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Encyclopedia > Asperger syndrome
Asperger syndrome
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 F84.5
ICD-9 299.8
OMIM 608638
DiseasesDB 31268
MedlinePlus 001549
eMedicine ped/147 

Asperger syndrome (also Asperger's syndrome, Asperger's disorder, Asperger's, or AS) is one of several autism spectrum disorders (ASD) characterized by difficulties in social interaction and by restricted and stereotyped interests and activities. AS is distinguished from the other ASDs in having no general delay in language or cognitive development. Although not mentioned in standard diagnostic criteria, motor clumsiness and atypical use of language are frequently reported.[1][2] The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // F00-F99 - Mental and behavioural disorders (F00-F09) Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders (F00) Dementia in Alzheimers disease (F01) Vascular dementia (F011) Multi-infarct dementia (F02) Dementia in other diseases classified elsewhere (F020) Dementia in Picks disease (F021) Dementia in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (F022) Dementia in Huntingtons... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... The autism spectrum, also called autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or autism spectrum conditions (ASC), with the word autistic sometimes replacing autism, is a spectrum of psychological conditions characterized by widespread abnormalities of social interactions and communication, as well as severely restricted interests and highly repetitive behavior. ... Social interaction is a dynamic, changing sequence of social actions between individuals (or groups) who modify their actions and reactions due to the actions by their interaction partner(s). ... Stimming is a jargon term for stereotypy, a repetitive body movement that self-stimulates one or more senses in a regulated manner. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Cognitive development procesess and theories Cognitive development refers to ...how a person perceives, thinks, and gains an understanding of his or her world through the interaction and influence of genetic and learned factors (Straughan, 1999) Jean Piaget was a psychologist who believed there are stages of cognitive development that each... Motor skills disorder (also known as motor coordination disorder or motor dyspraxia) is a human developmental disorder and is neurological in origin. ...


Asperger syndrome was named after Hans Asperger who, in 1944, described children in his practice who appeared to have normal intelligence but lacked nonverbal communication skills, failed to demonstrate empathy with their peers, and were physically clumsy. Fifty years later, AS was recognized in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10), and in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) as Asperger's Disorder. Questions about many aspects of AS remain: for example, there is lingering doubt about the distinction between AS and high-functioning autism (HFA);[3] partly due to this, the prevalence of AS is not firmly established. The exact cause of AS is unknown, although research supports the likelihood of a genetic contribution, and brain imaging techniques have identified structural and functional differences in specific regions of the brain. Hans Asperger, who discovered Asperger syndrome, described his patients as little professors. Hans Asperger (b. ... IQ redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Not to be confused with Pity, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a handbook for mental health professionals that lists different categories of mental disorder and the criteria for diagnosing them, according to the publishing organization the American Psychiatric Association. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... In epidemiology, the prevalence of a disease in a statistical population is defined as the total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given time, or the total number of cases in the population, divided by the number of individuals in the population. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with functional neuroimaging. ...


There is no single treatment for Asperger syndrome, and the effectiveness of particular interventions is supported by only limited data. Intervention is aimed at improving symptoms and function. The mainstay of treatment is behavioral therapy, focusing on specific deficits to address poor communication skills, obsessive or repetitive routines, and clumsiness. Most individuals with AS can learn to cope with their differences, but may continue to need moral support and encouragement to maintain an independent life.[4] Researchers and people with AS have contributed to a shift in attitudes away from the notion that AS is a deviation from the norm that must be treated or cured, and towards the view that AS is a difference rather than a disability.[5]

Hans Asperger described his young patients as "little professors".

Contents

Image File history File links hans asperger This file has been listed on Wikipedia:Images and media for deletion. ... Image File history File links hans asperger This file has been listed on Wikipedia:Images and media for deletion. ... Hans Asperger, who discovered Asperger syndrome, described his patients as little professors. Hans Asperger (b. ...

Classification

Asperger syndrome is one of the autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), which are a spectrum of psychological conditions that are characterized by abnormalities of social interaction and communication that pervade the individual's functioning, and by restricted and repetitive interests and behavior. Like other psychological development disorders, ASD begins in infancy or childhood, has a steady course without remission or relapse, and has impairments that result from maturation-related changes in various systems of the brain.[6] ASD, in turn, is a subset of the broader autism phenotype (BAP), which describes individuals who may not have ASD but do have autistic-like traits, such as social deficits.[7] Of the other four ASD forms, autism is the most similar to AS in signs and likely causes but its diagnosis requires impaired communication and allows delay in cognitive development; Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder share several signs with autism, but may have unrelated causes; and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) is diagnosed when the criteria for a more specific disorder are unmet.[8] The extent of the overlap between AS and high-functioning autism (HFA—autism unaccompanied by mental retardation) is unclear.[3][9][10] The current ASD classification may not reflect the true nature of the conditions.[11] A boy with autism and his mother Autism refers to a spectrum of disorders, and lies somewhere under the umbrella of a greater encompassing spectrum, that of pervasive developmental disorders that involve the functioning of the brain. ... A spectrum disorder in psychiatry is hard to define precisely but is a mental disorder having something to do with a spectrum of subtypes or closely related disorders. ... Social interaction is a dynamic, changing sequence of social actions between individuals (or groups) who modify their actions and reactions due to the actions by their interaction partner(s). ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... In biology, a trait or character is a feature of an organism. ... Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ... Cognitive development procesess and theories Cognitive development refers to ...how a person perceives, thinks, and gains an understanding of his or her world through the interaction and influence of genetic and learned factors (Straughan, 1999) Jean Piaget was a psychologist who believed there are stages of cognitive development that each... A woman with Retts Syndrome Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is classified as a pervasive developmental disorder by the DSM-IV. Many [1] argue that this is a mis-classification just as it would be to include such disorders as fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, or Down... Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), also known as Hellers syndrome and disintegrative psychosis, is a rare condition characterized by late onset (>3 years of age) of developmental delays in language, social function, and motor skills. ... PDD not otherwise specified or PDD-NOS is a pervasive developmental disorder. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Characteristics

Asperger syndrome is distinguished by a pattern of symptoms rather than a single symptom. It is characterized by qualitative impairment in social interaction, by stereotyped and restricted patterns of activities and interests, and by absence of delay in cognitive development and of general delay in language.[12] Intense preoccupation with a narrow subject, one-sided verbosity, restricted prosody and intonation, and motor clumsiness are typical of the condition, but are not required for diagnosis.[3] In linguistics, prosody refers to intonation, rhythm, and vocal stress in speech. ... Intonation, in linguistics, is the variation of pitch when speaking. ... Motor skills disorder (also known as motor coordination disorder or motor dyspraxia) is a human developmental disorder and is neurological in origin. ...


