FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Asii

Asii, Asio, Osii, Asiani etc is the name of a people, believed to be followers of Scythian culture, a section of whom had moved out from Alai valley during second century BCE under pressure from Ta Yuezhi, and in association with Pasiani and Sacarauloi (Sacae) tribes, they had wrested Sogdiana and western parts of Bactria from the Greeks. The Asii are stated to have been Central Asian people who were celebrated horse-men and were also an expert cavalrymen. Later, a section of this people are believed to have entered the Indian mainland in alliance with the Sakas, Pahlavas etc and setup their respective kingdoms in south-western India in Gujarat/Saurashtra and Malava. Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Spoiler warning: Alai is a character in Orson Scott Cards best-known novel, Enders Game that was a part of Enders jeesh. A student of North African descent in the Battle School, he was an exceptional student although not a member of Dragon Army under the command... Fljótsdalur in East-Iceland A valley is a landform, which can range from a few square miles (square kilometers) to hundreds or even thousands of square miles (square kilometers) in area. ... The migrations of the Yuezhi through Central Asia, from around 176 to 30 BCE. Yuezhi (Chinese:月氏, also 月支, Wade-Giles: Yüeh-Chih) or Da Yuezhi (Chinese:大月氏, also 大月支, Great Yuezhi) is the Chinese name for an ancient Central Asian people. ... A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally, consists of a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states, though some modern theorists hold that contemporary tribes can only be understood in terms of their relationship to states. ... Sogdiana (Sug`ud,Sug`diyona -Uzbek, Sughd - Tajik, Sugdiane, Old Persian Sughuda, Persian:سغد, Chinese: Kang-Kü) ancient civilization of Iranian peoples, then was a province of the Achaemenian Empire, the eighteenth in the list in the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great (i. ... It has been suggested that Ta-Hsia be merged into this article or section. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia (Russian: Средняя Азия/Srednyaya Azia for Middle Asia or Центральная Азия/Tsentralnaya Azia for Central Asia; in Turkic languages Orta Asya; in Persian آسياى مرکزی; (Urdu: وسطى ايشيا)Wasti Asia; Standard Mandarin Chinese... Kircholm, a 1925 painting by Wojciech Kossak. ... Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ... ... In politics, a country (or in some cases, a group of countries) over which a king or queen reigns, is a kingdom, see: monarchy. ... Gujarat (Gujarati: , , IPA ; also spelled Gujrat and sometimes Gujarath. ... Saurashtra in between Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ...

Contents


Strabo’s evidence

According to Greek chronicler Strabo, Greek Bactriana was taken by nomads like Asii/Asio, Pasianoi, Tokhario and Sakarauloi who had originally come from country from other side of Jaxartes (Central Asia) [1]. See link: [1]; the Greek georgapher Strabo, in a 16th‑century engraving. ... It has been suggested that Ta-Hsia be merged into this article or section. ... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia (Russian: Средняя Азия/Srednyaya Azia for Middle Asia or Центральная Азия/Tsentralnaya Azia for Central Asia; in Turkic languages Orta Asya; in Persian آسياى مرکزی; (Urdu: وسطى ايشيا)Wasti Asia; Standard Mandarin Chinese...


Pompeius Trogus’s evidence

The prologus XLI of Historiae Philippcae of Pompeius Trogus [2] also refers to the Scythian invasion of the Greek kingdom of Bactria and Sogdiana---the invaders are described as Saraucae and Asiani [3]. The Saraucae are regarded as Sacarauli and Asiani as Asii or Asio of Strabo [4]. Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... It has been suggested that Ta-Hsia be merged into this article or section. ... Sogdiana (Sug`ud,Sug`diyona -Uzbek, Sughd - Tajik, Sugdiane, Old Persian Sughuda, Persian:سغد, Chinese: Kang-Kü) ancient civilization of Iranian peoples, then was a province of the Achaemenian Empire, the eighteenth in the list in the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great (i. ...


