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Encyclopedia > Aspect ratio (image)

The aspect ratio of an image is its width divided by its height. Display standards comparison The display resolution of a digital television or computer display typically refers to the number of distinct pixels in each dimension that can be displayed. ... Look up image in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Aspect ratios are mathematically expressed as x:y (pronounced "x-to-y") and x×y (pronounced "x-by-y"). The most common aspect ratios used today in the presentation of films in movie theaters are 1.85:1 and 2.39:1[1]. Two common videographic aspect ratios are 4:3 (1.33:1), universal for standard-definition video formats, and 16:9 (1.78:1), universal to high-definition television and European digital television. Other cinema and video aspect ratios exist, but are used infrequently. In still camera photography, the most common aspect ratios are 4:3 and 3:2, though other aspect ratios, such as 5:4, 7:5, and 1:1 (square format), are used. This article is about motion pictures. ... Videography refers to the process of capturing moving images on electronic media (e. ... Standard-definition television or SDTV refers to television systems that have a lower resolution than HDTV systems. ... Projection screen in a home theater, displaying a high-definition television image. ... Digital television (DTV) refers to the sending and receiving of moving images and sound by means of discrete (digital) signals, in contrast to the analog signals used by analog TV. Introduced in the late 1990s, this technology appealed to the television broadcasting business and consumer electronics industries as offering new... A camera is a device used to take photographs. ...

Five common aspect ratios
4:3
3:2
4:3 3:2 16:9 1.85:1 2.39:1
1.85:1
2.39:1

Converting formats of unequal ratios is done by either cropping the original image to the receiving format's aspect ratio, by adding horizontal mattes (letterboxing) or vertical mattes (pillarboxing) to retain the original format's aspect ratio, or by distorting the image to fill the receiving format's ratio. Cinematographic aspect ratios are usually denoted as a decimal fraction width to unit height, while videographic aspect ratios are usually denoted by ratios of whole numbers.[citation needed] For the mail collector, see letter box. ... A 4:3 image pillarboxed into a 16:9 display The pillar box effect occurs in widescreen video displays when black bars (mattes or masking) are placed on the sides of the image. ...

Contents

The evolution of film and television aspect ratios

Comparison of five common aspect ratios constrained by the screen's diagonal measure (black circle). The two widest and shortest boxes (purple, 2.39:1 and yellow, 1.85:1), are common cinematographic formats. The slightly taller blue box (16:9) is the Video widescreen standard used in high-definition television. The green box (3:2) depicts a common photography format, and the tallest (red, 4:3) box is the standard definition television format, which is also widely used in photography.
Comparison of five common aspect ratios constrained by the screen's diagonal measure (black circle). The two widest and shortest boxes (purple, 2.39:1 and yellow, 1.85:1), are common cinematographic formats. The slightly taller blue box (16:9) is the Video widescreen standard used in high-definition television. The green box (3:2) depicts a common photography format, and the tallest (red, 4:3) box is the standard definition television format, which is also widely used in photography.

Image File history File links WideScreenFormats. ... Image File history File links WideScreenFormats. ... Projection screen in a home theater, displaying a high-definition television image. ... Standard-definition television or SDTV refers to television systems that have a lower resolution than HDTV systems. ...

Practical limitations

In motion picture formats, the physical size of the film area between the sprocket perforations determines the image's size. The universal standard (established by William Dickson and Thomas Edison in 1892) is a frame that is four perforations high. The film itself is 35 mm wide (1.38 in), but the area between the perforations is 24.89 mm×18.67 mm (0.980 in×0.735 in).[2] With a space designated for the standard optical soundtrack, and the frame size reduced to maintain an image that is wider than taller (mimicking human eyesight), this resulted in the Academy aperture of 22 mm×16 mm (0.866 in×0.630 in) or 1.37:1 aspect ratio. William Kennedy Laurie Dickson (August 3, 1860, Minihic-Sur-Rance, Brittany, France - September 28, 1935) was a Scottish inventor who is credited with the invention of the motion picture camera under the employ of Thomas Edison. ... Edison redirects here. ... Sound-on-film refers to a class of sound film processes where the sound accompanying picture is physically recorded onto photographic film, usually, but not always, the same film strip of film carrying the picture. ...