Social interaction

The lack of demonstrated empathy is possibly the most dysfunctional aspect of Asperger syndrome.[2] Individuals with AS experience difficulties in basic elements of social interaction, which may include a failure to develop friendships or enjoy spontaneous interests or achievements with others, a lack of social or emotional reciprocity, and impaired nonverbal behaviors such as eye contact, facial expression, posture, and gesture.[1] // Attempts to present an overview of partner and family issues have proven an ongoing source of contention, with Asperger syndrome (AS) advocates and partners/family members sometimes presenting wildly divergent pictures of the positives and negatives involved in AS relations with others. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Unlike those with autism, people with AS are not usually withdrawn around others; they approach others, even if awkwardly, for example by engaging in a one-sided, long-winded speech about an unusual topic while being oblivious to the listener's feelings or reactions, such as signs of boredom or wanting to leave.[3] This social awkwardness has been called "active, but odd".[1] This failure to react appropriately to social interaction may appear as disregard for other people's feelings, and may come across as insensitive. The cognitive ability of children with AS often lets them articulate social norms in a laboratory context,[1] where they may be able to show a theoretical understanding of other people’s emotions; however, they typically have difficulty acting on this knowledge in fluid real-life situations.[3] People with AS may analyze and distill their observation of social interaction into rigid behavioral guidelines and apply these rules in awkward ways—such as forced eye contact—resulting in demeanor that appears rigid or socially naive. Childhood desires for companionship can be numbed through a history of failed social encounters.[1]


The hypothesis that individuals with AS are predisposed to violent or criminal behavior has been investigated and found to be unsupported by data.[1][13] More evidence suggests children with AS are victims rather than victimizers.[14] Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Restricted and repetitive interests and behavior

Those with AS often display intense interests, such as this boy's fascination with molecular structure.
Those with AS often display intense interests, such as this boy's fascination with molecular structure.

People with Asperger syndrome display behavior, interests, and activities that are restricted and repetitive and are sometimes abnormally intense or focused. They may stick to inflexible routines or rituals, move in stereotyped and repetitive ways, or preoccupy themselves with parts of objects.[12] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Pursuit of specific and narrow areas of interest is one of the most striking features of AS.[1] Individuals with AS may collect volumes of detailed information on a relatively narrow topic such as dinosaurs or deep fat fryers, without necessarily having genuine understanding of the broader topic.[1][3] For example, a child might memorize camera model numbers while caring little about photography.[1] This behavior is usually apparent by grade school, typically age 5 or 6 in the US.[1] The entire family may become immersed in the narrow topic. Because topics such as dinosaurs often capture the interest of children, this symptom may go unrecognized, and may not be apparent until the interests become more unusual and focused over time.[3]


Stereotyped and repetitive motor behaviors are a core part of the diagnosis of AS and other ASDs.[15] They include hand movements such as flapping or twisting, and complex whole-body movements.[12] These are typically repeated in longer bursts and look more voluntary or ritualistic than tics, which are usually faster, less rhythmical and less often symmetrical.[16] Stimming is a jargon term for stereotypy, a repetitive body movement that self-stimulates one or more senses in a regulated manner. ... Not to be confused with Tick. ...


Speech and language

Although children with Asperger syndrome acquire language skills without significant general delay, and the speech of those with AS typically lacks significant abnormalities, language acquisition and use is often atypical.[3] Abnormalities include verbosity; abrupt transitions; literal interpretations and miscomprehension of nuance; use of metaphor meaningful only to the speaker; auditory perception deficits; unusually pedantic, formal or idiosyncratic speech; and oddities in loudness, pitch, intonation, prosody, and rhythm.[1] This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) (previously known as Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD) is a disorder in how auditory information is processed in the brain. ... Look up pedant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In linguistics, a register is a subset of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. ... The horizontal axis shows frequency in Hz Loudness is the quality of a sound that is the primary psychological correlate of physical intensity. ... It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ... Intonation, in linguistics, is the variation of pitch when speaking. ... In linguistics, prosody refers to intonation, rhythm, and vocal stress in speech. ... Rhythm (Greek = flow, or in Modern Greek, style) is the variation of the length and accentuation of a series of sounds or other events. ...


Three aspects of communication patterns are of clinical interest: poor prosody, tangential and circumstantial speech, and marked verbosity. Although inflection and intonation may be less rigid or monotonic than in autism, people with AS often have a limited range of intonation; speech may be overly fast, jerky or loud. Speech may convey a sense of incoherence; the conversational style often includes monologues about topics that bore the listener, fails to provide context for comments, or fails to suppress internal thoughts. Individuals with AS may fail to monitor whether the listener is interested or engaged in the conversation. The speaker's conclusion or point may never be made, and attempts by the listener to elaborate on the speech's content or logic, or to shift to related topics, are often unsuccessful.[3]


Children with AS may have an unusually sophisticated vocabulary at a young age and have been colloquially called "little professors", but have difficulty understanding metaphorical language and tend to use language literally.[1] Individuals with AS appear to have particular weaknesses in areas of nonliteral language that include humor, irony, and teasing. They usually understand the cognitive basis of humor but may not enjoy it due to lack of understanding of its intent.[10] Look up Humour in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Other symptoms

Individuals with Asperger syndrome may have symptoms that are independent of the diagnosis, but can affect the individual or the family. These symptoms include atypical perception and problems with motor skills, sleep, and emotions.


Asperger’s initial accounts[1] and other diagnostic schemes[17] include descriptions of motor clumsiness. Children with AS may be delayed in acquiring motor skills that require motor dexterity, such as bicycle riding or opening a jar, and may appear awkward or "uncomfortable in their own skin". They may be poorly coordinated, or have an odd or bouncy gait or posture, poor handwriting, or problems with visual-motor integration, visual-perceptual skills, and conceptual learning.[1][3] They may show problems with proprioception (sensation of body position) on measures of apraxia (motor planning disorder), balance, tandem gait, and finger-thumb apposition. There is no evidence that these motor skills problems differentiate AS from other high-functioning ASDs.[1] Motor skills disorder (also known as motor coordination disorder or motor dyspraxia) is a human developmental disorder and is neurological in origin. ... // Proprioception (PRO-pree-o-SEP-shun (IPA pronunciation: ); from Latin proprius, meaning ones own and perception) is the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body. ... Apraxia is a neurological disorder characterized by loss of the ability to execute or carry out learned (familiar) movements, despite having the desire and the physical ability to perform the movements. ... Tandem gait is a gait (method of walking or running) where the toes of the back foot touch the heel of the front foot at each step. ...


Many accounts of individuals with AS and ASD report unusual sensory and perceptual skills and experiences. They may have superior performance in tasks like visual search problems that require processing of fine-grained features rather than entire configurations.[18] They may be unusually sensitive or insensitive to sound, light, touch, texture, taste, smell, pain, temperature, and other stimuli, and they may exhibit synesthesia, for example, a smell may trigger perception of color;[19] these sensory responses are found in other developmental disorders and are not specific to AS or to ASD. There is little support for increased fight-or-flight response or failure of habituation in autism; there is more evidence of decreased responsiveness to sensory stimuli, although several studies show no differences.[20] For other uses, see Synesthesia (disambiguation). ... The fight-or-flight response, also called hyperarousal or the acute stress response, was first described by Walter Cannon in 1915[1][2]. His theory states that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system, priming the animal for fighting or fleeing. ... In psychology, habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which there is a progressive diminution of behavioral response probability with repetition of a stimulus. ...