Pliny’s evidence

Pliny also refers to clans like Aseni, Osii (=Asii) and Asoi in his Hist Nat.[5] but he locates them all in southern side of the Hindukush. Bucephala was the capital of Aseni which stood on Hydaspes (Jhelum) [6]. Alexander had named this city after his horse Becephalus when it had died sometime in June of 326 BC after being fatally wounded at the Battle of Hydaspes with king Porus (Paurava) of Punjab. Similarly he refers to Osii and Asio as two other clans among the numerous tribes of upper Indus [7][2]. The clan names Osii, Asio and Aseni obviously equate to Asii referred to by Strabo and Asiani as referred to in Historiae Philippcae by Pompeius Trogus. The Aseni, Osii, Asoi living in upper Indus valley in north-west India were none else than the Ashvayana and Ashvakayana Kambojas of the Indian texts. The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... A goldeneye can be: A duck belonging to the genus Bucephala, which includes Bucephala clangula, the Common Goldeneye Bucephala islandica, Barrows Goldeneye Bucephala albeola, Bufflehead These are small seaducks. ... Hydaspes is the ancient Greek name for the modern-day Jhelum river. ... The Jhelum River is the largest and most western of the five rivers of the Punjab province of Pakistan, and passes through Jhelum City. ... The battle of the Hydaspes River was a battle fought by Alexander the Great in 326 BC against the Indian king Purushotthama (better known as Porus) on the Hydaspes River (now the Jhelum) in present-day Pakistan. ... Alexander and Porus by Charles Le Brun, 1673 Porus, the Greek version of the Indian names Puru, Pururava or Purushottama, was the ruler of a Kingdom that was located between what is now known as the Jhelum and the Chenab rivers (in Greek sources called Hydaspes and Acesines) in the... Punjab (or Panjab) may refer to: Punjab region, an area of South Asia shared by India and Pakistan Punjab (India), a state in India Punjab (Pakistan), the most populated province in Pakistan Haryana, a former part of Punjab Himachal Pradesh, a former part of Punjab A number of former states... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ... the Greek georgapher Strabo, in a 16th‑century engraving. ... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ... A compass rose with Northwest highlighted Northwest is the ordinal direction halfway between West and North on a compass. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India and Afghanistan , frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ...


Beyond Geographical ken of Classical writers

Strabo's statement that the Asii/Asio, Pasianoi, Tokhario and Sakarauloi originally came from country from other side of Jaxartes does not seem a perfect statement so far as the Asii/Asio people are concerned. Scholars like I. P’iankov have rightly observed that the territory through which the displaced nomads had passed was beyond the geographical ken of the Greek writers [3]. Thus, one can understandably see discrepancies in the geographical situations of the Asii/Asio of Strabo and Osii/Asoi/Aseni of Pliny etc. The only clear point in Strabo's statement is that the Sakas of the trans-Jaxartes region also were of the Haumavarga Saka class i.e Amyrgians of the classical writings. The important point to see here is that one should not treat each and every statement of the classical writers as if it were a gospel truth or as if it were a mathematical equation. Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ...


Asii/Asio tribe followed horse culture

Scholars believe that the term Asii/Asio is equivalent to Aswa/Asva and refers to people connected with horse-culture [8]. Other related names for horse-clans are Assacene, Assaceni, Assacani, Hispasii, Aspasii clans (i.e. Kambojas) of Paropamisadae. It appears that the Asii of Strabo’s Geographika, or the Asiani of Historiae Philippcae of Pompeius Trogus refers to Kambojas of Parama-Kamboja domain. This is because the Mahabharata refers to the Lohas, Parama Kambokas and Rishikas as affiliated tribes [4] and places them in transoxian region in Shakadvipa of the Hindu texts [9] which is the Scythia of the Classical writers. These Indian names have been mentioned differently by the Greek and Chinese writers. Since the Kambojas had been celebrated for their horses and as a cavalrymen, they had alternatively been also known as Asvakas, Aśvayanas, or Aśvakayanas in Indian texts. The Asii/Osii, Asoi/Asio, Asiani or Aseni appear to be classical equivalents for the above Sanskrit nicknames by which the Kambojas were also known in general parlance. The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... The Paropamisadae is an ancient area of the Hindu-Kush, in the Eastern part of Afghanistan. ... Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. ... The Mahabharata (Devanagari: महाभारत, phonetically Mahābhārata - see note), is one of the three major ancient Sanskrit epics of India, the others being the Ramayana and the Bhagavatam. ... There is mention of Rishikas in the Mahabharata, Brhat Samhita, Markendeya Purana and Ramayana etc. ... A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally, consists of a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states, though some modern theorists hold that contemporary tribes can only be understood in terms of their relationship to states. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the KulOba kurgan burial near Kerch. ... A classic is an item that has become a ubiquitous and unique symbol or icon of a time gone by, mainly because of its inherent quality or its representative status. ... Kircholm, a 1925 painting by Wojciech Kossak. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ...