Cinema terminology

The motion picture industry convention assigns a value of 1.0 to the image’s height, thus, an anamorphic frame is described as 2.40:1 or 2.40 ("two-four-oh"). In American cinemas, the common projection ratios are 1.85:1 and 2.40:1. Some European countries have 1.66:1 as the widescreen standard. 1.33:1 was used for all cinema films until the 1950s. By a 'strange coincidence,' 1.33:1 is the screen ratio of 'standard' television broadcasts. When television became a threat to movie audiences, Hollywood gave birth to a large number of wide-screen formats: Cinemascope, Todd-AO, and VistaVision (to name just a few). During the 1950s the 1.85:1 aspect ratio became one of the most common cinema projection standards in the U.S.. For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as part of... Anamorphic widescreen is a cinematography and photography technique for capturing a widescreen picture on standard 35mm film. ...


Movie camera systems

Development of various camera systems must therefore ultimately cater to the placement of the frame in relation to these lateral constraints of the perforations and the optical soundtrack area. One clever widescreen alternative, VistaVision, used standard 35 mm film running sideways through the camera gate, so that the sprocket holes were above and below frame, resulting in a larger horizontal negative size per frame as the vertical size was now restricted by the perforations. However, the 1.5 ratio of the initial VistaVision image needed to be cropped down to 1.85 and optically converted to a vertical print (on standard 4-perforation 35 mm film) to show in the projectors available at theaters. Though the format was briefly revived by Lucasfilm in the 1970s for special effects work that required larger negative size (due to image degradation from the optical printing steps necessary to make multi-layer composites), it went into obsolescence largely due to better cameras, lenses, and film stocks available to standard 4-perforation formats, in addition to increased lab costs of making prints in comparison to more standard vertical processes. (The horizontal process was later adapted to 70 mm film by IMAX.) A VistaVision 35 mm horizontal camera film frame. ... 35 mm film frames. ... Lucasfilm Ltd. ... IMAX theatre at the Melbourne Museum complex, Australia BFI London IMAX by night IMAX (short for Image Maximum) is a film format created by Canadas IMAX Corporation that has the capacity to display images of far greater size and resolution than conventional film display systems. ...


Super 16 mm film is frequently used for television production due to its lower cost, lack of need for soundtrack space on the film itself (as it is not projected but rather transferred to video), and aspect ratio similar to 16:9 (Super 16 mm is natively 1.66 whilst 16:9 is 1.78). It also can be blown up to 35 mm for theatrical release and therefore is also used for feature films. 16 mm film was introduced by Eastman Kodak in 1923 as an inexpensive amateur alternative to the conventional 35 mm film format. ...


Current video standards

4:3 standard

The 4:3 ratio (generally named as: "Four-Three", "Four-by-Three" or "Four-to-Three") for standard television has been in use since television's origins and many computer monitors use the same aspect ratio. 4:3 is the aspect ratio defined by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences as a standard after the advent of optical sound-on-film. By having TV match this aspect ratio, films previously photographed on film could be satisfactorily viewed on TV in the early days of the medium (i.e. the 1940s and the 1950s). When cinema attendance dropped, Hollywood created widescreen aspect ratios (such as the 1.85:1 ratio mentioned earlier) in order to differentiate their industry from the TV. Nineteen inch (48 cm) CRT computer monitor A computer display, monitor or screen is a computer peripheral device capable of showing still or moving images generated by a computer and processed by a graphics card. ... Fairbanks Center for Motion Picture Study building on La Cienega Boulevard in Beverly Hills, California Pickford Center for Motion Picture Study in the Hollywood, district. ... Sound-on-film refers to a class of sound film processes where the sound accompanying picture is physically recorded onto photographic film, usually, but not always, the same film strip of film carrying the picture. ... The Wikipedia main page as viewed with a widescreen monitor. ...


