene) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to relieve the symptoms of Rheumatoid and Osteoarthritis, primary dysmenorrhoea, Post Operative Pain; and act as an analgesic, especially where there is an inflammatory component. ... Suprofen is an NSAID marketed in a 1% solution under the trade name Profenal. ... Fluproquazone (Tormosyl) is a quinazolinone derivative with potent analgesic[1][2] and antipyretic[3] effects and also anti-inflammatory action. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
MedlinePlus Drug Information: Aspirin (1480 words)
Nonprescription aspirin is used to reduce fever and to relieve mild to moderate pain from headaches, menstrual periods, arthritis, colds, toothaches, and muscle aches.
Aspirin is also sometimes used to treat rheumatic fever (a serious condition that may develop after a strep throat infection and may cause swelling of the heart valves) and Kawasaki disease (an illness that may cause heart problems in children).
Aspirin is also sometimes used to lower the risk of blood clots in patients who have artificial heart valves or certain other heart conditions and to prevent certain complications of pregnancy.
Aspirin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3544 words)
Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid (acetosal) is a drug in the family of salicylates, often used as an analgesic (against minor pains and aches), antipyretic (against fever), and anti-inflammatory.
Aspirin produced for this purpose often comes in 75 or 81 mg dispersible tablets and is sometimes called “Junior aspirin” or “Baby aspirin.” High doses of aspirin are also given immediately after an acute heart attack.
Aspirin was the first discovered member of the class of drugs known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), not all of which are salicylates, though they all have similar effects and a similar action mechanism.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m