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Encyclopedia > Asphalt

Asphalt is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is present in most crude petroleums and in some natural deposits sometimes termed asphaltum. It is most commonly modeled as a colloid, with asphaltenes as the dispersed phase and maltenes as the continuous phase (though there is some disagreement amongst chemists regarding its structure). In U.S. terminology, asphalt (or asphalt cement) is the carefully refined residue from the distillation process of selected crude oils. Outside North America, the product is called bitumen. Asphalt As shown in this cross-section, many older roadways are smoothed by applying a thin layer of asphalt concrete to the existing portland cement concrete. ... Asphalt is a 1929 German silent film. ... Carl Hancock Rux, (b. ... Image File history File links Merge-arrows. ... Ewer from Iran, dated 1180-1210CE. Composed of brass worked in repoussé and inlaid with silver and bitumen. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... Petro redirects here. ... A Colloid or colloidal dispersion is a type of homogeneous mixture. ... Asphaltenes are molecular substances that are found in crude oil, along with resins, aromatic hydrocarbons, and saturated hydrocarbons. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... Ewer from Iran, dated 1180-1210CE. Composed of brass worked in repoussé and inlaid with silver and bitumen. ...


The primary use of asphalt (Bitumen) is in road construction, where it is used as the glue or binder for the aggregate particles. The road surfacing material is usually called 'asphalt concrete' in North America or simply 'asphalt' elsewhere. The apparent interchangeability of the words 'asphalt' and 'bitumen' causes confusion outside of the road construction industry despite quite clear definitions within industry circles. Ewer from Iran, dated 1180-1210CE. Composed of brass worked in repoussé and inlaid with silver and bitumen. ... Limestone Quarry Construction aggregate, or simply, aggregate, is a broad category of coarse particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, and recycled concrete. ...

Contents

Background

Asphalt or bitumen can sometimes be confused with tar, which is a similar black thermo-plastic material produced by the destructive distillation of coal. During the early and mid twentieth century when town gas was produced, tar was a readily available product and extensively used as the binder for road aggregates. The addition of tar to macadam roads led to the word tarmac, which is now used in common parlance to refer to road making materials. However, since the 1970s, when natural gas succeeded town gas, asphalt (bitumen) has completely overtaken the use of tar in these applications. Tar can be produced from corn stalks by heating in a microwave. ... Destructive Distillation means driving off (and collecting) gas from some matter by heating it in the absence of air, where pyrolysis occurs during heating. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Town gas is a generic term referring to manufactured gas produced for sale to consumers and municipalities. ... Macadam is a type of road construction pioneered by John Loudon McAdam in the early 1800s. ... A close-up view of some freshly-laid tarmac. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ...


Asphalt can be separated from the other components in crude oil (such as naphtha, gasoline and diesel) by the process of fractional distillation, usually under vacuum conditions. A better separation can be achieved by further processing of the heavier fractions of the crude oil in a de-asphalting unit, which uses either propane or butane in a supercritical phase to dissolve the lighter molecules which are then separated. Further processing is possible by "blowing" the product: namely reacting it with oxygen. This makes the product harder and more viscous. Naphtha (CAS No. ... Petrol redirects here. ... This article is about the fuel. ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A de-asphalting unit separates the asphalt from the rest of the crude oil residue. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. ... A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its thermodynamic critical point. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ...


Natural deposits of asphalt include lake asphalts (primarily from the Pitch Lake in Trinidad and Tobago and Bermudez Lake in Venezuela), Gilsonite, the Dead Sea between Israel & Jordan, and Tar Sands. The Pitch Lake The Pitch Lake is a lake of natural asphalt located at La Brea in southwest Trinidad. ... Gilsonite mine in Bonanza Gilsonite is a form of natural asphalt found in large amounts only in the Uintah Basin of Utah. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... Athabasca Oil Sands Tar sands is a common term for what are more accurately called bituminous sands, but also commonly referred to as oil sands or (in Venezuela) extra heavy oil. ...


Asphalt is typically stored and transported at temperatures around 150 degrees Celsius (300 °F). Sometimes diesel oil or kerosene are mixed in before shipping to retain liquidity; upon delivery, these lighter materials are separated out of the mixture. This mixture is often called bitumen feedstock, or BFS. Some dump trucks route the hot engine exhaust through pipes in the dump body to keep the material warm. The backs of tippers carrying asphalt, as well as some handling equipment, are also commonly sprayed with a releasing agent before filling to aid release. Diesel oil is sometimes used as a release agent, although it can mix with and thereby reduce the quality of the asphalt. Diesel fuel is a specific distillate fraction of fuel oil that is used in a diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel, and perfected by Charles F. Kettering. ... For other uses, see Kerosene (disambiguation). ... A dump truck or production truck is a truck used for transporting loose material (such as sand, gravel, or dirt) for construction. ...