16:9 standard

16:9 (generally named as: "Sixteen-Nine", "Sixteen-by-Nine" or "Sixteen-to-Nine") is the international standard format of HDTV as used in Australia, Canada, Japan, South Korea, and the United States, as well as in Europe on HDTV and non-HD widescreen television (EDTV) PALplus. Japan's Hi-Vision originally started with a 5:3 ratio but converted when the international standards group introduced a wider ratio of 5⅓ to 3 (=16:9), invented by Kerns H. Powers in 1984. The 1.78:1 aspect ratio was the compromise between the 35 mm US and UK widescreen standard (1.85:1) and the 35 mm European widescreen standard (1.66:1)[citation needed]. Many digital video cameras have the capability to record in 16:9. Anamorphic DVD transfers store the information vertically stretched in a 3:2 aspect ratio; if the TV can handle an anamorphic image, it will horizontally decompress the signal to 16:9. If not, the DVD player can reduce scan lines and add letterboxing before sending the image to the TV. Wider ratios such as 1.85:1 and 2.40:1[1] are accommodated within the 16:9 DVD frame by additional black bars within the image itself. After the original 16:9 Action Plan of the early 1990s, the European Union and Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina have instituted the 16:9 Action Plan,[citation needed] just to accelerate the development of the advanced television services in 16:9 aspect ratio, both in PAL and also in HDTV. The Community fund for the 16:9 Action Plan amounted to 228 million.
Projection screen in a home theater, displaying a high-definition television image. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Projection screen in a home theater, displaying a high-definition television image. ... This article is about a movie. ... PALplus is an extension of the PAL analogue broadcasting system for transmitting 16:9 programs without sacrificing vertical resolution. ... Japan had the earliest working HDTV system, with design efforts going back to 1979. ... Digital video is a type of video recording system that works by using a digital, rather than analog, of the video signal. ... For the film format, see anamorphic format. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... For the mail collector, see letter box. ... The location of the FBiH entity as part of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Europe. ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... Projection screen in a home theater, displaying a high-definition television image. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


16:9 in Europe

In Europe 16:9 is being adopted as the standard broadcast format for digital and high definition TV, some countries even adopted the format for analogue television by means of the PalPlus standard.

Country Channel
U.K. Almost all main channels
Belgium Flanders: All main channels Wallonia: Almost all main channels
France France Télévisions, NRJ, Luxe TV
Germany ARD, ZDF, Eins Extra, Eins Festival, Eins Plus, ARTE, Phoenix, DW-TV, Das Erste, Bayerisches Fernsehen, Hessen Fernsehen, WDR Fernsehen Köln, BR Alpha, Südwest Fernsehen Baden-Würtemberg, 3sat, RBB Brandenburg, RBB Berlin, Radio Bremen TV, RTL Television, Pro7
Austria ORF1, ORF2, ORF Sport Plus and ORF 1 HD
Switzerland All SRG SSR idée suisse channels
Italy SKY Italia, Rai Sport Più
Greece SKAI[1]
Denmark DR1, DR2
Sweden TV 8 Sweden, Barnkanalen, Viasat Sport 1, TV 4 Fakta
Norway NRK 1, NRK 2
Bosnia and Herzegovina BN TV Bijeljina, TV Mostar
Montenegro RTV Panorama

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the European Union. ... Logo France télévisions headquarters in Paris France Télévisions is the French public national television broadcaster. ... NRJ (or energy) is a radio company and brand of commercial radio stations in Europe. ... ARD may refer to: ARD (broadcaster), the Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, the German association of public broadcasters. ... Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (Second German Television), ZDF, is a public service German television channel based in Mainz. ... The Arte building in Strasbourg Arte (Association Relative à la Télévision Européenne) is a Franco-German TV network, which aims to promote quality programming related to the world of arts and culture. ... // Phoenix is a German publicly-funded television station and which was created by the television stations ARD and ZDF. Its programming is consisting of documentaries, news broadcasts, event coverage and debate rounds. ... The Deutsche Welle building in Bonn Deutsche Welle or DW is Germanys international broadcaster. ... The principal German public national TV channel. ... 3sats logo 3sat is the name of a public, advertising-free, television network in Central Europe. ... RTL (formerly RTL plus) is a German commercial television station distributed via cable and satellite along with DVB-T (Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial, in larger population centers). ... ProSieben is a commercial television channel in Germany. ... ORF (Österreichischer Rundfunk) is the national Austrian public service broadcaster. ... SRG SSR idée suisse is the Swiss public broadcasting organisation, founded in 1931. ... SKY Italia is an Italian digital satellite television platform owned by News Corporation. ... DR1 is a Danish television station. ... DR2 is a Danish television station. ... Barnkanalen (the Children Channel) is a channel from Sveriges Television dedicated to childrens programming. ... Viasat Sport 1 is a sports channel broadcasting from the United Kingdom, primarily targeting Sweden. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Radio Televizija Panorama (English: Radio Television Panorama) is a local broadcasting company based in Pljevlja, Montenegro. ...

