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Encyclopedia > Askar Akayev
Æskar Akayev
Æскар Акаев

In office
December 1990 – March 24, 2005
Succeeded by Kurmanbek Bakiyev

Born November 10, 1944(1944-11-10)
Nationality kyrgyz

Æskar Akayevich Akayev (Аскар Акаевич Акаев) (born 10 November 1944 in Kyzyl-Bairak, Kirghiz SSR) served as the President of Kyrgyzstan from 1990 until the Kyrgyz people overthrew him in March 2005 in the Tulip Revolution. The President of Kyrgyzstan is the head of state and the highest official of the Kyrgyz Republic. ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kurmanbek Saliyevich Bakiyev (Russian: Курманбек Салиевич Бакиев - variously transliterated; born 1 August 1949) is the President of Kyrgyzstan. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... State motto: Бардык өлкөлордүн пролетарлары, бириккиле! Official language None. ... The President of Kyrgyzstan is the head of state and the highest official of the Kyrgyz Republic. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


As late as 1993 political analysts saw Akayev as a "prodemocratic physicist."[1]

Contents

Education and early career

Akayev was the youngest of five sons born into a family of collective farm workers, in the town of Kemin. He became a metalworker at a local factory in 1961. He subsequently moved to Leningrad, where he trained as a physicist and graduated from the Leningrad Institute of Precision Mechanics and Optics in 1967 with an honors degree in mathematics, engineering and computer science. He stayed at the institute until 1976, working as a senior researcher and teacher. In Leningrad he met and in 1970 married Mairam Akayeva with whom he now has two sons and two daughters. They returned to their native Kirghizia in 1977, where he became a senior professor at the Polytechnic Institute in Frunze. Some of his later cabinet members were former students and friends from his academic career. Collective farming regards a system of agricultural organization in which farm laborers are not compensated via wages. ... Kemin is a town in northeastern Kyrgyzstan. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Saint Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет информационных технологий, механики и оптики) is Russian leader in training specialists in cutting-edge technologies directed to science and techincs development. ... Bishkek cityscape Bishkek (Бишкек) is the capital of Kyrgyzstan. ...


He obtained a doctorate in 1981 from the Moscow Institute of Engineering and Physics, having written his dissertation on holographic systems of storage and transformation of information. In 1984, he became a member of the Kirghiz Academy of Sciences, rose to vice president of the Academy in 1987 and then president of the Academy in 1989. He was elected as a deputy in the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in the same year. The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ...


Political career

On 25 October 1990, the Kirghiz SSR's Supreme Soviet held elections for the newly created post of president of the republic. Two candidates contested the presidency, President of Council of Ministers of Kirghiz SSR, Apas Jumagulov and First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kirghiz SSR, Absamat Masaliyev. However, neither Jumagulov nor Masaliyev received a majority of the votes cast. In accordance with the Kirghiz SSR's constitution of 1978, both candidates were disqualified and neither could run in the second round of voting. is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Apas Jumagulov (Апас Джумагулов, Апас Жумагулов) (born September 19, 1934) is Kyrgyz politician. ... Absamat Masaliyevich Masaliyev (Абсамат Масалиевич Масалиев) (April 10, 1933, Alysh, Osh oblast, Kirghiz SSR — July 31, 2004, Bishkek) was the leader of the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic...


Two days later, on October 27, the Supreme Soviet selected Akayev - who was effectively a compromise candidate - to serve as the republic's first president. In 1991, he was offered the post of vice-president of the Soviet Union by President Mikhail Gorbachev, but refused. Akayev was elected president of the renamed republic of Kyrgyzstan in an uncontested poll on October 12, 1991. He was reelected twice, amid allegations of ballot rigging, on December 24, 1995 and October 29, 2000. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ...


Akayev was initially seen as a liberal leader. He commented in a 1991 interview that "Although I am a Communist, my basic attitude toward private property is favorable. I believe that the revolution in the sphere of economics was not made by Karl Marx but by Adam Smith." ("Akayev: 'All of a Sudden I Become President'", Christian Science Monitor, 10 January 1991) He actively promoted the privatization of land and other economic assets and operated a relatively liberal regime compared with the governments of the other Central Asian nations. However, he demonstrated increasingly authoritarian tendencies and was accused of large-scale corruption. He was granted lifelong immunity from prosecution by the Lower House of Parliament in 2003. Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Protests

The first wave of demonstrations took place in mid-March 2002. Azimbek Beknazarov, a member of parliament accused of abuse of power, was due to attend trial taking place in Jalal-Abad. Over 2,000 demonstrators marched on the town where the proceedings were to take place. According to eye-witnesses, police ordered the demonstrators to stop and gave them fifteen minutes to disperse, yet opened fire before this time elapsed. Five men were shot dead; another was killed on the next day. 61 people were injured, including 47 police and 14 civilians. Jalal-Abad (since 2003 also spelled Jalalabad) is the administrative centre of the Jalal-Abad Oblasty in southwestern Kyrgyzstan. ...