Asii/Asioi/Asiani were Parama Kambojas of Alai valley

Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC.
Enlarge
Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC.

After being displaced from Issyk-kul lake and in their movements to Bactria via Sogdiana and Fargana under pressure from Ta Yue-chis, the Issyk-kul Sakas (Sakaraulois) had been joined on the way by sections of other Scythian tribes from the intervening regions during their southerly or south-westerly movements to Bactria. In all probability, this included the transoxiana tribes like the Parama Kambojas, Lohas, Rishikas and others. The Sacarauloi appear to be Saca proper from Fargana and beyond. The Parama Kambojas appear to be Asii or Aswa (horse-people) from Alai valley and similarly, the Pasianois were another Scythian tribe from Transoxiana region. Some scholars tend to link the Rishikas with the Tukharas and the latter with the Kushanas and the Ta Yue-chis themselves. If one accepts this connection, then the Tukharas or Tusharas ( => Rishikas => Kushanas = > Yue-chis) had controlled the eastern parts of Bactria country (Ta-hia) while the combined forces of the displaced Sakarauloi, 'Asio' (horse people = Parama Kambojas) and the 'Pasinoi' of Strabo etc had occupied its western parts after being dislocated from their original home in Fargana/Alai valley by the Ta-Yuechis. The Ta-hia of the Chinese records is taken to mean Tukhara/Tokhara which also is believed to have included Badakshan, Chitral, Kafirstan and Wakhan which districts had formed eastern parts of Bactria [10] [11] [12] According to other scholars, it were the Scythian hordes alone (Asii/Asio, Pasianoi, and Sakarauloi) who had put an end to the Greek kingdom of Bactria [13] [14]. Image File history File links Scythia-Parthia_100_BC.png historical spread of Iranian peoples/languages: Scythia, Sarmatia, Bactria and the Parthian Empire in ca. ... Image File history File links Scythia-Parthia_100_BC.png historical spread of Iranian peoples/languages: Scythia, Sarmatia, Bactria and the Parthian Empire in ca. ... Sarmatian horseman Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... It has been suggested that Ta-Hsia be merged into this article or section. ... Sogdiana (Sug`ud,Sug`diyona -Uzbek, Sughd - Tajik, Sugdiane, Old Persian Sughuda, Persian:سغد, Chinese: Kang-Kü) ancient civilization of Iranian peoples, then was a province of the Achaemenian Empire, the eighteenth in the list in the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great (i. ... Fergana Ferghana (Uzbek: Fargona or Farghana, Russian: Фарғона, the land between two rivers ) is a city (1994 population: 191,000) and the capital of Fergana Province in eastern Uzbekistan, at the southern edge of the Fergana Valley in southern Central Asia, cutting across the borders of Kyrgyzstan, Tadjikistan, and Uzbekistan. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally, consists of a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states, though some modern theorists hold that contemporary tribes can only be understood in terms of their relationship to states. ... It has been suggested that Ta-Hsia be merged into this article or section. ... Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. ... There is mention of Rishikas in the Mahabharata, Brhat Samhita, Markendeya Purana and Ramayana etc. ... Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. ... A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally, consists of a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states, though some modern theorists hold that contemporary tribes can only be understood in terms of their relationship to states. ... There is mention of Rishikas in the Mahabharata, Brhat Samhita, Markendeya Purana and Ramayana etc. ... The Tocharians were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... It has been suggested that Ta-Hsia be merged into this article or section. ... the Greek georgapher Strabo, in a 16th‑century engraving. ... Fergana Ferghana (Uzbek: Fargona or Farghana, Russian: Фарғона, the land between two rivers ) is a city (1994 population: 191,000) and the capital of Fergana Province in eastern Uzbekistan, at the southern edge of the Fergana Valley in southern Central Asia, cutting across the borders of Kyrgyzstan, Tadjikistan, and Uzbekistan. ... Spoiler warning: Alai is a character in Orson Scott Cards best-known novel, Enders Game that was a part of Enders jeesh. A student of North African descent in the Battle School, he was an exceptional student although not a member of Dragon Army under the command... Fljótsdalur in East-Iceland A valley is a landform, which can range from a few square miles (square kilometers) to hundreds or even thousands of square miles (square kilometers) in area. ... The Tocharians were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... Chitral Valley and Tirich Mir, 7,708 m (25,289 ft) Chitral, or Chitrāl (Urdu: چترال), is the name of a town , , valley, river, district, and former princely state in the former Malakand Division of the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... The term Kafirs in reference to the Hindukush Kafirs is usually taken to mean infidels or idolators and the term Kafirstan as The Land of the Infidels. ... Wakhan is a very mountainous and rugged part of the Pamir region. ... It has been suggested that Ta-Hsia be merged into this article or section. ... Look up Horde on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Horde is a term derived from a Turkic word - ordu. ...


