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Encyclopedia > Asmara
Asmara
Panorama of Asmara
Panorama of Asmara
Asmara (Eritrea)
Asmara
Map of Asmara in Eritrea
Coordinates: 15°20′N 38°56′E / 15.333, 38.933
Country Eritrea
Elevation 7,628 ft (2,325 m)
Population (2003)
 - Total 400,000
 - Density 85.2/sq mi (32.9/km²)
Time zone EAT (UTC+3)

Asmara (English) (Ge'ez: ኣስመራ Asmera, formerly known as Asmera, or in Arabic: أسمرا ‎Asmaraa) is the capital city and largest settlement in Eritrea, home to a population of around 579,000 people. At an elevation of over 2,000 meters (7000 ft), Asmara is on the edge of an escarpment that is both the northwestern edge of the Great Rift Valley and of the Eritrean highlands. Textiles and clothing, processed meat, beer, shoes, and ceramics are the major industrial products. Asmara started with four villages, to being a regional center under Emperor Yohannes IV of Ethiopia, to "Little Rome" of Mussolini's unsuccessful second Roman Empire, to being a provincial capital under Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia and lastly a national capital of Eritrea. Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Africa: Striped colours indicate countries observing daylight saving East Africa Time, or EAT, is a time zone used in eastern Africa. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Capital City is a 60-minute television show produced by Euston Films that ran for 13 episodes in 1989 on ITV. This drama focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman. ... In geology, an escarpment is a transition zone between different physiogeographic provinces that involves an elevation differential, often involving high cliffs. ... Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ... Teff field at the base of a small hill in the Eritrean Highlands. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shoe (disambiguation). ... This article is about ceramic materials. ... Emperor Yohannes IV (c. ... This is the history of Italy as a monarchy and in the World Wars. ... Haile Selassie I KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (Geez: , Power of the Trinity; July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. ...

Contents

History

Asmara grew from four villages founded in the twelfth century. Originally, it is said, there were four clans living in the Asmara area on the Kebessa Plateau: Gheza Gurtom, Gheza Shelele, Gheza Serenser and Gheza Asmae. Encouraged by their women, the men united the four clans and defeated the bandits who preyed on the area. After the victory, a new name was given to the place, Arbaete Asmera which literally means, in the Tigrinya language, the four (female plural) united. Eventually Arbaete was dropped and it has been called Asmera, though there is still a zone called Arbaete Asmera.

Asmara Church
Asmara Church

The missionary Remedius Prutky passed through Asmara in 1751, and described in his memoirs that a church built there by Jesuit priests 130 years before was still intact.[1] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (838x559, 101 KB) Popis Panorama of Asmara. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ...


Asmara undeniably acquired importance in 1881, when Ras Alula Engida whom Emperor Yohannes IV of Ethiopia had appointed governor of the region founded a market in that place. A few years later, in 1884, he moved his capital from Adi Taklay to Asmara and had three stone buildings built to house his troops and serve as his banquet hall. About the same time Ras Alula ordered all of the other markets in the Mareb Mellash province closed (which included Sazega and Kudofelasi in modern Eritrea as well as Idaga Hamus in Ethiopia), giving further economic stimulus to Asmara. The population grew from an estimated 150 people in 1830 to 2,000 during Alula's governorship.[2] Ethiopian aristocratic and religious titles used in Ethiopia until the end of the Monarchy in 1974. ... Emperor Yohannes IV (c. ...