Visual comparisons

Comparing two different aspect ratios is arguably difficult.[citation needed] Given the same diagonal, the 4:3 screen offers more area. For CRT-based technology, an aspect ratio that is closer to square is cheaper to manufacture.[citation needed] The same is true for projectors, and other optical devices such as cameras, camcorders, etc. For LCD and Plasma displays, however, the cost is proportional to the area. Therefore, 16:9 screens are cheaper than 4:3 screens with the same diagonal.


Two aspect ratios compared with images using the same diagonal:

4:3 (1.33:1)
4:3 (1.33:1)
16:9 (1.78:1)
16:9 (1.78:1)

Image File history File links Aspect_ratio_4_3_example. ... Image File history File links Aspect_ratio_4_3_example. ... Image File history File links Aspect_ratio_16_9_example. ... Image File history File links Aspect_ratio_16_9_example. ...

Previous and presently used aspect ratios

See List of common resolutions for a listing of computer resolutions and aspect ratios.
See List of film formats for a full listing of film formats, including their aspect ratios.
Aspect ratio Description
1.19:1 "Movietone" - early 35 mm sound film ratio used in the late 1920s and early 1930s, especially in Europe. The optical soundtrack was placed on the side of the 1.33 frame, thus reducing the width of the frame. The Academy Aperture frame (1.37) fixed this by making the frame lines thicker. The best examples of this ratio are Fritz Lang's first sound films: M and The Testament of Dr. Mabuse. This is also roughly identical to the ratio of the physical frame used for anamorphic photography today.
1.25:1 The British 405 line TV system used this aspect ratio from its beginning in the 1930s until 1950 when it changed to the more common 1.33 format.
1.33:1 35 mm original silent film ratio, commonly known in TV and video as 4:3. Also standard ratio for MPEG-2 video compression.
1.37:1 35 mm full-screen sound film image, nearly universal in movies between 1932 and 1953. Officially adopted as the Academy ratio in 1932 by AMPAS. Still occasionally used. Also standard 16 mm.
1.43:1 IMAX format. Imax productions use 70 mm wide film (the same as used for 70 mm feature films), but the film runs through the camera and projector sideways. This allows for a physically larger area for each image.
1.5:1 The aspect ratio of 35 mm film used for still photography.
1.56:1 Widescreen aspect ratio 14:9. Often used in shooting commercials etc. as a compromise format between 4:3 (12:9) and 16:9, especially when the output will be used in both standard TV and widescreen. When converted to a 16:9 frame, there is slight pillarboxing, while conversion to 4:3 creates slight letterboxing.
1.66:1 35 mm European widescreen standard; native Super 16 mm frame ratio. (5:3, sometimes expressed more accurately as "1.67".)
1.75:1 Early 35 mm widescreen ratio, primarily used by MGM, and since abandoned.
1.78:1 Video widescreen standard (16:9), used in high-definition television, One of three ratios specified for MPEG-2 video compression.
1.85:1 35 mm US and UK widescreen standard for theatrical film. Uses approximately 3 perforations ("perfs") of image space per 4 perf frame; films can be shot in 3-perf to save cost of film stock.
2.00:1 Original SuperScope ratio, also used in Univisium.
2.20:1 70 mm standard. Originally developed for Todd-AO in the 1950s. 2.21:1 is specified for MPEG-2 but not used.
2.35:1 35 mm anamorphic prior to 1970, used by CinemaScope ("'Scope") and early Panavision. The anamorphic standard has subtly changed so that modern anamorphic productions are actually 2.39,[1] but often referred to as 2.35 anyway, due to old convention. (Note that anamorphic refers to the compression of the image on film to maximize an area slightly taller than standard 4-perf academy aperture, but presents the widest of aspect ratios.)
2.39:1 35 mm anamorphic from 1970 onwards. Sometimes rounded up to 2.40:1[1] Often commercially branded as Panavision format or 'Scope.
2.55:1 Original aspect ratio of CinemaScope before optical sound was added to the film. This was also the aspect ratio of CinemaScope 55.
2.59:1 Cinerama at full height (three specially captured 35 mm images projected side-by-side into one composite widescreen image).
2.76:1 MGM Camera 65 (65 mm with 1.25x anamorphic squeeze). Used only on a handful of films between 1956 and 1964, such as Ben-Hur (1959).
4.00:1 Polyvision, three 35 mm 1.33 images projected side by side. Used only on Abel Gance's Napoléon (1927).