Based on the syntactical construction of the Mahabharata verse 5.5.15, outstanding Sanskrit scholar Prof Ishwa Mishra states that the Rishikas were a section of the Kambojas [15] [16]. Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ...


Dr H. W. Bailey lists several classes of the Kamboja horses and states that their haya- and javana- breed ( 'swift horse') implies the famous horses of the Farghana breed [17]. Praja Bhata, a Kashmiri Sanskrit poet and author of the fourth Rajatarangini, while writing about history of Moghul dynasty in India, addresses emperor Babur as a Yavana king hailing from Kambhoja [18]. Since Vabur (Babur) was native of Fargana (in Kyrgyzstan of Central Asia), this Indian reference seems to extend the Kamboja boundaries i.e the Parama Kamboja domain almost as far as to Fargana. Obviosly, the Alai valley north of Pamirs had formed important part of Parama Kamboja. Farghana, more commonly known as Fargana, was part of medieval Turkistan in the southern part of Central Asia. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Zahiruddin Babur, or Zahir-ud-din Mohammad Babur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Persian: ظﮩیرالدین محمد بابر, also spelled ) was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ... Kamboja is ancient name of a country and the tribe settled therein. ... Fergana Ferghana (Uzbek: Fargona or Farghana, Russian: Фарғона, the land between two rivers ) is a city (1994 population: 191,000) and the capital of Fergana Province in eastern Uzbekistan, at the southern edge of the Fergana Valley in southern Central Asia, cutting across the borders of Kyrgyzstan, Tadjikistan, and Uzbekistan. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia (Russian: Средняя Азия/Srednyaya Azia for Middle Asia or Центральная Азия/Tsentralnaya Azia for Central Asia; in Turkic languages Orta Asya; in Persian آسياى مرکزی; (Urdu: وسطى ايشيا)Wasti Asia; Standard Mandarin Chinese... Located in Central Asia, the Pamir Mountains are formed by the junction of the worlds greatest mountain ranges, a geologic structural knot from which the great Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush mountain systems radiate. ...