It was occupied by Italy in 1889 and became the national capital in 1897. In the early 20th century, a railway line was built to the coast, passing through the town of Ghinda, under the direction of Carlo Cavanna. In both 1913 and 1915 the city suffered only slight damage in large earthquakes.[3] In the late 1930s the Italians changed the face of the town, with a new structure and new buildings; Asmara was called Piccola Roma (Little Rome). While Eritrea was under Italian colonial rule, architecturally conservative early-20th-century Europeans used Asmara "to experiment with radical new designs."[4] Nowadays the major part of buildings are of Italian origin, and shops still have Italian names (e.g. Bar Vittoria, Pasticceria moderna, Casa del formaggio, and Ferramenta). Ghinda is a town in Eritrea, lying between Asmara and Massawa. ... Cavanna is a family name from the north of Italy, with several variants, such as Cavana, Cavani, and Cavanni. ... The 1913 Asmara Earthquake was a seismic movement that took place outside Asmara, Eritrea on 1915-02-27. ... The 1915 Asmara Earthquake was a seismic movement that took place outside Asmara, Eritrea on 1915-09-23. ...


During the Eritrean war for independence from Ethiopia, Asmara's airport became a key in the conflict, as it was used by the Ethiopians to obtain arms and supplies from outside supporters. The last town to fall to the Eritrean People's Liberation Front in the Eritrean War of Independence, it was besieged in 1990 and was surrendered by Military of Ethiopia troops without a fight on May 24, 1991. Asmara International Airport, formerly known as Yohannes IV International Airport (IATA: ASM, ICAO: HHAS) is an airport in Asmara, the capital of Eritrea. ... The Eritrean Peoples Liberation Front (EPLF) was an armed organization that fought for the independence of Eritrea from Ethiopia. ... Combatants ELF EPLF Ethiopia Cuba Soviet Union Commanders Isaias Afewerki Haile Selassie Mengistu Haile Mariam Casualties 65,000 (offical state figure) Up to 500,000 The Eritrean War of Independence started on 1 September 1961 when Hamid Idris Awate and his companions fired the first shots against the occupying Ethiopian... The Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF) has approximately 100,000 personnel, which makes it one of the largest military forces in Africa. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ...


In Asmara the main language is Tigrinya. Italian and English are widely spoken and understood.[5]


Features

The city is home to the Eritrean National Museum and is known for its early twentieth century buildings, including the Art Deco Cinema Impero, Cubist Africa Pension, eclectic Orthodox Cathedral and former Opera House, the futurist Fiat Tagliero Building, neo-Romanesque Roman Catholic Cathedral, and the neoclassical Governor's Palace. The city is littered with Italian colonial villas and mansions. Most of central Asmara was built between 1935 and 1941, so effectively the Italians managed to build almost an entire city, in just six short years.[6] At this time, the dictator Mussolini had great plans for a second Roman Empire in Africa. War cut this short however, but his injection of funds adversely made Asmara what it is today, and was supposedly a symbol that Fascism was working and an ideal system of government. The former governors palace in Asmara, Eritrea is a fine Italian neo-romanesque building in central Asmara. ... Asheville City Hall. ... The Cinema Impero is a Art Deco style Cinema built by the Italians in Asmara, Eritrea in the 1930s. ... The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church is an Oriental Orthodox church. ... New York State Theater, Lincoln Center, home of the New York City Opera Bolshoi Theatre. ... Perspective drawing from La Citta Nuova by SantElia, 1914. ... The Fiat Tagliero Building in Asmara, Eritrea is a futuristic service station designed/constructed in 1938 by the engineer Giuseppe Pettazzi. ... Lazienkowski Palace in Warsaw The neoclassical movement that produced Neoclassical architecture began in the mid-18th century, as a reaction against both the surviving Baroque and Rococo styles, and as a desire to return to the perceived purity of the arts of Rome, the more vague perception (ideal) of Ancient... The Roman Catholic Cathedral of Asmara, Eritrea is a large Lombard-Romanesque style cathedral built in the centre of the city. ... The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius. ... The former governors palace in Asmara, Eritrea is a fine Italian neo-romanesque building in central Asmara. ... In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ... A villa was originally a Roman country house built for the upper class. ... Mansion near Almelo, The Netherlands Introduction A mansion is a large and stately dwelling house. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence and seek to achieve a millenarian national rebirth by placing the interests of the individual as subordinate to that of the nation or race and promoting...


