FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Asian arowana
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Asian arowanas

Super red arowana
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Osteoglossiformes
Family: Osteoglossidae
Genus: Scleropages
Species: S. formosus
Additional species disputed (see text)

Binomial name
Scleropages formosus
Müller and Schlegel, 1844

Asian arowana refers to several varieties of freshwater fish in the genus Scleropages. Some sources differentiate these varieties into multiple species,[2][3] while others consider the different strains to belong to a single species, Scleropages formosus.[4] They have several other common names, including Asian bonytongue, dragon fish, and a number of names specific to different varieties. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1750x1164, 2253 KB) Arowana (Scleropages formosus) Source: Fotografiert von Marcel Burkhard alias cele4 Template:FPC Summary Template:FPC Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Wikipedia:Featured pictures visible Asian Arowana Barbel User:Cele4 User talk:Cele4 Wikipedia... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn2. ... The Siberian Tiger, a subspecies of tiger. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... “Animalia” redirects here. ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Orders See text The Actinopterygii are the ray-finned fish. ... Families Heterotididae Pantopontidae (butterflyfishes) Singidididae (extinct) Osteoglossidae ( arowana) Ostariostomidae (extinct) Notopteridae (featherfin knifes) Gymnarchidae Mormyridae (elephantfishes) Osteoglossiformes (Lat. ... Arowana - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Sceleropages is a genus of freshwater fishes found in South America, Africa, Asia, and Australia. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal system of naming species. ... Dr Salomon Müller (1804 - 1864) was a German naturalist. ... Hermann Schlegel. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Sceleropages is a genus of freshwater fishes found in South America, Africa, Asia, and Australia. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ...


Native to Southeast Asia, Asian arowanas inhabit blackwater rivers, slow-moving waters flowing through forested swamps and wetlands. Adults feed on other fish, while juveniles feed on insects.[5] Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Blackwater rivers are rivers with waters colored like black tea to coffee. ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ... Insects (Class Insecta) are a major group of arthropods and the most diverse group of animals on the Earth, with over a million described species—more than all other animal groups combined. ...


These popular aquarium fish have special cultural significance in areas influenced by Chinese culture. The name dragon fish stems from their resemblance to the Chinese dragon. This popularity has had both positive and negative effects on their status as endangered species. “Aquaria” redirects here. ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ... Chinese dragon (spelled Long, Loong or Lung in transliteration), is a mythical Chinese creature that also appears in other East Asian cultures, and is also sometimes called the Oriental (or Eastern) dragon. ... The Siberian Tiger, a subspecies of tiger. ...

Contents

Origin

Like all members of Osteoglossidae, Asian arowanas are highly adapted to fresh water and are incapable of surviving in the ocean. Therefore, their spread throughout the islands of southeast Asia suggests they diverged from other osteoglossids before the continental breakup was complete. Genetic studies have confirmed this hypothesis, showing that their ancestor of the Asian arowanas diverged from the ancestor of the Australian arowanas, S. jardinii and S. leichardti, about 140 million years ago, during the Early Cretaceous period. This divergence took place in the eastern margin of Gondwanaland, with the ancestors of Asian arowanas carried on the Indian subcontinent or smaller landmasses into Asia. The morphological similarity of all Scleropages species shows that little evolutionary change has taken place recently for these ancient fish.[6] Arowana - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Binomial name Scleropages jardinii (Saville-Kent, 1892) Sceleropages jardinii is a freshwater bony fish native to Australia, one of two species of fishes known as Australian Arowanas, the other being S. leichardti. ... Binomial name Scleropages leichardti (Gunther, A., 1864) Scleropages leichardti is a freshwater bony fish native to Australia. ... The Early Cretaceous (timestratigraphic name) or the Lower Cretaceous (logstratigraphic name), is the earlier of the two major divisions of the Cretaceous period. ... This article is about the ancient supercontinent of Gondwana. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


Description

The first description of these species was published between 1839 and 1844 (1844 is the date commonly cited) by German naturalists Salomon Müller and Hermann Schlegel, under the name Osteoglossum formosum, although later this species was placed in Scleropages with the name S. formosus.[7] Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... Dr Salomon Müller (1804 - 1864) was a German naturalist. ... Hermann Schlegel. ... Species Osteoglossum bicirrhosum - silver arowana Osteoglossum ferreirai - black arowana Arowanas (genus Osteoglossum) are a group of fish in the family Osteoglossidae. ...


Strains

Super red arowana in a public aquarium.
Super red arowana in a public aquarium.

Several distinct, naturally occurring colour varieties are recognised, each found in a specific geographic region. They include the following: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... “Aquaria” redirects here. ...