This is a list of image resolutions sorted by the horizontal pixel dimension in ascending numerical order. ... This is a list of film formats known to have been developed for shooting or viewing motion pictures since the development of such photographic technology towards the end of the 19th century. ... Friedrich Christian Anton Fritz Lang (December 5, 1890 – August 2, 1976) was an Austrian-German-American film director, screenwriter and occasional film producer, one of the best known émigrés from Germanys school of Expressionism. ... M (original German title: M - Eine Stadt sucht einen Mörder, M - a city in search of a murderer) is a 1931 German film noir directed by Fritz Lang and written by Thea von Harbou. ... The Testament of Dr. Mabuse (Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse) is a 1933 movie by director Fritz Lang, his second sound film, and the second to feature the villain Dr. Mabuse (if the first, , is counted as one movie in two parts rather than as two films). ... 405 line is the name of a monochrome analogue television broadcasting system in operation in the UK between 1936 and 1985, and also used for some time in Ireland and Hong Kong. ... For other uses, see Video (disambiguation). ... MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... The Academy ratio of 1. ... The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) is a professional honorary organization, founded on May 11, 1927 in California to advance the arts and sciences of motion pictures. ... IMAX theatre at the Melbourne Museum complex, Australia BFI London IMAX by night IMAX (short for Image Maximum) is a film format created by Canadas IMAX Corporation that has the capacity to display images of far greater size and resolution than conventional film display systems. ... For the mail collector, see letter box. ... Projection screen in a home theater, displaying a high-definition television image. ... MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... Film perforations, also known as perfs, are the holes placed in the film stock during manufacturing and used for transporting (via sprockets and claws) and steadying (via pin registration) the film. ... 3-perf and 2-perf are 35mm film camera systems used only in the origination and post-production transfer process. ... The Univisium 3-perf film proposed format frame. ... Todd-AO was a widescreen film format developed in the mid 1950s. ... A Fox logo used to promote the CinemaScope process. ... Panavision is a motion picture equipment company specializing in cameras and lenses, based in Woodland Hills, California. ... A Fox logo used to promote the CinemaScope process. ... The CinemaScope 55 title screen that followed the Fox logo A frame of the negative of Carousel. CinemaScope 55 was a large-format version of CinemaScope introduced in 1955, which used a negative size of 55. ... Cinerama is the trademarked name for a widescreen process which works by simultaneously projecting images from three synchronized 35 mm projectors onto a huge, deeply-curved screen, subtending 146° of arc, and for the corporation which was formed to market it. ... MGM Camera 65 is a wide-screen film format developed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in the 1950s, as a single-strip substitute for Cinerama. ... Ben-Hur is a 1959 epic film directed by William Wyler, and is the third film version of Lew Wallaces novel Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ (1880). ... Polyvision is the leader in innovation for interactive presentation products and collaboration tools, from traditional whiteboards and chalkboards, to interactive whiteboards and presentation tools for the education, corporate, government and military markets. ... Abel Gance (October 25, 1889 - November 10, 1981) was a world-renowned French film director, producer, writer, actor and editor. ... Napoléon is an epic (1927) silent French film directed by Abel Gance that tells the story of the rise of Napoleon I of France. ...

