FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Aspergillus" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Aspergillus
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Aspergillus
Conidial head of Aspergillus niger
Conidial head of Aspergillus niger
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Phylum: Ascomycota
Class: Eurotiomycetes
Order: Eurotiales
Family: Trichocomaceae
Genus: Aspergillus
Species

Aspergillus caesiellus
Aspergillus candidus
Aspergillus carneus
Aspergillus clavatus
Aspergillus deflectus
Aspergillus flavus
Aspergillus fumigatus
Aspergillus glaucus
Aspergillus nidulans
Aspergillus niger
Aspergillus ochraceus
Aspergillus oryzae
Aspergillus parasiticus
Aspergillus penicilloides
Aspergillus restrictus
Aspergillus sojae
Aspergillus sydowi
Aspergillus terreus
Aspergillus ustus
Aspergillus versicolor
Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixel Image in higher resolution (2812 × 1948 pixel, file size: 3. ... Conidia Conidia are asexual spores of a fungus. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Subphyla/Classes Archaeascomycetes Euascomycetes Hemiascomycetes or Pezizomycotina Laboulbeniomycetes Eurotiomycetes Lecanoromycetes Leotiomycetes Pezizomycetes Sordariomycetes Dothideomycetes (and many more) Saccharomycotina Saccharomycetes Taphrinomycotina Neolectomycetes Pneumocystidomycetes Schizosaccharomycetes Taphrinomycetes The Ascomycota, formerly known as the Ascomycetae, or Ascomycetes, are a Division of Fungi, whose members are commonly known as the Sac Fungi, which produce spores... Orders Arachnomycetales Eurotiales Onygenales Eurotiomycetes are a class of ascomycetes within the Pezizomycotina clade; some of its members were previously grouped in the class Plectomycetes. ... Families Elaphomycetaceae Trichocomaceae The Eurotiales are also known as the green and blue moulds. ... Genera Byssochlamys Chaetosartorya Chromocleista Dichotomomyces Edyuillia Emericella Erythrogymnotheca Eupenicillium Eurotium Fennellia Hamigera Hemicarpenteles Neosartorya Penicilliopsis Penicillium Petromyces Sagenoma Talaromyces Thermoascus Trichocoma Warcupiella mitosporic Trichocomaceae Trichocomaceae is a family of the Eurotiales fungi. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Aspergillus species with conidia dimensions 3-4. ... Binomial name Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus flavus is a fungus associated with aspergillosis of the lungs and sometimes believed to cause corneal, otomycotic, and nasoorbital infections. ... Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungus of the genus Aspergillus, and it is one of the most common Aspergillus species to cause disease in humans with a weakened immune response. ... Binomial name Aspergillus nidulans G Winter 1884 Synonyms Emericella nidulans One of many species of filamentous fungi in the phylum Ascomycota, Aspergillus nidulans has been an important research organism for studying eukaryotic cell biology[1] as well as Aspergillus metabolism[2] for over 50 years[3] The genome of was... Binomial name Aspergillus niger P.E.L. van Tieghem Aspergillus niger is a fungus and one of the most common species of the genus Aspergillus. ... Aspergillus oryzae (Japanese: kōji 麹) is a fungus used in Japanese cuisine. ... Aspergillus parasiticus is a mold known to produce aflatoxin, although strains of it exist that do not produce this carcinogen. ...

Aspergillus is a genus of around 200 filamentous fungi (or molds) found throughout much of nature worldwide. Aspergillus was first catalogued in 1729 by the Italian priest and biologist Pietro Antonio Micheli. Viewing the fungi under a microscope, Micheli was reminded of the shape of an aspergillum (holy water sprinkler), and named the genus accordingly. For other uses of the word, please see Genus (disambiguation). ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Moldy cream cheese Molds (British English: moulds) are various fungi that cover surfaces as fluffy mycelium and usually produce masses of asexual, sometimes sexual spores. ... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... Pier Antonio Micheli (December 11, 1679 - January 1, 1737) was a noted Italian botanist, professor of botany in Pisa, curator of the Orto Botanico di Firenze, author of Nova plantarum genera iuxta Tournefortii methodum disposita. ... Robert Hookes microscope (1665) - an engineered device used to study living systems. ... An aspergillum (or aspergill) is a tool used to sprinkle holy water. ...