Children with AS are more likely to have sleep problems, including difficulty in falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakenings, and early morning awakenings.[21][22] AS is also associated with high levels of alexithymia, which is difficulty in identifying and describing one's emotions.[23] Although AS, lower sleep quality, and alexithymia are associated, their causal relationship is unclear.[22] For other uses, see Sleep (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alexithymia (pronounced: ) from the Greek words λεξις and θυμος, literally without words for emotions) was a term coined by Peter Sifneos in 1973[1][2] to describe people who appeared to have deficiencies in understanding, processing, or describing their emotions. ...


Causes

Further information: Causes of autism

Asperger described common symptoms among his patients' family members, especially fathers, and research supports this observation and suggests a genetic contribution to Asperger syndrome. Although no specific gene has yet been identified, multiple factors are believed to play a role in the expression of autism, given the phenotypic variability seen in this group of children.[1][24] Evidence for a genetic link is the tendency for AS to run in families and an observed higher incidence of family members who have behavioral symptoms similar to AS but in a more limited form (for example, slight difficulties with social interaction, language, or reading).[4] Most research suggests that all autism spectrum disorders have shared genetic mechanisms, but AS may have a stronger genetic component than autism.[1] There is probably a common group of genes where particular alleles render an individual vulnerable to developing AS; if this is the case, the particular combination of alleles would determine the severity and symptoms for each individual with AS.[4] Autism and autism spectrum disorders are complex neurodevelopmental disorders. ... Expressivity refers to variations of a phenotype in genetics. ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... Incidence is a measure of the risk of developing some new condition within a specified period of time. ... For the hard rock band, see Allele (band). ...


A few ASD cases have been linked to exposure to teratogens (agents that cause birth defects) during the first eight weeks from conception. Although this does not exclude the possibility that ASD can be initiated or affected later, it is strong evidence that it arises very early in development.[25] Many environmental factors have been hypothesized to act after birth, but none has been confirmed by scientific investigation.[26] Teratogenesis is a medical term from the Greek, literally meaning monster making. ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ... The acrosome reaction for a sea urchin, a similar process. ...


Mechanism

Further information: Mechanism of autism

Asperger syndrome appears to result from developmental factors that affect many or all functional brain systems, as opposed to localized effects.[27] Although the specific underpinnings of AS or factors that distinguish it from other ASDs are unknown, and no clear pathology common to individuals with AS has emerged,[1] it is still possible that AS's mechanism is separate from other ASD.[28] Neuroanatomical studies and the associations with teratogens strongly suggest that the mechanism includes alteration of brain development soon after conception.[25] Abnormal migration of embryonic cells during fetal development may affect the final structure and connectivity of the brain, resulting in alterations in the neural circuits that control thought and behavior.[29] Several theories of mechanism are available; none are likely to be complete explanations.[30] Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ... Neuroanatomy is the anatomy of the nervous system. ...

Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides some evidence for both underconnectivity and mirror neuron theories.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides some evidence for both underconnectivity and mirror neuron theories.[31][32]

The underconnectivity theory hypothesizes underfunctioning high-level neural connections and synchronization, along with an excess of low-level processes.[31] It maps well to general-processing theories such as weak central coherence theory, which hypothesizes that a limited ability to see the big picture underlies the central disturbance in ASD.[33] Sample fMRI data This example of fMRI data shows regions of activation including primary visual cortex (V1, BA17), extrastriate visual cortex and lateral geniculate body in a comparison between a task involving a complex moving visual stimulus and rest condition (viewing a black screen). ... Sample fMRI data This example of fMRI data shows regions of activation including primary visual cortex (V1, BA17), extrastriate visual cortex and lateral geniculate body in a comparison between a task involving a complex moving visual stimulus and rest condition (viewing a black screen). ... Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the use of MRI to measure the haemodynamic response related to neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals. ... The weak central coherence theory (WCC) suggests that a specific perceptual-cognitive style, loosely described as a limited ability to understand context or to see the big picture, underlies the central disturbance in autism and related autistic spectrum disorders. ...


The mirror neuron system (MNS) theory hypothesizes that alterations to the development of the MNS interfere with imitation and lead to Asperger's core feature of social impairment.[32][34] For example, one study found that activation is delayed in the core circuit for imitation in individuals with AS.[35] This theory maps well to social cognition theories like the theory of mind, which hypothesizes that autistic behavior arises from impairments in ascribing mental states to oneself and others,[36] or hyper-systemizing, which hypothesizes that autistic individuals can systematize internal operation to handle internal events but are less effective at empathizing by handling events generated by other agents.[37] Locations of mirror neurons A mirror neuron is a neuron which fires both when an animal performs an action and when the animal observes the same action performed by another (especially conspecific) animal. ... The phrase theory of mind (often abbreviated as ToM) is used in several related ways: general categories of theories of mind - theories about the nature of mind, and its structure and processes; theories of mind related to individual minds; in recent years, the phrase theory of mind has more commonly... // EQ SQ Theory Simon Baron-Cohen, in his book, The Essential Difference: The Truth about the Male and Female Brain, hypothesizes that the female brain is predominantly hard-wired for empathy. ... Not to be confused with Pity, Sympathy, or Compassion. ...


Other possible mechanisms include serotonin dysfunction[38] and cerebellar dysfunction.[39] Serotonin (pronounced ) (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ...


Screening

Parents of children with Asperger syndrome can typically trace differences in their children's development to as early as 30 months of age.[24] Developmental screening during a routine check-up by a general practitioner or pediatrician may identify signs that warrant further investigation.[1][4] The diagnosis of AS is complicated by the use of several different screening instruments.[4][17] None have been shown to reliably differentiate between AS and other ASDs. The current "gold standard" in diagnosing ASDs uses the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R)—a semistructured parent interview—and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)—a conversation and play-based interview with the child.[1] The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is structured interview conducted with the parents of individuals who have been referred for the evaluation of possible autism or autism spectrum disorders. ... The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) is a standardized protocol created in 1989 for assessing social and communicative behavior associated with autism. ...


Diagnosis

Main article: Diagnosis of Asperger syndrome

Standard diagnostic criteria require impairment in social interaction, and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and interests, without significant delay in language or cognitive development. Unlike the international standard,[6] U.S. criteria also require significant impairment in day-to-day functioning.[12] Other sets of diagnostic criteria have been proposed by Szatmari et al.[40] and by Gillberg and Gillberg.[41] Several factors complicate the diagnosis of Asperger syndrome (AS), an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ... Peter Szatmari (1950- ) is a Canadian expert on Autism and Asperger syndrome. ... Lars Christopher Gillberg, (born 19 April 1950) is a professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at Gothenburg University in Gothenburg, Sweden, and at the medical college of St Georges, University of London in Tooting in south London. ...