Aspect ratio releases

Original aspect ratio (OAR)

Original Aspect Ratio (OAR) is a home cinema term for the aspect ratio or dimensions in which a film or visual production was produced — as envisioned by the people involved in the creation of the work. As an example, the film Gladiator was released to theaters in the 2.39:1 aspect ratio. It was filmed in Super 35 mm film and, in addition to being presented in cinemas and television in the Original Aspect Ratio of 2.39:1, it was also broadcast without the matte altering the aspect ratio to the television standard of 1.33:1. Because of the varied ways in which films are shot, IAR (Intended Aspect Ratio) is a more appropriate term, but is rarely used. A 3 metres/119 inch projection screen with a high-definition television image. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... This article is about the 2000 film. ... Comparing the film area of Super 35 to CinemaScope, standard widescreen and Techniscope. ... Mattes are used in photography and filmmaking to insert part of a foreground image onto a background image, which is often a matte painting, a background filmed by the second unit, or computer generated imagery. ...


Modified aspect ratio (MAR)

Modified Aspect Ratio is a home cinema term for the aspect ratio or dimensions in which a film was modified to fit a specific type of screen, as opposed to original aspect ratio. Modified aspect ratios are usually either 1.33:1 (historically), or (with the advent of widescreen television sets) 1.78:1 aspect ratio. 1.33:1 is the modified aspect ratio used historically in VHS format. A modified aspect ratio transfer is achieved by means of pan and scan or open matte, the latter meaning removing the cinematic matte from a 1.85:1 film to open up the full 1.33:1 frame. A 2. ... Open matte is similar to Super 35 in that it involves matting out the top and bottom of the frame for the theatrical release and removing the mattes for the home video release. ...


Problems in film and television

Multiple aspect ratios create additional burdens on filmmakers and consumers, and confusion among TV broadcasters. It is common for a widescreen film to be presented in an altered format (cropped, letterboxed or expanded beyond the Original Aspect Ratio). It is also not uncommon for windowboxing to occur (when letterbox and pillarbox happen simultaneously). For instance, a 16:9 broadcast could embed a 4:3 commercial within the 16:9 image area. A viewer watching on a standard 4:3 (non-widescreen) television would see a 4:3 image of the commercial with 2 sets of black stripes, vertical and horizontal (windowboxing or the postage stamp effect). A similar scenario may also occur for a widescreen set owner when viewing 16:9 material embedded in a 4:3 frame, and then watching that in 16:9. It is also not uncommon that a 4:3 image is stretched horizontally to fit a 16:9 screen to avoid pillar boxing. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A windowboxed image (16:9 to 4:3 to 16:9) Windowboxing is when the aspect ratio of a film is such that the letterbox effect and pillarbox effect occur simultaneously[1][2][3]. Sometimes, by accident or design, a standard ratio image is presented in the central portion of... A windowboxed image (16:9 to 4:3 to 16:9) Windowboxing is when the aspect ratio of a film is such that the letterbox effect and pillarbox effect occur simultaneously[1][2][3]. Sometimes, by accident or design, a standard ratio image is presented in the central portion of... A windowboxed image (16:9 to 4:3 to 16:9) Windowboxing is when the aspect ratio of a film is such that the letterbox effect and pillarbox effect occur simultaneously[1][2][3]. Sometimes, by accident or design, a standard ratio image is presented in the central portion of... A 2. ... For the mail collector, see letter box. ...


Both PAL and NTSC have provision for some data pulses contained within the video signal used to signal the aspect ratio (See ITU-R BT.1119-1 - Widescreen signaling for broadcasting). These pulses are detected by television sets that have widescreen displays and cause the television to automatically switch to 16:9 display mode. When 4:3 material is included (such as the aforementioned commercial), the television switches to a 4:3 display mode to correctly display the material. Where a video signal is transmitted via a European SCART connection, one of the status lines is used to signal 16:9 material as well. In television technology, widescreen signaling (WSS) is a digital stream embedded in the TV signal describing qualities of the broadcast, in particular the intended aspect ratio of the image. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


For many artists, however, aspect ratio is determined not by the constraints of the technology or medium, but by the content or the story. Indeed, as long ago as the early 20th century, film directors such as D. W. Griffith, one of the early giants in film, would sometimes change the picture aspect ratio within the film. In "Intolerance", for example, a single shot where a character falls from a high wall has the sides of the vista greatly cropped to enhance the dramatic height of the fall. Today, Directors of Photography are often forced to compose the shot to keep the essential subjects in the "sweet spot" of the frame as a compositional compromise between the intended aspect ratio and the potential future alternate ratios to be presented. David Llewelyn Wark D.W. Griffith (January 22, 1875 – July 23, 1948) was an American film director. ...