Contents

Growth and distribution

Aspergillus species are highly aerobic and are found in almost all oxygen-rich environments, where they commonly grow as molds on the surface of a substrate, as a result of the high oxygen tension. Commonly, fungi grow on carbon-rich substrates such as monosaccharides (such as glucose) and polysaccharides (such as amylose). Aspergillus species are common contaminants of starchy foods (such as bread and potatoes), and grow in or on many plants and trees. Look up Aerobic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Toxic mold be merged into this article or section. ... Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... Amylose (CAS# 9005-82-7) is a linear polymer of glucose linked with mainly α(1→4) bonds. ...


In addition to growth on carbon sources, many species of Aspergillus demonstrate oligotrophy where they are capable of growing in nutrient-depleted environments, or environments in which there is a complete lack of key nutrients. A. niger is a prime example of this; it can be found growing on damp walls, as a major component of mildew. An oligotroph is an organisn that can live in a very low carbon concentration, one part per million! ... Binomial name Aspergillus niger P.E.L. van Tieghem Aspergillus niger is a fungus and one of the most common species of the genus Aspergillus. ... Mildew is a grey, mold-like growth caused by one of two different types of micro-organisms. ...


Commercial importance

Species of Aspergillus are without a doubt an important microorganism, both medically and commercially. Some species can cause infection in humans and other animals. Others are important in commercial microbial fermentations.


In Asian countries, alcoholic beverages such as Japanese sake are made from rice, rather than from grapes, barley or corn. This fermentation is carried out entirely by microorganisms, instead of by plant amylases, or animal amylases (saliva) and yeast. Firstly, koji mold such as Aspergillus oryzae is used to convert the starch in the rice to sugars (saccharification), which are subsequently fermented by other microorganisms, such as yeast (Saccharomyces) and lactic acid bacteria. Sake barrels at Itsukushima Shrine. ... Aspergillus oryzae (Japanese: kōji 麹) is a fungus used in Japanese cuisine. ... Species Saccharomyces bayanus Saccharomyces boullardii Saccharomyces cerevisiae Saccharomyces pombe Saccharomyces uvarum Saccharomyces is a genus in the kingdom of fungi that includes many species of yeast; the name Saccharomyces meaning sugar fungi. The inability to utilize nitrate and ability to ferment various carbohydrates are typical characteristics of Saccharomyces. ...


Perhaps the most well-known application of A. niger is as the major source of citric acid; this organism accounts for over 99% of global citric acid production, or more than 4.5 million tonnes per annum. A. niger is also commonly used for the production of native and foreign enzymes, including glucose oxidase and hen egg white lysozyme. In these instances, the culture is rarely grown on a solid substrate, although this is still common practice in Japan, but is more often grown as a submerged culture in a bioreactor. In this way, the most important parameters can be strictly controlled, and maximal productivity can be achieved. It also makes it far easier to separate the chemical or enzyme of importance from the medium, and is therefore far more cost-effective. Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in citrus fruits. ... A tonne or metric ton (symbol t), sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is a measurement of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... The glucose oxidase enzyme (GOx) (EC 1. ... Lysozyme 3D structure. ... A bioreactor may refer to any device or system that supports a biologically active environment. ...


Research

Various Penicillium, Aspergillus spp. (and some other fungi) growing in axenic culture.
Various Penicillium, Aspergillus spp. (and some other fungi) growing in axenic culture.