Diagnosis is most commonly made between the ages of four and eleven.[1] A comprehensive assessment involves a multidisciplinary team[2][4][42] that observes across multiple settings,[1] and includes neurological and genetic assessment as well as tests for cognition, psychomotor function, verbal and nonverbal strengths and weaknesses, style of learning, and skills for independent living.[4] Delayed or mistaken diagnosis can be traumatic for individuals and families; for example, misdiagnosis can lead to medications that worsen behavior.[42] Many children with AS are initially misdiagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).[1] Diagnosing adults is more challenging, as standard diagnostic criteria are designed for children and the expression of AS changes with age.[43] Conditions that must be considered in a differential diagnosis include other ASDs, the schizophrenia spectrum, ADHD, obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, semantic pragmatic disorder, nonverbal learning disorder,[42] Tourette syndrome,[16] stereotypic movement disorder and bipolar disorder.[24] Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) previously known as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), is generally considered to be a developmental disorder, largely neurological in nature, affecting about 5% of the worlds population. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other things named OCD, see OCD (disambiguation). ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Nonverbal Learning Disorder (NLD) (also known as NVLD) is a frequently misdiagnosed state of anxiety, confusion and social withdrawal caused by neurologically-based inabilities to send and receive common gestures, facial expressions and body-language cues. ... “Tourette” redirects here. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ...


Underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis are problems in marginal cases. The cost of screening and diagnosis and the challenge of obtaining payment can inhibit or delay diagnosis. Conversely, the increasing popularity of drug treatment options and the expansion of benefits has motivated providers to overdiagnose ASD.[44] There are indications AS has been diagnosed more frequently in recent years, partly as a residual diagnosis for children of normal intelligence who do not have autism but have social difficulties. There are questions about the external validity of the AS diagnosis, that is, it is unclear whether there is a practical benefit in distinguishing AS from HFA and from PDD-NOS;[45] the same child can receive different diagnoses depending on the screening tool.[4]


Treatment

Further information: Autism therapies

Asperger syndrome treatment attempts to manage distressing symptoms and to teach age-appropriate social, communication and vocational skills that are not naturally acquired during development,[1] with intervention tailored to the needs of the individual child, based on multidisciplinary assessment.[46] Although progress has been made, data supporting the efficacy of particular interventions are limited.[1][47] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Biomedical intervention for autism. ...


The ideal treatment for AS coordinates therapies that address core symptoms of the disorder, including poor communication skills and obsessive or repetitive routines. While most professionals agree that the earlier the intervention, the better, there is no single best treatment package.[4] AS treatment resembles that of other high-functioning ASDs, except that it takes into account the linguistic capabilities, verbal strengths, and nonverbal vulnerabilities of individuals with AS.[1] A typical treatment program generally includes:[4]

Of the many studies on behavior-based early intervention programs, most are case studies of up to five participants, and typically examine a few problem behaviors such as self-injury, aggression, noncompliance, stereotypies, or spontaneous language; unintended side effects are largely ignored.[52] Despite the widespread application of social skills training, its effectiveness is not firmly established.[53] A randomized controlled study of a model for training parents in problem behaviors in their children with AS showed that parents attending a one-day workshop or six individual lessons reported fewer behavioral problems, while parents receiving the individual lessons reported less intense behavioral problems in their AS children.[54] Vocational training is important to teach job interview etiquette and workplace behavior to older children and adults with AS, and organization software and personal data assistants to improve the work and life management of people with AS are useful.[1] Social skills are skills a social animal uses to interact and communicate with others to assist status in the social structure and other motivations. ... A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapy based on modifying cognitions, assumptions, beliefs and behaviors, with the aim of influencing disturbed emotions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Occupational therapy refers to the use of meaningful occupation to assist people who have difficulty in achieving healthy and balanced life; and to enable an inclusive society so that all people can participate to their potential in daily occupations of life. ... Physical therapy (or physiotherapy[1]) is the provision of services to people and populations to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. ... It has been suggested that Sensory processing disorder be merged into this article or section. ... Explain the dystonias connected with motor coordination. ... It has been suggested that Speech-Language Pathology, Speech pathology, Phoniatrics be merged into this article or section. ... Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated. ... Self-harm (SH) is deliberate injury to ones own body. ... In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ... Stimming is a jargon term for stereotypy, a repetitive body movement that self-stimulates one or more senses in a regulated manner. ... Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ...


No medications directly treat the core symptoms of AS.[50] Although research into the efficacy of pharmaceutical intervention for AS is limited,[1] it is essential to diagnose and treat comorbid conditions.[2] Deficits in self-identifying emotions or in observing effects of one's behavior on others can make it difficult for individuals with AS to see why they should take medication.[50] Medication can be effective in combination with behavioral interventions and environmental accommodations in treating comorbid symptoms such as anxiety, depression, inattention and aggression.[1] The atypical neuroleptic medications risperidone and olanzapine have been shown to reduce the associated symptoms of AS;[1] risperidone can reduce repetitive and self-injurious behaviors, aggressive outbursts and impulsivity, and improve stereotypical patterns of behavior and social relatedness. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) fluoxetine, fluvoxamine and sertraline have been effective in treating restricted and repetitive interests and behaviors.[1][2][24] In medicine and in psychiatry, comorbidity is either The presence of one or more disorders (or diseases) in addition to a primary disease or disorder; or The effect of such additional disorders or diseases. ... Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components (Seligman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... The atypical antipsychotics (also known as second generation antipsychotics) are a class of prescription medications used to treat psychiatric conditions. ... Risperdal tablets Risperidone (pronounced Ris-PER-ǐ-dōn and sold under the trade name Risperdal in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Portugal and several other countries, Risperdal or Ridal in New Zealand, Rispolept in Eastern Europe, and Belivon, or Rispen elsewhere) is an atypical antipsychotic medication developed by... Olanzapine (oh-LAN-za-peen, sold as Zyprexa®, Zyprexa Zydis®, or in combination with fluoxetine, as Symbyax®) was the third atypical antipsychotic to gain approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and has become one of the most commonly used atypical antipsychotics. ... SSRI redirects here; for other uses, see SSRI (disambiguation). ... Prozac redirects here. ... Fluvoxamine (brand name as Luvox®, Faverin®, Fevarin® and Dumyrox®) is an antidepressant which functions pharmacologically as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. ... Zoloft bottles, with blue and green tablets Sertraline hydrochloride (also sold under brand names Zoloft, Lustral, Apo-Sertral, Asentra, Gladem, Serlift, Stimuloton, Xydep, Serlain, Concorz) is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. ...