  • The green is the most common variety, found in Vietnam, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and Malaysia.
  • The silver Asian (not to be confused with the silver arowana, Osteoglossum bicirrhosum) is considered part of the green variety by some. It has two subvarieties, the "grey tail silver" or "Pinoh arowana," and the "yellow tail silver," each found in a different part of the island of Borneo in Indonesia.
  • The red-tailed golden is found in northern Sumatra, Indonesia.
  • The gold crossback, blue Malayan, or Bukit Merah blue is native to the state of Pahang and Bukit Merah area in Perak, Malaysia.
  • The red, super red, blood red, or chili red is known only from the upper part of the Kapuas River in western Borneo, Indonesia.

In 2003, a study[2] was published which proposed breaking S. formosus into four separate species. This classification was based on both morphology and genetics, and includes the following species: Binomial name Osteoglossum bicirrhosum Cuvier (ex Vandelli), 1829 The silver arowana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum) is a freshwater bony fish of the family Osteoglossidae, commonly kept in aquaria. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Kalimantan. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... State motto: no State motto Capital Kuantan Royal Capital Pekan Sultan Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Chief Minister Dato Seri Adnan Yaakob Area 35,964 km2 Population  - Est year 2005 1,372,500 State anthem Pahang State Anthem Pahang (Jawi: Ú¨Ù‡Ú ) is the largest state on Peninsular Malaysia, occupying the huge Pahang... Bukit Merah is a main town and attraction in Perak, Malaysia. ... State anthem: Allah Lanjutkan Usia Sultan Capital Ipoh Royal capital Kuala Kangsar Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Azlan Shah  - Menteri Besar Tajol Rosli Mohd Ghazali History    - Pangkor treaty 1874   - Federated into FMS 1895   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 21,006 km² Population  - 2005... The Kapuas River is a river on the Indonesian island of Borneo. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... DNA, the molecular basis for inheritance. ...

  • Scleropages formosus was redescribed to include the strain known as the green arowana. The gold crossback, which was not part of the study, was included in this species by default.
  • Scleropages macrocephalus described the silver Asian arowana.
  • Scleropages aureus described the red-tailed golden arowana.
  • Scleropages legendrei described the super red arowana.

Other researchers dispute this reclassification, arguing that the published data are insufficient to justify recognizing more than one Southeast Asian species of Scleropages.[8]


Appearance

Asian arowana scales are large (most over 2 cm in length) and have a delicate net pattern.
Asian arowana scales are large (most over 2 cm in length) and have a delicate net pattern.

Asian arowanas grow up to 90 cm (35 in) total length.[9] Like all Scleropages, Asian arowanas have long bodies; large, elongate pectoral fins; dorsal and anal fins located far back on the body; and a much larger caudal fin than that of their South American relative, the silver arowana, Osteoglossum bicirrhosum. The mouth is oblique with a very wide gape. The prominent lower jaw has two barbels at its tip. The gill rakers are stout. Asian arowanas bear teeth on many bones of the mouth, including the jaws, vomer, palatines, pterygoids, parasphenoid, and tongue.[10] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 431 pixelsFull resolution (2260 × 1217 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 431 pixelsFull resolution (2260 × 1217 pixel, file size: 1. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Fish are commonly measured in several ways. ... Fish anatomy is primarily governed by the physical characteristics of water, which is much denser than air, holds a relatively small amount of dissolved oxygen, and absorbs light more than does air. ... Dorsal fin of an orca A dorsal fin is a fin located on the backs of fishes, whales, dolphins, and porpoises, as well as the (extinct) ichthyosaurs. ... Fish anatomy is primarily governed by the physical characteristics of water, which is much denser than air, holds a relatively small amount of dissolved oxygen, and absorbs light more than does air. ... Fish anatomy is primarily governed by the physical characteristics of water, which is much denser than air, holds a relatively small amount of dissolved oxygen, and absorbs light more than does air. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name Osteoglossum bicirrhosum Cuvier (ex Vandelli), 1829 The silver arowana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum) is a freshwater bony fish of the family Osteoglossidae, commonly kept in aquaria. ... This koi carp has two pairs of barbels, the second pair being quite small. ... Fish anatomy is primarily governed by the physical characteristics of water, which is much denser than air, holds a relatively small amount of dissolved oxygen, and absorbs light more than does air. ...


