FACTOID # 11: Oklahoma has the highest rate of women in State or Federal correctional facilities.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Aspiration (medicine)

In medicine, aspiration is the entry of secretions or foreign material into the trachea and lungs. The patient may either inhale the material, or it may be blown into the lungs during positive pressure ventilation or CPR. As the right main bronchus is more vertical and of slightly wider lumen than the left, aspirated material is more likely to end up in this branch or one of its subsequent bifurcations.


Risk factors

Gastroesophageal reflux, a full stomach, pregnancy, and obesity all increase the risk of aspiration in the semiconscious. Normally fasting for six hours before elective surgery is enough to predictable empty the stomach. In patients that are injured, gastric emptying is much slower.


The commonest cause of severe aspiration is reguritation of stomach contents by semiconscious patients. Patients with neurological conditions may also aspirate food or drink.


Consequences

If enough material enters the lungs, the patient may simply drown. However, small volumes of gastic acid contents can fatally damage the delicate lung tissue. Even small volumes of aspirated food may lead to bronchopneumonia. Chronic aspiration may lead to bronchiectasis and may cause some cases of asthma.


Prevention

The lungs are normally protected against aspiration by a series of protective reflexes such as coughing and swallowing. Significant aspiration can only occur if the protective reflexes are absent (in neurological disease, coma, drug overdose, sedation or general anesthesia). In intensive care, sitting patients up reduces the risk of pulmonary aspiration and ventilator associated pneumonia.


Measures to prevent aspiration depend on the situation and the patient. In patients at imminent risk of aspiration, endotracheal intubation by a trained health professional provides the best protection.


People with chronic neurological disorders, for example, after a stroke, are less likely to aspirate thickened fluids.


See also Salt water aspiration syndrome


  Results from FactBites:
 
Postgraduate Medicine: Aspiration pneumonia (3318 words)
Aspiration pneumonia most often occurs in the presence of impairment of protective upper and lower airway reflexes in patients who have a decreased level of consciousness or central nervous system disease.
Whether aspiration pneumonia develops after an episode of aspiration is determined by the volume of material aspirated, its character (eg, acidic versus neutral, liquid versus particulate, infected versus sterile), the frequency of aspiration episodes, and the adequacy of host defenses.
Patients with hospital-acquired aspiration pneumonia may be treated with cefepime hydrochloride (Maxipime) or ceftazidime plus clindamycin or metronidazole; a beta-lactam and beta-lactamase inhibitor combination such as ampicillin and sulbactam, piperacillin sodium and tazobactam sodium (Zosyn), or ticarcillin and clavulanate potassium (Timentin); or a newer fluoroquinolone.
Aspiration (medicine) - definition of Aspiration (medicine) in Encyclopedia (289 words)
In medicine, aspiration is the entry of secretions or foreign material into the trachea and lungs.
The commonest cause of severe aspiration is reguritation of stomach contents by semiconscious patients.
Significant aspiration can only occur if the protective reflexes are absent (in neurological disease, coma, drug overdose, sedation or general anesthesia).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m