A. nidulans has been used as a research organism for many years and was used by Guido Pontecorvo to demonstrate parasexuality in fungi. Recently, A. nidulans was one of the pioneering organisms to have its genome sequenced by researchers at the Broad Institute. Now, many Aspergillus species have had their genomes sequenced, including A. fumigatus, A. oryzae and A. niger. Image File history File links Ascomycetes. ... Image File history File links Ascomycetes. ... Binomial name Aspergillus nidulans G Winter 1884 Synonyms Emericella nidulans One of many species of filamentous fungi in the phylum Ascomycota, Aspergillus nidulans has been an important research organism for studying eukaryotic cell biology[1] as well as Aspergillus metabolism[2] for over 50 years[3] The genome of was... Guido Pontecorvo was a British scientist and a Fellow of the Royal Society. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, formerly the Whitehead Institute/MIT Center for Genome Research (WICGR), is a multidisciplinary institution dedicated to fulfilling the potential of genomics for the biomedical sciences. ... Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungus of the genus Aspergillus, and it is one of the most common Aspergillus species to cause disease in humans with a weakened immune response. ... Aspergillus oryzae (Japanese: kōji 麹) is a fungus used in Japanese cuisine. ... Binomial name Aspergillus niger P.E.L. van Tieghem Aspergillus niger is a fungus and one of the most common species of the genus Aspergillus. ...


Pathogens

Some Aspergillus species cause serious disease in humans and animals, and can be pathogenic. The most common causing invasive disease are Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The most common causing allergic disease are Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus clavatus. Other species are important as agricultural pathogens. Aspergillus spp. cause disease on many grain crops, especially maize, and synthesize mycotoxins including aflatoxin. A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungus of the genus Aspergillus, and it is one of the most common Aspergillus species to cause disease in humans with a weakened immune response. ... Binomial name Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus flavus is a fungus associated with aspergillosis of the lungs and sometimes believed to cause corneal, otomycotic, and nasoorbital infections. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Aspergillus species with conidia dimensions 3-4. ... Corn redirects here. ... Mycotoxin (from Gk. ... Chemical structure of Aflatoxin B1 Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are produced by many species of Aspergillus, a fungus, most notably Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. ...


Aspergillosis

Aspergillosis is the group of diseases caused by Aspergillus. The symptoms include fever, cough, chest pain or breathlessness, which also occur in many other illnesses so diagnosis can be hard. Usually, only patients with already weakened immune systems or who suffer other lung conditions are susceptible. A scanning electron microscope image of a single lymphocyte, a component of the human immune system A poop system is a collection of mechanisms within an organism that protect against infection by identifying and killing pathogens. ... Respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ...


In humans, the major forms of disease are:

  1. Allergic aspergillosis (affects asthma, cystic fibrosis and sinusitis patients).
  2. Acute invasive aspergillosis (risk increases if patient has weakened immunity such as some cancer patients and those in chemotherapy).
  3. Disseminated invasive aspergillosis (widespread through body).

Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may or may not be as a result of infection, from bacterial, fungal, viral, allergic or autoimmune issues. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these cells to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ...

See also

Mycotoxin (from Gk. ... Sick building syndrome (SBS) is a combination of ailments (a syndrome) associated with an individuals place of work (typically, but not always, an office building), though there have also been instances of SBS in residential buildings. ... An aspergilloma, also known as a mycetoma or fungus ball, is a clump of fungus which exists in a body cavity such as the lung. ...

External links

IT TASTES GOOD!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! The Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine, located in Kirksville, Missouri, is the founding institution of osteopathic medicine. ... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard[1]. It is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a device independent and resolution independent fixed-layout...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Aspergillus/Aspergillosis Website (228 words)
The Aspergillus website is a worldwide comprehensive resource providing a wide range of information about the fungus Aspergillus and the diseases such as Aspergillosis that it can cause.
Aspergillus is a fungus whose spores are present in the air we breathe, but do not normally cause illness.
Aspergillus does not solely effect humans; birds and animals can also develop aspergillosis, and some plant diseases and food spoilage may be due to aspergillus infection.
Mold-Help.org: Aspergillusthe most comprehensive information (4201 words)
Aspergillus is a group of molds which is found world-wide, especially in the autumn and winter in the Northern hemisphere.
Aspergillus versicolor - Conidia dimensions are 2 - 3.5 microns.
Aspergillus terreus and A. flavus were reported at greater than expected frequencies in the 26-35 degree range and at less than expected frequencies in one of the higher latitude ranges.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m