Asian arowana scales are large, cycloid, and, in some varieties, metallic coloured, with a distinctive mosaic pattern of raised ribs.[11][2] The lateral scales are arranged in horizontal rows numbered from the most ventral (first level) to the most dorsal (fifth level), with dorsal scales designated the sixth level.[12] Fish anatomy is primarily governed by the physical characteristics of water, which is much denser than air, holds a relatively small amount of dissolved oxygen, and absorbs light more than air does. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ...


Asian arowanas are distinguished from Australian congenerics S. jardinii and S. leichardti by having fewer (21-26) lateral line scales (versus 32-36 for the Australian species), longer pectoral and pelvic fins, and a longer anterior snout.[2] Binomial name Scleropages jardinii (Saville-Kent, 1892) The gulf saratoga, Sceleropages jardinii, is a freshwater bony fish native to Australia, one of two species of fishes sometimes known as Australian arowanas, the other being the saratoga (). It has numerous other common names, including northern saratoga, Australian bonytongue, toga and barramundi. ... Binomial name Scleropages leichardti (Gunther, A., 1864) The saratoga, Scleropages leichardti, also known as the spotted bonytongue, spotted saratoga, or southern saratoga, is a freshwater bony fish native to Australia. ... In fish, the lateral line is a sense organ used to detect movement in the surrounding water. ...


Green arowanas are dark green on the back, silvery or golden green on its sides, and silvery or whitish on its ventral surface, with dark greenish or bluish patches visible through the lateral scales. In mature fish, the top of the eye and the head behind the eye are bright emerald.[2]


Both grey-tailed and yellow-tailed silver Asian arowanas are dark grey on the back and silver on the sides, with dark ring patches on the lateral scales and a silvery or whitish belly. In yellow-tailed specimens, the fin membranes are yellowish with dark grey rays. In grey-tailed specimens, the fins are uniform dark grey.[2]

Red-tailed golden arowana. Although the scales are golden, the anal and caudal fins are reddish-brown.
Red-tailed golden arowana. Although the scales are golden, the anal and caudal fins are reddish-brown.

Mature red-tailed golden arowanas have brilliant metallic gold lateral scales, gill covers, bellies, and pectoral and pelvic fin membranes, although the back is dark. In juveniles the areas destined to develop golden colour start out metallic silver. The anal fin and the bottom portion of the caudal fin are light brown to dark red.[2] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1607 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of freshwater aquarium fish species Asian arowana User:Ginkgo100/Image Gallery Metadata This file contains additional information... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1607 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of freshwater aquarium fish species Asian arowana User:Ginkgo100/Image Gallery Metadata This file contains additional information... The operculum in fish is the hard bony flap covering and protecting the gills of Bony fish. ...


Mature gold crossback arowanas are distinguished from the red-tailed golden arowanas by having metallic gold crossing the back completely. This variety also lacks the reddish fins of the red-tailed golden.[13]


In mature super red arowanas, the gill covers, lateral scales, and fin membranes of these fishes are metallic red, with the exact hue varying from gold-tinged to deep red. The back is dark brown. In juveniles, the darker the dorsal colouration, the deeper the red will be on maturity.[2]


Reproduction

Asian arowanas are paternal mouthbrooders. They are slow to reach sexual maturity and difficult to breed in captivity, with successful spawnings typically taking place in large outdoor ponds rather than in aquaria.[14] A female Cyphotilapia frontosa mouthbrooding fry which can be seen looking out her mouth Mouthbrooding, also known as oral incubation and buccal incubation, is the care given by some groups of animals to their offspring by holding them in the mouth of the parent for extended periods of time. ... Frog spawn Spawning is the production or depositing of eggs in large numbers by aquatic animals. ... “Aquaria” redirects here. ...


One breeder reported success using a garden pond measuring 18 feet by 18 feet by 3.5 feet deep (5.5 metre by 5.5 metre by 1.1 metre deep), with pH maintained between 6.5 and 7.0. The fish were over five years old. The successful harvest took place after the third spawning; in the first two spawnings, the male swallowed the eggs, possibly due to improper water quality.[15] This article is about a foot as a unit of length. ... The or meter (see spelling differences) is a measure of length. ... The correct title of this article is . ...


Cultural beliefs

Asian arowanas are considered "lucky" by many people, particularly those from Asian cultures. This reputation derives from the species' resemblance to the Chinese dragon, considered an auspicious symbol.[16] The large metallic scales and double barbels are features shared by the Chinese dragon, and the large pectoral fins are said to make the fish resemble "a dragon in full flight."[17] The culture of Asia is the artificial aggregate of the cultural heritage of many nationalities, societies, religions, and ethnic groups in the region, traditionally called a continent from a Western-centric perspective, of Asia. ... Chinese dragon (spelled Long, Loong or Lung in transliteration), is a mythical Chinese creature that also appears in other East Asian cultures, and is also sometimes called the Oriental (or Eastern) dragon. ...