Care must be taken in the management of pharmacotherapy; abnormalities in metabolism, cardiac conduction times, and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes have been raised as concerns with these medications,[55][56] along with serious long-term neurological side effects.[52] SSRIs can lead to manifestations of behavioral activation such as increased impulsivity, aggression and sleep disturbance.[24] Weight gain and fatigue are commonly reported side effects of risperidone, which may also lead to increased risk for extrapyramidal symptoms such as restlessness and dystonia[24] and increased serum prolactin levels.[57] Sedation and weight gain are more common with olanzapine,[56] which has also been linked with diabetes.[55] Sedative side-effects in school-age children[58] have ramifications for classroom learning. Individuals with AS may be unable to identify and communicate their internal moods and emotions or to tolerate side effects that for most people would not be problematic.[59] Pharmacotherapy is the practice of treating diseases with medication. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... The normal electrical conduction in the heart allows the impulse that is generated by the sinoatrial node (SA node) of the heart to be propagated to (and stimulate) the myocardium (Cardiac muscle). ... Diabetes mellitus type 2 or Type 2 Diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM), obesity-related diabetes, or adult-onset diabetes) is a metabolic disorder that is primarily characterized by insulin resistance, relative insulin deficiency, and hyperglycemia. ... In human anatomy, the extrapyramidal system is a neural network located in the brain that is part of the motor system involved in the coordination of movement. ... Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder in which sustained muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures. ... Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ...


Prognosis

As of 2007, no studies addressing the long-term outcome of individuals with Asperger syndrome are available and there are no systematic long-term follow-up studies of children with AS.[3] Individuals with AS appear to have normal life expectancy but have an increased prevalence of comorbid psychiatric conditions such as depression and anxiety that may significantly affect prognosis. Although social impairment is lifelong, outcome is generally more positive than with individuals with lower functioning autism spectrum disorders;[1] for example, ASD symptoms are more likely to diminish with time in children with AS or HFA.[60] Although most students with AS/HFA have average mathematical ability and test slightly worse in mathematics than in general intelligence, some are gifted in mathematics[61] and AS has not prevented some adults from major accomplishments such as winning the Nobel Prize.[62] This article is about the measure of remaining life. ... In epidemiology, the prevalence of a disease in a statistical population is defined as the total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given time, or the total number of cases in the population, divided by the number of individuals in the population. ... In medicine and in psychiatry, comorbidity refers to: The presence of one or more disorders (or diseases) in addition to a primary disease or disorder. ... An MRI scan of a human brain and head. ... Clinical depression is a state of sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ... Anxiety disorder is a blanket term covering several different forms of abnormal, pathological anxiety, fears, phobias. ... Prognosis (older Greek πρόγνωσις, modern Greek πρόγνωση - literally fore-knowing, foreseeing) is a medical term denoting the doctors prediction of how a patients disease will progress, and whether there is chance of recovery. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ...


Children with AS may require special education services because of their social and behavioral difficulties although many attend regular education classes.[3] Adolescents with AS may exhibit ongoing difficulty with self-care, organization and disturbances in social and romantic relationships; despite high cognitive potential, most remain at home, although some do marry and work independently.[1] The "different-ness" adolescents experience can be traumatic.[63] Anxiety may stem from preoccupation over possible violations of routines and rituals, from being placed in a situation without a clear schedule or expectations, or from concern with failing in social encounters;[1] the resulting stress may manifest as inattention, withdrawal, reliance on obsessions, hyperactivity, or aggressive or oppositional behavior.[49] Depression is often the result of chronic frustration from repeated failure to engage others socially, and mood disorders requiring treatment may develop.[1] This article is about educating students with disabilities or behavioral problems. ... Social anxiety is an experience of fear, apprehension or worry regarding social situations and being evaluated by others. ...


Education of families is critical in developing strategies for understanding strengths and weaknesses;[2] helping the family to cope improves outcome in children.[14] Prognosis may be improved by diagnosis at a younger age that allows for early interventions, while interventions in adulthood are valuable but less beneficial.[2] There are legal implications for individuals with AS as they run the risk of exploitation by others and may be unable to comprehend the societal implications of their actions.[2]


Epidemiology

Further information: Conditions comorbid to autism spectrum disorders

Prevalence estimates vary enormously. A 2003 review of epidemiological studies found prevalence rates ranging from 0.03 to 4.84 per 1,000, with the ratio of autism to Asperger syndrome averaging 5:1;[64] combining this with a conservative prevalence estimate for autism of 1.3 per 1,000 suggests indirectly that the prevalence of AS might be around 0.26 per 1,000.[65] Part of the variance in estimates arises from differences in diagnostic criteria. For example, a relatively small 2007 study of 5,484 eight-year-old children in Finland found 2.9 children per 1,000 met the ICD-10 criteria for an AS diagnosis, 2.7 per 1,000 for Gillberg and Gillberg criteria, 2.5 for DSM-IV, 1.6 for Szatmari et al., and 4.3 per 1,000 for the union of the four criteria. Boys seem to be at higher risk for AS than girls; estimates of the sex ratio range from 1.6:1 to 4:1, using the Gillberg and Gillberg criteria.[66] There are many comorbid disorders associated with autism spectrum disorders and Aspergers Syndrome. ... In epidemiology, the prevalence of a disease in a statistical population is defined as the total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given time, or the total number of cases in the population, divided by the number of individuals in the population. ... An Epidemiological study is a statistical study on human populations, which attempt to link human health effects to a specified cause. ... In epidemiology, the prevalence of a disease in a statistical population is defined as the total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given time, or the total number of cases in the population, divided by the number of individuals in the population. ... Several factors complicate the diagnosis of Asperger syndrome (AS), an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ...


Anxiety and depression are the most common other conditions seen at the same time; comorbidity of these in persons with AS is estimated at 65%.[1] Depression is common in adolescents and adults; children are likely to present with ADHD.[67] Reports have associated AS with medical conditions such as aminoaciduria and ligamentous laxity, but these have been case reports or small studies and no factors have been associated with AS across studies.[1] One study of males with AS found an increased rate of epilepsy and a high rate (51%) of nonverbal learning disability.[68] AS is associated with tics, Tourette syndrome, and bipolar disorder, and the repetitive behaviors of AS have many similarities with the symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.[69] Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components (Seligman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... In medicine and in psychiatry, comorbidity is either The presence of one or more disorders (or diseases) in addition to a primary disease or disorder; or The effect of such additional disorders or diseases. ... DISCLAIMER Please remember that Wikipedia is offered for informational use only. ... Aminoaciduria is the presence of amino acids in the urine. ... Ligamentous Laxity Ligamentous laxity is a condition that can be summarised succinctly as Loose ligaments. In a normal body, ligaments are naturally tight in such a way that the permitted range of movement for a joint is restricted to normal ranges. ... Nonverbal Learning Disorder (NLD) (also known as NVLD) NLD is a developmental or learning disorder with manifestations in the following domains: a) somatosensory and motor functions; b) visuospatial and visuoconstructive functions; c) arithmetic; d) social cognition, and e) inferential reasoning. ... Not to be confused with Tick. ... “Tourette” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... For other things named OCD, see OCD (disambiguation). ... OCPD redirects here. ...