Known uses

Ancient times

In the ancient Middle East, natural asphalt deposits were used for mortar between bricks and stones, ship caulking, and waterproofing. The Persian word for asphalt is mumiya, which may be related to the English word mummy. Asphalt was also used by ancient Egyptians to embalm mummies. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Mortar holding weathered bricks. ... Caulking - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Farsi redirects here. ... For other uses, see Mummy (disambiguation). ... Embalming, in most modern cultures, is a process used to temporarily preserve a human cadaver to forestall decomposition and make it suitable for display at a funeral. ...


In the ancient Far East, natural asphalt was slowly boiled to get rid of the higher fractions, leaving a material of higher molecular weight which is thermoplastic and when layered on objects, became quite hard upon cooling. This was used to cover scabbards and other objects that needed water-proofing. Statuettes of household deities were also cast with this type of material in Japan, and probably also in China.[citations needed] This article is about the Asian regions. ... A scabbard is a sheath for holding a sword or other large blade. ... This list of deities aims at giving information about deities in the different religions, cultures and mythologies of the world. ...


Poured bitumen has also been used as a damp-proof course in building. A damp-proof course is a horizontal barrier built in to a wall to prevent moisture rising through the structure by capillary action - a phenomenon known as rising damp. ...


Rolled asphalt concrete

The largest use of asphalt is for making asphalt concrete for road surfaces and accounts for approximately 80% of the asphalt consumed in the United States. Roofing shingles account for most of the remaining asphalt consumption. Other uses include cattle sprays, fence post treatments, and waterproofing for fabrics. Asphalt As shown in this cross-section, many older roadways are smoothed by applying a thin layer of asphalt concrete to the existing portland cement concrete. ... For automobile roofs, see Sunroof. ... A Asphalt Shingle is a type of roof shingle. ...


Asphalt road surface is the most widely recycled material in the US, both by gross tonnage and by percentage. According to a report issued by the Federal Highway Administration and the United States Environmental Protection Agency, 80% of the asphalt from road surfaces' that is removed each year during widening and resurfacing projects is reused as part of new roads, roadbeds, shoulders and embankments. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a division of the United States Department of Transportation that specializes in highway transportation. ... EPA redirects here. ...


Mastic asphalt

Mastic asphalt is a type of asphalt which differs from dense graded asphalt (asphalt concrete) in that it has a higher bitumen (binder) content, usually around 7-10% of the whole aggregate mix, as opposed to roller asphalt, which has only around 5% added bitumen. Another asphalt which is fast gaining global popularity is stone mastic asphalt (SMA). SMA's advantages over rolled asphalt is its high anti skid qualities due to its high aggregate density and the lack of void content (air pockets). Another advantage of SMA is its longer durability over alternative road asphalt surfaces, but its manufacture and application, if not controlled closely, can result in slippery road surfaces due to excess bitumen pooling (bleeding) onto the surface. The term asphalt is often used as an abbreviation for asphalt concrete. ... Asphalt As shown in this cross-section, many older roadways are smoothed by applying a thin layer of asphalt concrete to the existing portland cement concrete. ... New Reaper McCormick Harvester and Binder A modern compact binder For other uses, see Binder (disambiguation). ... Stone mastic asphalt was developed in Germany in the 1960s, Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) provides a deformation resistant, durable, surfacing material, suitable for heavily trafficked roads. ...


Asphalt emulsion

A number of technologies allow asphalt to be mixed at much lower temperatures. These involve mixing the asphalt with petroleum solvents to form "cutbacks" with reduced melting point or mixtures with water to turn the asphalt into an emulsion. Asphalt emulsions contain up to 70% asphalt and typically less than 1.5% chemical additives. There are two main types of emulsions with different affinity for aggregates, cationic and anionic. Asphalt emulsions are used in a wide variety of applications. Chipseal involves spraying the road surface with asphalt emulsion followed by a layer of crushed rock or gravel. Slurry Seal involves the creation of a mixture of asphalt emulsion and fine crushed aggregate that is spread on the surface of a road. Cold mixed asphalt can also be made from asphalt emulsion to create pavements similar to hot-mixed asphalt, several inches in depth and asphalt emulsions are also blended into recycled hot-mix asphalt to create low cost pavements. A. Two immiscible liquids, not emulsified; B. An emulsion of Phase II dispersed in Phase I; C. The unstable emulsion progressively separates; D. The surfactant (purple outline) positions itself on the interfaces between Phase A and Phase B, stabilizing the emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable... In chemistry, a cationic species is one that contains a full positive charge. ... In chemistry, an anionic species is one that contains a full negative charge. ... Chipseal is a pavement rehabilitation method. ...