In addition, positive Feng Shui associations with water and the colours red and gold make these fishes popular for aquariums. One belief is that while water is a place where chi gathers, it is naturally a source of yin energy and must contain an "auspicious" fish such as an arowana in order to have balancing yang energy.[18] Another is that a fish can preserve its owner from death by dying itself.[19] Fēng Shuǐ (風水 – literally, wind and water pronounced fung shuway), which may be more than 3000 years old, is the ancient practice of placement to achieve harmony with the environment. ... Qi, also commonly spelled chi (in Wade-Giles romanization) or ki (in romanized Japanese), is a fundamental concept of traditional Chinese culture. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Taijitu. ...


Conservation status

The Asian arowanas are listed as endangered by the 2006 IUCN Red List, with the most recent evaluation taking place in 1996.[1] International trade in these fishes is controlled under the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES), under which it was placed on Appendix I, the most restrictive category, in 1975.[20] S. formosus is one of only eight fish species listed on Appendix I.[21] There are a number of registered CITES breeders in Asia and the specimens they produce can be imported into several nations. Other nations restrict or prohibit possession of Asian arowanas; for example, the United States has listed this species under the Endangered Species Act, and therefore it cannot be possessed in that country without a permit.[22] The Siberian Tiger, a subspecies of tiger. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement between Governments, drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the World Conservation Union (IUCN). ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Declining habitat is a major threat. For example, Asian arowanas are now uncommon in the Malay Peninsula, where they were once widely distributed, due to environmental destruction.[23] Inclusion in the IUCN Red List was originally based not on biological reasons but on practical ones: though widely distributed throughout southeast Asia, they have been harvested heavily by aquarium collectors. However, habitat loss is likely a greater threat than aquarium collecting.[24] Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ...


There is no recent evaluation of conservation status by IUCN.[1] Additionally, considering the current confusion as to number of species as well as the wide distribution, conservation status needs to be reconsidered. All strains are probably endangered, but some more critically than others.[2] The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ...


Farming and the aquarium trade

The Asian arowana's high value as aquarium fish has impacted its conservation. Its popularity has soared since the late 1970s, and hobbyists may pay thousands of U.S. dollars for one of these animals.[25][26] “Aquaria” redirects here. ... The conservation ethic is an ethic of resource use, allocation, exploitation, and protection. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, Cambodia, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ...


Beginning in 1989, CITES began allowing Asian arowanas to be traded, provided certain criteria were met, most notably that they were bred in captivity on a fish farm for at least two generations.[27] The first of these farms was in Indonesia.[26] Later, the Singapore government's Agri-food and Veterinary Authority (then called the Primary Production Department) and a local fish exporter collaborated in a captive breeding program. Asian arowanas legally certified by CITES for trade became available from this program in 1994.[27] Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... A demonstration aquaculture facility Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture. ... The Government of Singapore is formed by the political party which gains a 50% majority in the general elections held in Singapore at least once every five years. ... Captive breeding is the process of breeding endangered animals by capturing them from their natural environment, breeding them in restricted conditions in zoos and other conservation facilities, and releasing them back to the wild when the population stabilizes and the threat to the animal in the wild is lessened or...


Captive-bred arowanas that are legal for trade under CITES are documented in two ways. First, fish farms provide each buyer with a certificate of authenticity and a birth certificate. Second, each specimen receives an implanted microchip, called a Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT), which identifies individual animals.[26] A microchip is an identifying integrated circuit placed under the skin of a dog, cat, or other animal. ...


Genetic fingerprinting has been used to assess the genetic diversity of a captive population at a Singapore fish farm in order to improve the management of this species.[28] DNA markers that distinguish among different strains and between sexes have been identified, allowing aquaculturists to identify these characteristics in immature animals.[29] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of otherwise similar organisms. ...


Care in captivity

Because they can grow up to 90 centimetres (35 inches) long, Asian arowanas require a large aquarium. They are territorial and may be kept with other Scleropages only in a very large aquarium, provided all fish are of similar size. Like other arowanas, they need a tight-fitting cover to prevent jumping.[30] The water should be well-filtred, soft, and slightly acidic, and maintained at a temperature between 24-30° C (75-86° F).[30] In ethology, sociobiology and behavioral ecology, the term territory refers to any geographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (and, occasionally, animals of other species). ... Genera Subfamily Heterotidinae  Arapaima  Heterotis Subfamily Osteoglossinae  Osteoglossum  Scleropages Arowanas, also known as aruanas or arawanas are freshwater bony fish of the family Osteoglossidae, sometimes known as bony tongues. ... Soft water is the term used to describe types of water that contain few or no calcium or magnesium ions. ... The correct title of this article is . ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ...