Thus the foregoing sufficiently proves that the territory of the Parama Kambojas lied in a region beyond Imaos or Himalaya/Hindukush, which region the ancient Sanskrit texts like Mahabharata label Shakadvipa and the classical writers like Strabo and Diodorus define it as part of Scythia. Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... The Mahabharata (Devanagari: महाभारत, phonetically Mahābhārata - see note), is one of the three major ancient Sanskrit epics of India, the others being the Ramayana and the Bhagavatam. ... Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the KulOba kurgan burial near Kerch. ...


These mixed hordes of Sacarauloi (Sakas), Asii/Asio (Parama Kambojas), Pasianoi etc from Scythia ---i.e. the Scythian inavders of western Bactria, were soon over-powered by Parthian rulers and became their subjects and settled in Drangiana in Helmond valley. This settlement became known as Sakasthana (modern Seistan) after the appellation of the dominant clan i.e Sakas. Later these mixed hordes entered south-western Indian sub-continent via Bolan Pass and spread into Sindhu, Sovira, Gujarat, Rajputana, Malwa, Maharashtra, Punjab, UP and eastern, central and southern India as well. Look up Horde on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Horde is a term derived from a Turkic word - ordu. ... Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ... Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Drangiana (Old Persian: Zranka waterland) was a historical region of the Achaemenid Empire, now part of Afghanistan and Eastern Iran. ... Helmond is a municipality and a city in the southern Netherlands. ... Sistān and Balūchestān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... A subcontinent is a large part of a continent. ... The Bolan Pass The Bolan Pass is a gap through the Toba Kakar Range of mountains on the border of Pakistan. ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ... Sovira or Souveera was the territory which is now known as the Sindh Province in Pakistan . ... Gujarat (Gujarati: , , IPA ; also spelled Gujrat and sometimes Gujarath. ... Rajputana, which means Land of the Rajputs is a region of western India, which now makes up the greater part of Rajasthan state. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... Maharashtra (Devanagari: महाराष्ट्र, literally: Great Nation)( ) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Punjab (or Panjab) may refer to: Punjab region, an area of South Asia shared by India and Pakistan Punjab (India), a state in India Punjab (Pakistan), the most populated province in Pakistan Haryana, a former part of Punjab Himachal Pradesh, a former part of Punjab A number of former states... Up describes the positive z-value in a gravitational field, just as down represents the negative z-value. ...



See main article : Invasion of India by Scythian Tribes Invasion of India by Scythian tribes from Central Asia is often termed as Indo-Scythian invasion. ...