Mixing with petroleum-contaminated soil

Sometimes asphalt can be mixed with the output from low-temperature thermal desorption. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Alternatives

The world has become increasingly concerned over the global climate change problem in recent years due to the pollution that is released into the atmosphere. Most of the emissions are derived primarily from burning fossil fuels. This has led to the introduction of bitumen alternatives that are more environmentally friendly and non toxic. Bitumen can now be made from non-petroleum based renewable resources such as sugar, molasses and rice, corn and potato starches etc. To further help the environment bitumen can also be made from the waste material vacuum tower bottoms produced in the process of cleaning used motor oils which helps the recycling industries, this waste is normally disposed by burning or dumping into land fills. These new non-petroleum based bitumen binders can be colored, which thereby help reduce the temperatures of road surfaces which contribute to the Urban heat island which in turn contributes to global climate change. For millions of people living in and around cities, heat islands are of growing concern. This phenomenon describes urban and suburban temperatures that are 2 to 10°F (1 to 6°C) hotter than nearby rural areas Elevated temperatures can impact communities by increasing peak energy demand, air conditioning costs, air pollution levels, and heat-related illness and mortality. Fortunately, there are common-sense measures that communities can take to reduce the negative effects of heat islands, such as replacing conventional black asphalt road surfaces with the new pigmentable bitumen that gives lighter colors [1] [2] [3]. Tokyo, a case of Urban Heat Island. ...


Asphalt made with non-petroleum based bio-bitumen made from renewable resources is world first breakthrough asphalt bitumen technology which was invented and pioneered in Australia by Ecopave AustraliaTM with the first field trial laid in the 1980's and early 1990's [4]. The bitumen asphalt called GEO320TM is made from water soluble plant and vegetable based waste materials such as molasses, sugar, palm oil waste, peanut oil waste, corn oil waste etc and vegetable oils and starches such as from corn, rice and potato's and the waste material derived from the distillation process of cleaning used motor oils (bottoms).


Asphalt made with vegetable based binders was patented by Colas SA in France in 2004 (Vegecol), Colas was originally owned by the Royal Dutch Shell [5]. [6]


A number of homeowners seeking an environmentally-friendly alternative to asphalt for paving have experimented with waste vegetable oil as a binder for driveways and parking areas in single-family applications. The earliest known test occurred in 2002 in Ohio, where the homeowner combined waste vegetable oil with dry aggregate to create a low-cost and non-polluting paving material for his 200-foot driveway. After five years, he reports the driveway is performing as well or better than petroleum-based materials.


This movement has led the Shell Oil Company (see also, Controversies surrounding Royal Dutch Shell) to pave two public roads in Norway in 2007 with the Colas vegetable-oil-based asphalt. Results of this study are still premature. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Etymology

Look up asphalt in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The word asphalt is derived from the late Middle English : from French asphalte, based on late Latin asphalton, asphaltum, from Greek asphalton, asphaltos (άσφαλτος), ásphaltos, -on, akin to asphalízein to make firm, to secure. Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

Base layer of asphalt concrete in a road under construction.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1097x851, 881 KB)Shot by Estr4ng3d, Helwan-Korayimat Road (Cairo, Egypt) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1097x851, 881 KB)Shot by Estr4ng3d, Helwan-Korayimat Road (Cairo, Egypt) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Asphalt As shown in this cross-section, many older roadways are smoothed by applying a thin layer of asphalt concrete to the existing portland cement concrete. ...

References

  • Barth, Edwin J., Asphalt: Science and Technology Gordon and Breach (1962). ISBN 0-677-00040-5.

See also

A Blacktop is a reference to surfaced roads in areas of the world where such infrastructure development is a luxury in comparison to the local standard of Graded road. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Asphalt - LoveToKnow 1911 (662 words)
The asphalt of the Dead Sea (known as Lacus Asphaltites) received considerable notice from early travellers, and Diodorus the historian states that the inhabitants of the surrounding parts were accustomed to collect it for use in Egypt for embalming.
The asphalt of Cuba is a well-known article of commerce, of which 7252 tons was exported to the United States in 1902.
The material chiefly used in the construction of asphalt roadways is an asphaltic or bituminous limestone found in the Val de Travers, canton of Neuchatel; in the neighbourhood of Seyssel, department of Ain; at Limmer, near the city of Hanover; and elsewhere.
Asphalt - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3690 words)
Asphalt is sometimes confused with tar, which is an artificial material produced by the destructive distillation of organic matter.
Asphalt can be separated from the other components in crude oil (such as naphtha, gasoline and diesel) by the process of fractional distillation, usually under vacuum conditions.
Asphalt rotary dryers are normally constructed of carbon steel and have a soil discharge temperature of 300 to 600 degrees F. Typically, asphalt plant aggregate dryers are identical to countercurrent rotary desorbers described above and are effective on the same types of contaminants.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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