Still photography

Common aspect ratios in still photography include 4:3 (1.33) used by most point-and-shoot digital cameras; 3:2 (1.5) used by 35mm film, APS-C ("classic" mode) and most DSLRs; 1.81:1 (close to 16:9) used by APS-H high definition mode; 3:1 used by APS-P panoramic mode; and 1:1 (square) in a variety of cameras. A point and shoot camera, also called a compact camera, is a still camera designed primarily for simple operation. ... 135 Film Size, Kodak Tri-X 400 speed 135 (ISO 1007) is a film format for still photography. ... A digital single lens reflex or DSLR camera is a single-lens reflex camera (SLR) which records images using an electronic sensor (Usually a CCD or CMOS chip) instead of film. ... An Advanced Photo System (IX240) film cartridge Advanced Photo System (APS) is a film format for still photography. ...


Common print sizes in the U.S. (in inches) include 4x6 (1.5), 5x7 (1.4), 4x5 and 8x10 (1.25), and 11x14 (1.27); large-format cameras typical use one of these aspect ratios. Medium-format cameras typically have format designated by nominal sizes in centimeters (6x6, 6x7, 6x9, 6x4.5), but these numbers should not be interpreted as exact in computing aspect ratios. For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Old studio camera. ... A size comparison of medium format film, left, and regular 35 mm film. ...


See also

In television technology, Active Format Descriptor or Active Format Description (AFD) is a signal that broadcasters will transmit with the picture to enable 4:3 and 16:9 television sets to display picture in the intended aspect ratio. ... For the film format, see anamorphic format. ... Four Thirds Logo The Four Thirds System is a standard created by Olympus and Kodak for digital SLR camera design and development. ... Categories: Stub ... For the mail collector, see letter box. ... This is a list of image resolutions sorted by the horizontal pixel dimension in ascending numerical order. ... This is a list of film formats known to have been developed for shooting or viewing motion pictures since the development of such photographic technology towards the end of the 19th century. ... The film industry is built upon a large number of technologies and techniques. ... A 2. ... Comparison of the most common paper sizes. ... The Wikipedia main page as viewed with a widescreen monitor. ... Widescreen televisions provide several modes for displaying video from 4:3 (standard aspect ratio) sources. ...

References

Cited references
  1. ^ a b c d The 2.39:1 ratio is commonly labeled 2.40:1, e.g., in the American Society of Cinematographers' American Cinematographer Manual, and is mistakenly referred to as 2.35:1 (only cinema films before the 1970 SMPTE revision used it)
  2. ^ Burum, Stephen H.(ed)(2004). American Cinematographer Manual(9th ed). ASC Press. ISBN 0-935578-24-2
General references
  • NEC Monitor Technology Guide. Retrieved on 2006-07-24.

The American Society of Cinematographers (ASC) is not a labor union or guild, but rather an educational, cultural and professional organization. ... The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers or SMPTE (pronounced simptee or sometimes sumptee) is a US professional association of engineers. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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aspect ratio: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (1128 words)
As originally conceived, the ratio of the span of a wing or airfoil to the chord of a wing, where the span is the maximum cross-stream dimension and the chord is the dimension in the streamwise direction, as illustrated.
Because S is equal to bc for a wing of rectangular planform, the definition of aspect ratio given in the equation corresponds to the original idea of the ratio of the span to the chord for a rectangular wing.
Aspect ratio is a powerful indicator of the general performance of a wing.
Aspect Ratios @ Filmbug UK (2224 words)
The aspect ratio of an image is its displayed width divided by its height (usually expressed as "x:y").
Aspect ratios of 2.35:1 or 1.85:1 are frequently used in cinematography, while the aspect ratio of a standard 35mm film frame is around 1.37:1.
The aspect ratio of a standard 35 millimeter frame is around 1.37:1, although cameramen may use only the part of the frame which will be visible on a television screen (which is 1.33:1 for standard television).
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