References

  1. ^ Writes Strabo: "But the best known of the nomads are those who took away Bactriana from the Greeks, I mean the Asii, Pasiani, Tochari, and Sacarauloi, who originally came from the country on the other side of the Iaxartes River that adjoins that of the Sacae and the Sogdiana and was occupied by the Sacae. And as for the Däae, some of them are called Aparni, some Xanthii, and some Pissuri. Now of these the Aparni are situated closest to Hyrcania and the part of the sea that borders on it, but the remainder extend even as far as the country that stretches parallel to Aria "(Strabo – Geographika, 11.8.1); History and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Unity, p 11, (Editors) Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, pp 692,717, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee.
  2. ^ Lost history of Pompeius Trogus år 1 e.Kr
  3. ^ History and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Unity, p 111, (editors) Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 692, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee
  4. ^ History and Culture of Indian People, Age of Imperial Unity, p 111 (editors) Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 692, Dr H. C. Raychaudhuru, Dr B. N. Mukerjee.
  5. ^ Pliny: Hist Nat., VI.21.8-23.11, List of Indian races
  6. ^ See: Alexander the Great, Sources and Studies, p 236, Dr W. W. Tarn; Political History of Indian People, 1996, p 232, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee
  7. ^ "Then next to these towards the Indus come, in an order which is easy to follow, the Amatae, Bolingae, Gallitalutae, Dimuri, Megari, Ordabae, Mese; after these the Uri and Sileni. Immediately beyond come deserts extending for 250 miles. These being passed, we come to the Organagae, Abaortae, Sibarae, Suertae, and after these to deserts as extensive as the former. Then come the Sarophages, Sorgae, Baraomatae, and the Umbrittae, who consist of twelve tribes, each possessing two cities, and the Aseni, who possess three cities. Their capital is Bucephala, built where Alexander's famous horse of that name was buried. Hillmen follow next, inhabiting the base of Caucasus (Hindukush), the Soleadae, and the Sondrae; and if we cross to the other side of the Indus and follow its course downward we meet the Samarabriae, Sambruceni, Bisambritae, Osii, Antixeni, and the Taxillae with a famous city. Then succeeds a level tract of country known by the general name of Amanda, whereof the tribes are four in number the Peucolaitae, Arsagalitae, Geretae, Asoi. Many writers, however, do not give the river Indus as the western boundary of India, but include within it four satrapies,--the Gedrosi, Arachotae, Arii, Paropamisadae, making the river Cophes its furthest limit; though others prefer to consider all these as belonging to the Arii." (Megasthenes: Indika FRAGM. LVI. Plin. Hist. Nat. VI. 21. 8-23. 11. List of the Indian Races)
  8. ^ see: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Reprint (2002), Vol I, pp 53-54, 64, James Tod. For Aspasii, Hipasii, see: The Pathans, 1958, pp 37, 55-56, Olaf Caroe.
  9. ^ India as Known to Panini, p 70, Dr V. S. Aggarwala; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, S. Kirpal Singh.
  10. ^ Political History of Ancient India, 1996, Commentary, p 719, Dr B. N. Mukerjee.
  11. ^ It is also notable that before its occupation by the Tukhara Yue-chis, Badakshan had formed a part of ancient Kamboja i.e. it was a part of Parama Kamboja country. But after its occupation by the Tukharas during second century BCE, it became a part of Tukharistan. Around 4th - 5th century AD, when the fortunes of the Tukharas finally died down, the original population of Kambojas re-asserted themselves and the region again started to be called by its former name i.e. Kamboja (See: Bhartya Itihaas ki Ruprekha, p 534, Dr J. C. Vidyalankar; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 129, 300 Dr J. L. Kamboj; Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 159, S Kirpal Singh). There are several later-time references to these Kambojas of Pamirs/Badakshan. Raghuvamsha, a 5th c Sanskrit play by Kalidasa, attests their presence on river Vamkshu (Oxus) as a neighbors to the Hunas (Raghu: 4.68-70). They have also been attested as Kiumito by 7th c Chinese pilgrim Hiun Tsang. Eighth century king of Kashmir, king Lalitadiya had invaded the Oxian Kambojas as is attested by Rajatarangini of Kalhana (See: Rajatarangini 4.163-65). Here, they are mentioned as living in the eastern parts of the Oxus valley as neighbors to the Tukharas who were living in western parts of Oxus valley (See: The Land of the Kambojas, Purana, Vol V, No, July 1962, p 250, Dr D. C. Sircar). These Kambojas apparently were the descendents of that section of the Kambojas who, instead of leaving their ancestral land during second c BCE under pressure from Ta Yue-chi, had rather compromised with the invaders and had decided to stay put in their ancestral land instead of moving to Helmond valley or to the Kabol valley.
  12. ^ There is yet another evidence which equates the Kamboja = Tokhara. A Buddhist Sanskrit Vinaya text (Gilgit Manuscripts, III, 3, 136, Dr N. Dutt, quoted in B.S.O.A.S XIII, 404) has the expression Satam Kambojikanam kanayanam i.e a hunderd maidens from Kamboja. This has been rendered by Tibetan as Tho-gar yul-gyi bu-mo brgya and in Mongol as To-gar ulus-un yagun ükin. Thus, the proper name Kamboja has been rendered as Tho-gar or To-gar. And Tho-gar/To-gar are Tibetan/Mongolian names for Tokhar/Tukhar. See refs: Irano-Indica III, H. W. Bailey Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1950 , pp. 389-409; see also: Ancient Kamboja, Iran and Islam, 1971, p 66, Dr H. W. Bailey.
  13. ^ Cambridge History of India, Vol I, p 510; Taxila, Vol I, p 24, Marshal, Early History of North India, p 50, Dr S. Chattopadhyava.
  14. ^ The Tocharios/Tukharas are assumed by some scholars to be Rishikas. Others believe that the Rishikas were a clan of the Ta Yue-chis. Dr J. C. Vidyalankar assumes that Kushanas were Rishikas. If all this is true, then the Tukharas = Rishikas = Kushanas = Ta-Yuechis. Interestingly, Mahabharata attests that the Rishikas were closely allied or affiliated to the Parama-Kambojas.
    LohanParamaKambojanRishikanuttaran api:MBH 2.27.25
  15. ^
    Shakanam Pahlavana.n cha Daradanam cha ye nripah |
    Kamboja Rishika ye cha pashchim.anupakash cha ye ||5.5.15||
    Trans: The kings of the Shakas, Pahlavas and the Daradas, and the Kamboja-Rishikas live in the west in Anupadesa or region.
  16. ^ According to A Cunningham, "Kaofu was the appellation of one of the five tribes of the Yuechis or Tochari who are said to have given their names to the town which they occupied towards the end of second century BCE" (The Ancient Geography of India, p 15, A Cunningham). Dr J. L. Kamboj inferes from this statement that the fifth clan mentioned among the Tochari/Yuechis may rather have been a clan of the Kambojas (Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 43, Dr J. L. Kamboj). Sanskrit equivalent of Kaofu is Kabol and name Kabol is anciently connected with the Kambojas rather than the Kushanas or the Tukharas. Thus, if the Kaofu tribe (Kaofu) had indeed moved along with the 'four Yue-chi tribes (i.e Hshiumi, Shuangmi, Hsitun & Tumi) from across the the Hindukush to Kabol valley', then the higher probability is that this Kaofu clan was a Kamboja clan from the Parama Kamboja domain which may have joined or followed the Yue-chis to southern side of the Hindukush in later part of second century BCE .
  17. ^ Ancient Kamboja, in Iran and Islam, 1971, p 65, H. W. Bailey
  18. ^
    Kaambhoja.yavaneshen Vabhore.n vipatitah |
    tadaiva hastinapuryamebhrahemo nripeshavra || 223 ||
    (Raghu Nath Sinha, Shukarjatrangini tatha Rajatarangini Sangraha: p 110).