History

Main article: History of Asperger syndrome

Named after the Austrian pediatrician Hans Asperger (1906–80), Asperger syndrome is a relatively new diagnosis in the field of autism.[70] In 1944, Asperger described four children in his practice[2] who had difficulty in integrating themselves socially. Although their intelligence appeared normal, the children lacked nonverbal communication skills, failed to demonstrate empathy with their peers, and were physically clumsy. Asperger called the condition "autistic psychopathy" and described it as primarily marked by social isolation.[4] He called his young patients "little professors",[71] and believed they would be capable of exceptional achievement and original thought later in life.[2] His paper was published during wartime and in German, so it was not widely read elsewhere. The history of Asperger syndrome (AS), an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is brief; Asperger syndrome is a relatively new diagnosis in the field of autism,[1] named in honor of Hans Asperger (1906–80), an Austrian psychiatrist and pediatrician. ... Hans Asperger, who discovered Asperger syndrome, described his patients as little professors. Hans Asperger (b. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Lorna Wing popularized the term Asperger syndrome in the English-speaking medical community in her 1981 publication[72] of a series of case studies of children showing similar symptoms,[70] and Uta Frith translated his paper to English in 1991.[71] Sets of diagnostic criteria were outlined by Gillberg and Gillberg in 1989 and by Szatmari et al. in the same year.[66] AS became a standard diagnosis in 1992, when it was included in the tenth edition of the World Health Organization’s diagnostic manual, International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10); in 1994, it was added to the fourth edition of the American Psychological Association's diagnostic reference, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).[4] Dr Lorna Wing (born 7 October 1928) is an English psychiatrist and physician. ... Uta Frith is a leading developmental psychologist working at the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience at University College London. ... WHO redirects here. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ... The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the handbook used most often in diagnosing mental disorders in the United States and other countries. ...


Hundreds of books, articles and websites now describe AS, and prevalence estimates have increased dramatically for ASD, with AS recognized as an important subgroup.[70] Whether it should be seen as distinct from high-functioning autism is a fundamental issue requiring further study.[2] There is little consensus among clinical researchers about the use of the term Asperger's syndrome, and there are questions about the empirical validation of the DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria.[3]


Cultural aspects

Further information: Sociological and cultural aspects of autism

People with Asperger syndrome may refer to themselves in casual conversation as aspies, coined by Liane Holliday Willey in 1999.[73] The word neurotypical (abbreviated NT) describes a person whose neurological development and state are typical, and is often used to refer to non-autistic people. The Internet has allowed individuals with AS to communicate and celebrate with each other in a way that was not previously possible due to their rarity and geographic dispersal. A subculture of aspies has formed. Internet sites like Wrong Planet have made it easier for individuals to connect.[74] Autism (also called autistic disorder, infantile autism, Kanners syndrome or Kanner syndrome) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests itself before the age of three years. ... Liane Holliday Willey (author) Liane Holliday Willey, EdD (born 1959) is a popular keynote speaker and best-selling American author on the subject of Asperger Syndrome. ... Neurotypical (or NT) is a neologism used to describe people whose neurological development and state are consistent with what most people would perceive as normal in their ability to process linguistic information and social cues. ... Symbol of Autistic Pride Day Autistic Pride Day is celebrated on June 18 each year. ... Autism (also called autistic disorder, infantile autism, Kanners syndrome or Kanner syndrome) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests itself before the age of three years. ...   Wrong Planet (sometimes referred to by its URL, WrongPlanet. ...


Autistic people have contributed to a shift in perception of autism spectrum disorders as complex syndromes rather than diseases that must be cured. Proponents of this view reject the notion that there is an "ideal" brain configuration and that any deviation from the norm is pathological; they demand tolerance for what they call neurodiversity.[75] These views are the basis for the autistic rights and autistic pride movements.[76] In medicine, the term syndrome is the association of several clinically recognizable features, signs, symptoms, phenomena or characteristics which often occur together, so that the presence of one feature alerts the physician to the presence of the others. ... Pathology (in ancient Greek pathos = pain/pation and logos = word) is the study of diseases. ... Neurodiversity is an idea that asserts that atypical (neurodivergent) neurological wiring is a normal human difference that is to be tolerated and respected as any other human difference. ... Some autistic people have at least some language skills, and have started to speak and/or write for themselves about their experience. ... Autism (also called autistic disorder, infantile autism, Kanners syndrome or Kanner syndrome) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests itself before the age of three years. ...


Simon Baron-Cohen has argued that AS and high-functioning autism are different cognitive styles, not disabilities, and that a diagnosis of AS/HFA should not be received as a family tragedy, but as interesting information, such as learning that a child is left-handed. According to Baron-Cohen, "people with AS/HFA might not necessarily be disabled in an environment in which an exact mind, attracted to detecting small details, is an advantage."[5] Tony Attwood argues, "the unusual profile of abilities that we define as Asperger's syndrome has probably been an important and valuable characteristic of our species throughout evolution."[77] Simon Baron-Cohen is a British professor of developmental psychopathology in the departments of psychiatry and experimental psychology at the University of Cambridge, a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and director of the Autism Research Centre at the University of Cambridge, in the United Kingdom. ... Tony Attwood (born 1952 in Birmingham, United Kingdom) is the author of several books on Aspergers Syndrome. ...


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A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... WHO redirects here. ... 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A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Michelle Dawson is an autistic, autism researcher and autism rights activist who is most well known for writing a paper challenging the ethical and scientific foundations of Applied Behavioral Analysis(ABA)-based autism interventions and challenging ABA in the Supreme Court of Canada. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Professor Sir Michael Rutter (b. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Uta Frith is a leading developmental psychologist working at the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience at University College London. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Dr. Vilayanur Ramachandran on an episode of PBSs NOVA Television program. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Simon Baron-Cohen is a British professor of developmental psychopathology in the departments of psychiatry and experimental psychology at the University of Cambridge, a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and director of the Autism Research Centre at the University of Cambridge, in the United Kingdom. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Eric Fombonne, MD, FRCP, (b. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Hans Asperger, who discovered Asperger syndrome, described his patients as little professors. Hans Asperger (b. ... Dr Lorna Wing (born 7 October 1928) is an English psychiatrist and physician. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tony Attwood (born 1952 in Birmingham, United Kingdom) is the author of several books on Aspergers Syndrome. ...