The city shows off most early 20th century architectural styles; some buildings are neo-Romanesque, such as the Roman Catholic Cathedral, some villas are built in a late Victorian style. Art Deco influences are found throughout the city; essentially Asmara was then what Dubai is now. Architects were restricted by nothing more than the bounds of their imaginations and were given the funds to create masterpieces which we can see today. Essences of Cubism can be found on the Africa Pension Building, and on a small collection of buildings. The Fiat Tagliero Building shows almost the height of futurism, just as it was coming into big fashion in Italy. In recent times, some buildings have been functionally built which sometimes can spoil the atmosphere of some cities, but they fit into Asmara as it is such a modern city. Lazienkowski Palace in Warsaw The neoclassical movement that produced Neoclassical architecture began in the mid-18th century, as a reaction against both the surviving Baroque and Rococo styles, and as a desire to return to the perceived purity of the arts of Rome, the more vague perception (ideal) of Ancient... Manchester Town Hall is an example of Victorian architecture found in Manchester, UK. The Carson Mansion is an example of a Victorian home in Eureka, California, USA The term Victorian architecture can refer to one of a number of architectural styles predominantly in the Victorian era. ... Asheville City Hall. ... Georges Braque, Woman with a guitar, 1913 Cubism was a 20th century art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music and literature. ... The Fiat Tagliero Building in Asmara, Eritrea is a futuristic service station designed/constructed in 1938 by the engineer Giuseppe Pettazzi. ... Perspective drawing from La Citta Nuova by SantElia, 1914. ...


Asmara is also home to the University of Asmara and a nineteenth century fort, Forte Baldissera. It is served by Asmara International Airport, and is connected to the port of Massawa by the Eritrean Railway. The University of Asmara (UoA) was Eritreas first university and is located in the capital city, Asmara. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Asmara International Airport, formerly known as Yohannes IV International Airport (IATA: ASM, ICAO: HHAS) is an airport in Asmara, the capital of Eritrea. ... Massawa in the 19th century Massawa or Mitsiwa (15° 36′ 33″ N 39° 26′ 43″ E) is a port on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea. ... The Eritrean Railway is the only railway system in the African nation of Eritrea (on the Red Sea coast between Sudan and Ethiopia, and independent from the latter in 1993). ...


Asmara is also the see of the archbishop of the Eritrean Orthodox Church, which became autocephalous in 1993. The archbishop was elevated in 1998 to the rank of Patriarchate of Eritrea, on a par with the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. A see (from the Latin word sedem, meaning seat) is the throne (cathedra) of a bishop. ... The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church is one of the Oriental Orthodox churches. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... A patriarchate is the office or jurisdiction of a patriarch. ... Ethiopian Church in jerusalem The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (in transliterated Amharic:Yäityopya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Orthodox Church until 1959, when it was granted its own Patriarch by Coptic Orthodox Pope of...

Asmara was known to be an exceptionally modern city, not only because of its architecture, but Asmara also had more traffic lights than Rome did when the city was being built. [6] The city incorporates many features of a planned city. Indeed, Asmara was an early example of an ideal modern city created by architects, an idea which was introduced into many cities across the world, such as Brasilia, but which was not altogether popular. Features include designated city zoning and planning, wide treed boulevards, political areas and districts and space and scope for development. Asmara was not built for the Eritreans however; the Italians built it primarily for themselves. One unfortunate aspect of the city's planning was areas designated for Italians, and Eritreans, each disproportionately sized. Bras lia is the capital city of Brazil and is located in the center of the country in a federal district created in the state of Goi s. ...


The city has been regarded as New Rome or Italy's African City due to its quintessential Italian touch, not only for the architecture, but also for the wide streets, piazzas and coffee bars. There are numerable pizzerias and coffee bars, serving cappucinos and lattes, as well as ice cream parlours. The people in Asmara dress in a unique, yet African style. Asmara is also highly praised for its peaceful, crime-free environment. It is one of the cleanest cities of Africa. For other uses, see Pizza (disambiguation). ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ...