It has been suggested that Ta-Hsia be merged into this article or section. ... Sogdiana (Sug`ud,Sug`diyona -Uzbek, Sughd - Tajik, Sugdiane, Old Persian Sughuda, Persian:سغد, Chinese: Kang-Kü) ancient civilization of Iranian peoples, then was a province of the Achaemenian Empire, the eighteenth in the list in the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great (i. ... This article is about the musical term aria. ... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ... The Paropamisadae is an ancient area of the Hindu-Kush, in the Eastern part of Afghanistan. ... Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... Look up Kamboja in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. ... Tokharistan is a name which was given to Bactria, following its settlement by various Central Asian people in the 2nd century BCE. The first literary mentions of Tokharistan appear at the end of the 4th century CE in Chinese Buddhist sources (the Vibhasa-sastra). ... Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India and Afghanistan , frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Located in Central Asia, the Pamir Mountains are formed by the junction of the worlds greatest mountain ranges, a geologic structural knot from which the great Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush mountain systems radiate. ... Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... Kalidasas Raghuvamsha tells of the family of Rama and his descendents, including the conqueror Raghu. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... For albums named Pilgrim, see Pilgrim (album). ... Xuanzang, Dunhuang cave, 9th century. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Rajtarangini (River of Kings), a book written in Sanskrit by Kalhana, contains an account of the life and history of Kashmir. ... Kalhana (c. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... The Tocharians were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Helmond is a municipality and a city in the southern Netherlands. ... Kabul (Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... Tibetan can refer to: A place or item from Tibet. ... Tibetan can refer to: A place or item from Tibet. ... There is mention of Rishikas in the Mahabharata, Brhat Samhita, Markendeya Purana and Ramayana etc. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Kabul (Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ...

See also


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m