External links

Pervasive Developmental Disorders Portal
Look up Asperger’s syndrome in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Image File history File links Portal. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... The autism spectrum, also called autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or autism spectrum conditions (ASC), with the word autistic sometimes replacing autism, is a spectrum of psychological conditions characterized by widespread abnormalities of social interactions and communication, as well as severely restricted interests and highly repetitive behavior. ... There are many comorbid disorders associated with autism spectrum disorders and Aspergers Syndrome. ... The heritability of autism is debated by psychology researchers, parents of children diagnosed with autism, and members of the autistic community. ... The reported incidence of autism varies considerably among countries and is complicated by varying criteria for diagnosing autism, different standards for reporting public health problems, and other possible variations. ... Autism (also called autistic disorder, infantile autism, Kanners syndrome or Kanner syndrome) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests itself before the age of three years. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Biomedical intervention for autism. ... Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ... Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), also known as Hellers syndrome and disintegrative psychosis, is a rare condition characterized by late onset (>3 years of age) of developmental delays in language, social function, and motor skills. ... Fragile X syndrome is a syndrome of X-linked mental retardation. ... Multiple-complex Developmental Disorder (McDD) represents a distinct group within the autistic spectrum based on symptomatology. ... PDD not otherwise specified or PDD-NOS is a pervasive developmental disorder. ... A woman with Retts Syndrome Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is classified as a pervasive developmental disorder by the DSM-IV. Many [1] argue that this is a mis-classification just as it would be to include such disorders as fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, or Down... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... There is considerable disagreement over the exact nature of autism, however it is generally considered to be a neurodevelopmental condition which manifests itself in markedly abnormal social interaction, communication ability, patterns of interests, and patterns of behavior. ... This box:      The autism rights movement (which has also been called autistic self-advocacy movement [1] and autistic liberation movement [2]) was started by adult autistic individuals in order to advocate and demand tolerance for what they refer to as neurodiversity. ... Autistic enterocolitis is a controversial term first used by British gastroenterologist Andrew Wakefield to describe a number of common clinical symptoms and signs which he contends are distinctive to autism. ... Chelation therapy is the administration of chelating agents to remove heavy metals from the body. ... Ethical challenges to autism treatment have been made by people who feel that autism therapies intended to be helpful are actually harmful to autistic people. ... The MMR vaccine controversy is over the safety of the MMR vaccine. ... Neurodiversity is an idea that asserts that atypical (neurodivergent) neurological wiring is a normal human difference that is to be tolerated and respected as any other human difference. ... The term refrigerator mother was coined in the 1940s as a label for mothers of autistic children. ... Following US government action to evaluate levels of environmental toxins, including mercury, it has been claimed, particularly in the context of lawsuits, that thimerosal in childhood vaccines could contribute to, or cause, a range of neurodevelopmental disorders in children, most notably autism and related Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs), or other... This is a list of autism-related topics. ... Fictional characters described by the authors as having conditions on the autistic spectrum. ... Further reading on the topic of Asperger syndrome: [Attwood, Tony]; foreword by Lorna Wing (1998). ... This is a list of noteworthy people known to have a condition on the autism spectrum. ... A number of famous people have been speculated by reputable sources to have had autistic disorder or Asperger syndrome. ... Infinity logo as a positive representation of autism Aspies For Freedom is a group which is at the forefront of the autism rights movement. ... The Autism Society of America, founded in 1965 by Bernard Rimland, Ph. ... Autism Speaks was founded in February, 2005 by Bob Wright and his wife Suzanne, to help find a cure for autism, a year after their grandson, Christian, was given the diagnosis. ... Generation Rescue is a nonprofit organization which was founded by parents united by their belief that many childhood neurological disorders, such as autism, Aspergers syndrome, ADHD, speech delay, sensory integration disorder and other developmental delays, are the effects of a primary diagnosis of mercury poisoning and related complications. ... The National Autism Association (NAA) is a non-profit advocacy organization founded to educate and empower families affected by autism and other neurological disorders. ... The National Autistic Society (NAS) is the United Kingdoms most prominent autism-related charity. ... The Coalition for Safe Minds (Sensible Action For Ending Mercury-Induced Neurological Disorders) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to investigating the risks of exposure to mercury from medical products. ...   Wrong Planet (sometimes referred to by its URL, WrongPlanet. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ... Mental disorder or mental illness are terms used to refer psychological pattern that occurs in an individual and is usually associated with distress or disability that is not expected as part of normal development or culture. ... Emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is a broad category which is mostly being used in an educational context to group a range of more specific perceived difficulties of children and adolescents. ... For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ... Multi-infarct dementia, also known as vascular dementia, is a form of dementia resulting from brain damage caused by stroke or transient ischemic attacks (also known as mini-strokes). ... Picks disease has two meanings that are often confused: 1) Pathology: Neurologists currently use the term Picks disease to mean specifically one of the pathological subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). ... Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a very rare and incurable degenerative neurological disorder (brain disease) that is ultimately fatal. ... AIDS dementia complex (ADC; also known as HIV dementia, HIV encephalopathy and HIV-associated dementia) has become a common neurological disorder associated with HIV infection and AIDS. It is is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of brain macrophages and microglia. ... Fronto-temporal dementias selectively affect the frontal lobe of the brain. ... This article is about the mental state and medical condition. ... Post-concussion syndrome, also known as postconcussive syndrome or PCS, is a set of symptoms that a person may experience for weeks, months, or even years after a concussion, a mild form of traumatic brain injury. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ... ... The Drunkenness of Noah by Giovanni Bellini Drunkenness is the state of being intoxicated by consumption of alcohol to a degree that mental and physical facilities are noticeably impaired. ... Physical dependence refers to a state resulting from habitual use of a drug, where negative physical withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt discontinuation. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Opioid dependency is a medical diagnosis characterized by an individuals inability to stop using opioids even when objectively in his or her best interest to do so. ... 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Stedmans Medical Dictionary defines psychosis as a severe mental disorder, with or without organic damage, characterized by derangement of personality and loss of contact with reality and causing deterioration... Disorganized schizophrenia is a subtype of schizophrenia as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. ... Schizotypal personality disorder, or simply schizotypal disorder, is a personality disorder that is characterized by a need for social isolation, odd behaviour and thinking, and often unconventional beliefs such as being convinced of having extra sensory abilities. ... Delusional disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis denoting a psychotic mental illness that involves holding one or more non-bizarre delusions in the absence of any other significant psychopathology (signs or symptoms of mental illness). ... Folie à deux (literally, a madness shared by two) is a rare psychiatric syndrome in which a symptom of psychosis (particularly a paranoid or delusional belief) is transmitted from one individual to another. ... A mood disorder is a condition whereby the prevailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstances. ... This article is an expansion of a section entitled Mania from within the main article Bipolar disorder. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Cyclothymia is a mood disorder. ... Dysthymia is a mood disorder that falls within the depression spectrum. ... Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder precipitated by the fear of having a symptom attack or panic attack in a setting from which there is no easy means of escape. ... Anxiety disorder is a blanket term covering several different forms of abnormal, pathological anxiety, fears, phobias. ... Panic Disorder is a psychiatric condition characterized by recurring panic attacks in combination with significant behavioral change or at least a month of ongoing worry about the implications or concern about having other attacks. ... Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder that is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry about everyday things, which is disproportionate to the actual source of worry. ... Social anxiety, sometimes known as social phobia or social anxiety disorder (SAD), is a common form of anxiety disorder that causes sufferers to experience intense anxiety in some or all of the social interactions and public events of everyday life. ... OCD redirects here. ... Acute stress reaction is a psychological condition arising in response to a terrifying event. ... Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for certain severe psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful events that the person experiences as highly traumatic. ... In psychology, adjustment disorder refers to a psychological disturbance that develops in response to a stressor. ... Conversion Disorder is a DSM-IV diagnosis which describes neurological symptoms such as extreme weakness, paralysis, sensory disturbance, seizure and/or attacks that may resemble a known organic disease such as epilepsy or dystonia, but which cannot be currently attributed to neurological disease. ... Ganser syndrome is a psychiatric disorder characterised by approximate answers to questions. ... Somatization disorder (or Briquets disorder) is a type of mental illness in which a patient manifests a psychiatric condition as a physical complaint. ... Neurasthenia was a term first coined by George Miller Beard in 1869 to describe a condition with symptoms of fatigue, anxiety and pessimism. ... For other uses, see Anorexia. ... Bulimia nervosa, commonly known as bulimia, is an eating disorder and psychological condition in which the subject engages in recurrent binge eating followed by feelings of guilt, depression, and self-condemnation and intentional purging to compensate for the excessive eating, usually to prevent weight gain (see anorexia nervosa). ... Dyssomnias are a broad classification of sleeping disorder that make it difficult to get to sleep, or to stay sleeping. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... Hypersomnia, also known as excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), is excessive amount of sleepiness. ... A parasomnia is any sleep disorder such as sleepwalking, sleepeating, sleep sex, teeth grinding, night terrors, rhythmic movement disorder, REM behaviour disorder, restless leg syndrome, and somniloquy (or sleep talking), characterized by partial arousals during sleep or during transitions between wakefulness and sleep. ... For other uses, see Night Terror. ... The current usage of the term nightmare refers to a dream which causes the sleeper a strong unpleasant emotional response. ... Sexual dysfunction or sexual malfunction (see also sexual function) is difficulty during any stage of the sexual act (which includes desire, arousal, orgasm, and resolution) that prevents the individual or couple from enjoying sexual activity. ... Erectile dysfunction (ED) or impotence is a sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis. ... Premature ejaculation (PE), also known as rapid ejaculation, premature climax or early ejaculation, is the most common sexual problem in men, affecting 25%-40% of men. ... Vaginismus is a condition which affects a womans ability to engage in any form of vaginal penetration, including sexual penetration, insertion of tampons, and the penetration involved in gynecological examinations. ... Dyspareunia is painful sexual intercourse, due to medical or psychological causes. ... Satyriasis redirects here. ... Postpartum depression (also postnatal depression) is a form of clinical depression which can affect women, and less frequently men, after childbirth. ... Personality disorder, formerly referred to as a Characterological disorder is a class of mental disorders characterized by rigid and on-going patterns of thought and action. ... Passive-aggressive behavior refers to passive, sometimes obstructionist resistance to following authoritative instructions in interpersonal or occupational situations. ... Kleptomania (Greek: κλέπτειν, kleptein, to steal, μανία, mania) is an inability or great difficulty in resisting impulses of stealing. ... Trichotillomania (TTM), or trich as it is commonly known, is an impulse control disorder characterized by the repeated urge to pull out scalp hair, eyelashes, facial hair, nose hair, pubic hair, eyebrows or other body hair. ... “Voyeur” redirects here. ... A factitious disorder or FD is a mental disorder where the ill individuals symptoms are either self-induced or falsified by the patient. ... This page refers to the self-inflicted factitious disorder. ... Egodystonic sexual orientation is an egodystonic condition. ... Mental retardation is a term for a pattern of persistently slow learning of basic motor and language skills (milestones) during childhood, and a significantly below-normal global intellectual capacity as an adult. ... Developmental disorders are disorders that occur at some stage in a childs development, often retarding the development. ... Specific developmental disorders categorizes specific learning disabilities and developmental disorders affecting coordination. ... Speech disorders or speech impediments, as they are also called, are a type of communication disorders where normal speech is disrupted. ... Expressive language disorder (DSM 315. ... For other uses, see Aphasia (disambiguation). ... Expressive aphasia, known as Brocas aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and agrammatic aphasia in cognitive neuropsychology, is an aphasia caused by damage to Brocas area in the brain. ... Receptive aphasia, also known as Wernickes aphasia, Fluent aphasia or sensory aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and cognitive neuropsychology, is a type of aphasia often (but not always) caused by neurological damage to Wernickes area in the brain. ... Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), also called progressive epileptic aphasia, is a rare, childhood neurological syndrome characterized by the sudden or gradual development of aphasia (the inability to understand or express language) and an abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG). ... For the programming language, see Lisp (programming language). ... This article is about developmental dyslexia. ... Dysgraphia (or agraphia) is a deficiency in the ability to write, regardless of the ability to read, not due to intellectual impairment. ... Gerstmann syndrome is a neurological disorder. ... Developmental Dyspraxia is one or all of a heterogeneous range of psychological development disorders affecting the initiation, organization and performance of action[1]. It entails the partial loss of the ability to coordinate and perform certain purposeful movements and gestures in the absence of motor or sensory impairments. ... The diagnostic category pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), as opposed to specific developmental disorders (SDD), refers to a group of disorders characterized by delays in the development of multiple basic functions including socialization and communication. ... Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ... A woman with Retts Syndrome Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is classified as a pervasive developmental disorder by the DSM-IV. Many [1] argue that this is a mis-classification just as it would be to include such disorders as fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, or Down... Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) previously known as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), is generally considered to be a developmental disorder, largely neurological in nature, affecting about 5% of the worlds population. ... In psychiatry, conduct disorder is a pattern of repetitive behavior where the rights of others or the social norms are violated. ... Oppositional defiant disorder is a controversial psychiatric category listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders where it is described as an ongoing pattern of disobedient, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures that goes beyond the bounds of normal childhood behavior. ... Separation Anxiety redirects here. ... Selective mutism is a social anxiety disorder in which a person who is normally capable of speech is unable to speak in given situations. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Attachment disorder. ... A tic is a repeated, impulsive action, almost reflexive in nature, which the actor feels powerless to control or avoid. ... “Tourette” redirects here. ... Speech disorders or speech impediments, as they are also called, are a type of communication disorders where normal speech is disrupted. ... “Stutter” redirects here. ... Cluttering (also called tachyphemia) is a communicative disorder characterized by speech that is difficult for listeners to understand due to rapid speaking rate, erratic rhythm, poor syntax or grammar, and words or groups of words unrelated to the sentence. ...


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Autistism - Maap Services, Inc. (4359 words)
Asperger syndrome (also called Asperger disorder) is a relatively new category of developmental disorder, the term having only come into more general use over the past fifteen years.
Asperger syndrome is the term applied to the mildest and highest functioning end of what is known as the spectrum of pervasive developmental disorders (or the Autism spectrum).
Asperger syndrome represents that portion of the PDD continuum which is characterized by higher cognitive abilities (at least normal IQ by definition, and sometimes ranging up into the very superior range) and by more normal language function compared to other disorders along the spectrum.
Asperger's Syndrome (6537 words)
The assertions of the children with Asperger syndrome were generally not different than those of the children with SLI or normal development except for a higher proportion of assertions involving own internal state.
Asperger's disorder was diagnosed after we reconsidered the relationship between the schizoid psychopathy in childhood and the stealing behaviours which occurred in adolescence.
Asperger's Syndrome(AS) is a severe developmental disorder characterized primarily by marked and sustained difficulties in social interaction and unusual patterns of circumscribed interests and behavioral peculiarities.
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