Riot police clashed with protesters in Bishkek in May during demonstrations in support of Beknazarov. Police in the capital's Parliament square kicked protesters and dragged people away to break up the 200-strong crowd. They made several demands including the resignation of Akayev. This was again repeated in November of the same year when scores were arrested as the opposition marched on the capital. Protests continued, albeit on a smaller scale, at various points over the next few years. Bishkek cityscape Bishkek (Бишкек) is the capital of Kyrgyzstan. ...


2005 Election controversy

Akayev had promised to step down from office when his final term expired in 2005, but the possibility of a dynastical succession had been raised. His son Aidar Akayev and his daughter Bermet Akayeva were candidates in the 2005 legislative election, and it was widely suspected that he was going to retain either de facto power by arranging for the election of a close supporter or relative, or perhaps even by abrogation of the term limit provision in the constitution and remaining in power personally, an allegation which he strongly denied. Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A family dictatorship, in political science terms a personalistic regime, is a form of dictatorship that operates much like an absolute monarchy, yet occurs in a nominally republican state. ... Bermet Akayeva Bermet Akayeva (Бермет Акаева) (born June 3, 1972 in Leningrad) is a Kyrgyz politician and former MP. She is the daughter of ousted former President Askar Akayev. ... The 2005 Kyrgyz parliamentary elections were held in February and March 2005. ... A term limit is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms a person may serve in a particular elected office. ...


The results of the elections were disputed, with allegations of vote-rigging. Two of Akayev's children won seats. Serious protests broke out in Osh and Jalal-Abad, with protesters occupying administration buildings and the Osh airport. The government declared that it was ready to negotiate with the demonstrators. However an opposition leader said talks would only be worthwhile if the President himself took part. For the home improvement store, see Orchard Supply Hardware. ... Jalal-Abad (since 2003 also spelled Jalalabad) is the administrative centre of the Jalal-Abad Oblasty in southwestern Kyrgyzstan. ...


Akayev refused to resign, but pledged not to use force to end the protests, which he attributed to foreign interests seeking to provoke a large-scale clamp-down in response.


On 23 March Akayev announced the dismissal of Interior Minister Bakirdin Subanbekov and General Prosecutor Myktybek Abdyldayev for "poor work" in dealing with the growing protests. is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Downfall

On 24 March 2005 protesters stormed the presidential compound in Bishkek and seized control of the seat of state power after clashing with riot police during a large opposition rally. Opposition supporters also seized control of key cities and towns in the south to press demands that Akayev step down. is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bishkek cityscape Bishkek (Бишкек) is the capital of Kyrgyzstan. ...


That day, Akayev fled the country with his family, reportedly escaping first to Kazakhstan and then to Russia. Russian president Vladimir Putin invited Akayev to stay in Russia. There were early reports that he had tendered his resignation to opposition leaders before his departure. However, his formal resignation did not come until 4 April, when a delegation of members of parliament from Kyrgyzstan met him in Russia. Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Kyrgyz Parliament accepted the resignation on 11 April 2005, after stripping him and his family members of special privileges that had been granted to him by the previous parliament. He now works as a math professor at Moscow State University. A resignation is the formal act of giving up ones office or position. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian: Московский государственный университет имени М.В.Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ, MSU, MGU) is the largest and the oldest university in Russia, founded in 1755. ...


See also

// Political history since independence In the first years of Kyrgyzstans full independence, President Askar Akayev appeared wholeheartedly committed to the reform process. ...

References

  1. ^ Central Asia and the World Google books

External links

  • Official webpage
  • "Kyrgyz leader formally resigns" (SBS World News, 2005-04-05)
Preceded by
None (position created)
President of Kyrgyzstan
19902005
Succeeded by
Kurmanbek Bakiyev
(acting)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Askar Akayev - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1154 words)
Askar Akayevich Akayev (Аскар Акаевич Акаев) (born November 10, 1944 in Kyzyl-Bairak, Kirghiz SSR) served as President of Kyrgyzstan from 1990 to March 2005, when he was deposed by a popular uprising dubbed the Tulip Revolution.
Akayev was the youngest of five sons born into a family of collective farm workers.
Akayev was elected president of the renamed republic of Kyrgyzstan in an uncontested poll on October 12, 1991.
Akayev Askar A - Search Results - MSN Encarta (155 words)
Akayev, Askar A. Akayev, Askar A., born in 1944, president of Kyrgyzstan from 1991 to 2005.
Askar Akayevich Akayev was born in the town of Kyzyl-Bayrak in...
Akayev became the focal point of continuing protests, as opposition forces demanded his resignation in the wake of the elections.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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