The city hosts the We Are the Future center, a child care center giving children a chance to live their childhoods and develop a sense of hope. The center is managed under the direction of the mayor’s office, and the international NGO Glocal Forum serves as the fundraiser and program planner and coordinator for the WAF child center in each city. Each WAF city is linked to several peer cities and public and private partners to create a unique international coalition. Launched in 2004, the program is the result of a strategic partnership between the Glocal Forum, the Quincy Jones Listen Up Foundation and Mr. Hani Masri, with the support of the World Bank, UN agencies and major companies. NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Based in Rome, Italy, the Glocal Forum aims to balance the global with the local by strengthening inter-city relations and harnessing global opportunities for the economic, social and cultural interests of the local community. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the producer and songwriter. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ...


Asmara has been proposed as a possible new addition to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites[6], under the direction of the Cultural Assets Rehabilitation Project, for its outstanding examples of 20th century architecture and town planning. Many of these historic buildings are not currently being taken care of and there is a serious risk that this heritage could be lost. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... The Cultural Assets Rehabilitation Project (or CARP) was created by the Government of Eritrea to assess the architectural heritage of the capital, Asmara. ...

Railway station at Asmara
Railway station at Asmara

References

  1. ^ J.H. Arrowsmith-Brown, translator and editor, Prutky's Travels to Ethiopia and Other Countries (London: Hakluyt Society, 1991), p. 78.
  2. ^ Erlich, Haggai (1996). Ras Alula and the Scramble for Africa. Lawrenceville: Red Sea. ISBN 1-56902-029-9. 
  3. ^ Ambrayses, Nicholas; Melville, C.P., Adams, R.D. (1994). The Seismicity of Egypt, Arabia and the Red Sea: A Historical Review. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-39120-2. 
  4. ^ Asmara useful for experimenting with radical designs for Europeans
  5. ^ Languages in Eritrea. Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
  6. ^ a b c "Reviving Asmara", BBC 3 Radio, 2005-06-19. Retrieved on 2006-08-30. (English) 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Edward Denison, Guang Yu Ren, Naigzy Gebremedhin, and Guang Yu Ren, Asmara: Africa's Secret Modernist City (2003) ISBN 1-85894-209-8

External links

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Coordinates: 15°20′N, 38°56′E VSO is an acronym for several different terms: In Linguistic typology, VSO stands for Verb Subject Object In the United States Navy, VSO is used to denote a Scout observation plane Valdosta Southern Railroad (AAR reporting mark VSO) Vancouver Symphony Orchestra Vermont Symphony Orchestra Voluntary Services Overseas, a charity Vienna... VSO is an acronym for several different terms: In Linguistic typology, VSO stands for Verb Subject Object In the United States Navy, VSO is used to denote a Scout observation plane Valdosta Southern Railroad (AAR reporting mark VSO) Vancouver Symphony Orchestra Vermont Symphony Orchestra Voluntary Services Overseas, a charity Vienna... Justin Hill is an English novelist. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Asmara - History of Asmara (0 words)
Another legend tells that in this region the Queen of Sheba gave birth to the son of Solomon, Menelik I. Asmara was made the capital city of colonial Eritrea in preference to Massawa by Governor Martini in 1897.
Asmara is by far the largest city in Eritrea, with a population of some 500,000.
Asmara sits atop (2,350m) the Eritrean highlands on the eastern edge of the escarpment.
ARS | Publication request: Registration of 'asmara' Vegetable Soybean (478 words)
Asmara is later in maturity than most vegetable soybean cultivars and therefore extends the season during which soybeans can be harvested.
At Jackson, TN, Asmara was susceptible to races 3 and 14 of the soybean cyst nematode.
Asmara was susceptible to bacterial pustule and mildly susceptible to sudden death syndrome in southern Indiana.
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