Asian arowanas are carnivorous and should be fed a high-quality diet of meaty food, such as shrimp and crickets. They are surface feeders and prefer to take food in the upper parts of the water column. Aquarists recommend live foods and meaty prepared foods. Examples of appropriate live foods include mealworms, crickets, shrimps, feeder fish, small frogs, and earthworms. Prepared foods include prawns (shrimp), lean pork, frozen fish food, and pelleted food.[31] This tigers sharp teeth and strong jaws are the classical physical traits expected from carnivorous mammalian predators A carnivore (IPA: ), meaning meat eater (Latin carne meaning flesh and vorare meaning to devour), is an animal that eats a diet consisting mainly of meat, whether it comes from live animals... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... Bowler Shaun Pollock bowls to batsman Michael Hussey. ... Binomial name Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 Mealworms are the larval form of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, a species of darkling beetle. ... Bowler Shaun Pollock bowls to batsman Michael Hussey. ... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Distribution of frogs (in black) Suborders Archaeobatrachia Mesobatrachia Neobatrachia - List of Anuran families The frogness babe is an amphibian in the order Anura (meaning tail-less from Greek an-, without + oura, tail), formerly referred to as Salientia (Latin saltare, to jump). ... Families   Acanthodrilidae   Ailoscolecidae   Alluroididae   Almidae   Criodrilidae   Eudrilidae   Exxidae   Glossoscolecidae   Lumbricidae   Lutodrilidae   Megascolecidae   Microchaetidae   Ocnerodrilidae   Octochaetidae   Sparganophilidae Earthworm is the common name for the largest members of the Oligochaeta (which is either a class or subclass depending on the author) in the phylum Annelida. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b c Kottelat, 1996.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Pouyad et al., 2003
  3. ^ ITIS, 2006.
  4. ^ Kottelat and Widjanarti, 2005.
  5. ^ Fishbase, 2006.
  6. ^ Kumazawa, 2000; Kumazawa et al., 2003.
  7. ^ Catalog of Fishes, 2006.
  8. ^ e.g. Kottelat and Widjanarti, 2005.
  9. ^ FishBase, 2006.
  10. ^ Ismail, 1989; Pouyad et al., 2003; West & NSK (Arowana Club.com), 2003.
  11. ^ Ismail, 1989
  12. ^ West & NSK (Arowana Club.com), 2003.
  13. ^ Unoaquatic Arowana Group, 1999.
  14. ^ Fishindex.com, 2004.
  15. ^ Shin Min Daily News, 2005.
  16. ^ Dragonfish Industry, 1997.
  17. ^ West & NSK (Arowana Club.com), 2003.
  18. ^ Unoaquatic Arowana Group, 1999.
  19. ^ Hindustan Times, 2005.
  20. ^ Fishindex.com, 2004; CITES, 2005.
  21. ^ Dawes, 2001, p. 20.
  22. ^ United States Fish and Wildlife Service Threatened and Endangered Species System (TESS).
  23. ^ Ismail, 1989, p. 27.
  24. ^ Ismail, 1989, p. 434.
  25. ^ Ismail, 1989, p. 434
  26. ^ a b c Lee, n.d.
  27. ^ a b Dawes, 2001, p. 22.
  28. ^ Fernando et al., 1997.
  29. ^ Yue et al., 2003.
  30. ^ a b Dawes, 2001, pp. 293-294.
  31. ^ Anglo Aquarium (n.d.); Shin Min Daily News, 2005; Fishindex.com, 2004.

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Arowana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (628 words)
Arowanas are freshwater bony fish of the family Osteoglossidae, sometimes known as "Bony tongues." In this family of fishes, the head is bony and the elongate body is covered by large, heavy scales, with a mosaic pattern of canals.
The dorsal and the anal fins have soft rays and are long based, while the pectoral and ventral fins are small.
Arowanas have been rumored to capture prey as large as low flying bats and small birds.
Asian Arowana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (677 words)
The name Asian Arowana refers to several species of freshwater bony fish in the genus Scleropages, all of which are native to Southeast Asia.
All species of Asian Arowana have long bodies; large pectoral fins; dorsal and anal fins located far back on the body; and a much larger caudal fins than that of their South American relative, the Silver arowana.
Beginning in 1989, CITES began allowing Asian Arowanas to be traded, provided they were bred in captivity on a fish farm.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m