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The Ashvamedha (Sanskrit aśvamedhá अश्वमेध "horse sacrifice") was one of the most important royal rituals of Vedic religion, described in detail in the Yajurveda (YV TS 7.1-5, YV VSM 22–25 and the pertaining commentary in the Shatapatha Brahmana ŚBM 13.1–5). The Rigveda does have descriptions of horse sacrifice, notably in hymns RV 1.162-163 (which are themselves known as aśvamedha), but does not allude to the full ritual according to the Yajurveda. The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Many Indo-European branches show evidence for horse sacrifice, and comparative mythology suggests that they derive from a PIE ritual. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ... The Yajurveda (Sanskrit , a tatpurusha compound of sacrifice + veda knowledge) is one of the four Hindu Vedas. ... Shatapatha Brahmana (Brahmana of one-hundred paths) is one of the prose texts describing the Vedic ritual. ... The Rigveda (Sanskrit: , a tatpurusha compound of praise, verse and knowledge) is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns dedicated to the gods. ... The first Mandala (book) of the Rigveda has 191 hymns. ...

Gayatri Pariwar have been organising performances of a modernised version of the sacrifice, not involving actual animal sacrifice, since 1991. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Shriram Sharma Acharya. ...


The Vedic sacrifice

The Ashvamedha could only be conducted by a king (rājā). Its object was the acquisition of power and glory, the sovereignty over neighbouring provinces, and general prosperity of the kingdom. A Raja (Sanskrit ) is a king, or princely ruler from the Kshatriya / Rajput lineages. ...

The horse to be sacrificed must be a stallion, more than 24, but less than 100 years old. The horse is sprinkled with water, and the Adhvaryu and the sacrificer whisper mantras into its ear. Anyone who should stop the horse is ritually cursed, and a dog is killed symbolic of the punishment for the sinners. The horse is then set loose towards the North-East, to roam around wherever it chooses, for the period of one year (or half a year, according to some commentators). The horse is associated with the Sun, and its yearly course. If the horse wanders into neighbouring provinces hostile to the sacrificer, they must be subjugated. The wandering horse is attended by a hundred young men, sons of princes or high court officials, charged with guarding the horse from all dangers and inconvenience. During the absence of the horse, an uninterrupted series of ceremonies is performed in the sacrificer's home. Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... The Vedic priesthood is the collective term for the priests of the Vedic religion. ... The Sun (Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ...

After the return of the horse, more ceremonies are performed. The horse is yoked to a gilded chariot, together with three other horses, and RV 1.6.1,2 (YV VSM 23.5,6) is recited. The horse is then driven into water and bathed. After this, it is anointed with ghee by the chief queen and two other royal consorts. The chief queen anoints the fore-quarters, and the others the barrel and the hind-quarters. They also embellish the horse's head, neck, and tail with golden ornaments. The sacrificer offers the horse the remains of the night's oblation of grain. Hittite chariot (drawing of an Egyptian relief) Approximate historical map of the spread of the chariot, 2000–500 BC. A chariot is a two-wheeled, horse-drawn vehicle. ... The Rigveda (Sanskrit: , a tatpurusha compound of praise, verse and knowledge) is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns dedicated to the gods. ... Ghee in a jar Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Ghee Ghee (Hindi घी from Sanskrit ghṛta घृत sprinkled ) is a type of clarified butter important in Indian cuisine. ...

After this, the horse, a hornless he-goat, a wild ox (go-mrga, Bos gavaeus) are bound to sacrificial stakes near the fire, and seventeen other animals are attached to the horse. A great number of animals, both tame and wild, are tied to other stakes, according to a commentator 609 in total (YV VSM 24 consists of an exact enumeration). Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... Binomial name Bos gaurus H. Smith, 1827 The Gaur (Bos gaurus, previously Bibos gauris) is a large, dark-coated ox of the hilly areas of India and Southeast Asia, which may be found wild or domesticated. ...

Then the horse is slaughtered (YV VSM 23.15, tr. Griffith)

Steed, from thy body, of thyself, sacrifice and accept thyself.
Thy greatness can be gained by none but thee.

The chief queen ritually calls on the king's fellow wives for pity. The queens walk around the dead horse reciting mantras. The chief queen then has to mimic copulation with the dead horse, while the other queens ritually utter obscenities.

On the next morning, the priests raise the queen from the place where she has spent the night with the horse. With the Dadhikra verse (RV 4.39.6, YV VSM 23.32), a verse used as a purifier after obscene language.

The three queens with a hundred golden, silver and copper needles indicate the lines on the horse's body along which it will be dissected. The horse is dissected, and its flesh roasted. Various parts are offered to a host of deities and personified concepts with cries of svaha "all-hail". The Ashvastuti or Eulogy of the Horse follows (RV 1.162, YV VSM 24.24–45), concluding with:

May this Steed bring us all-sustaining riches, wealth in good kine, good horses, manly offspring
Freedom from sin may Aditi vouchsafe us: the Steed with our oblations gain us lordship!
A coin created by Samudragupta I to commemorate the Ashvamedha ritual. The tethered horse is depicted on the left; the queen, carrying ritual equipment, is on the right

The priests performing the sacrifice were recompensed with a part of the booty won during the wandering of the horse. According to a commentator, the spoils from the east was given to the Hotar, while the Adhvaryu a maiden (a daughter of the sacrificer) and the sacrificer's fourth wife. In Hinduism, Aditi (Sanskrit - limitless) is a goddess of the sky, consciousness, the past, the future and fertility. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ashvacoin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ashvacoin. ... The Vedic priesthood is the collective term for the priests of the Vedic religion. ... The Vedic priesthood is the collective term for the priests of the Vedic religion. ...

The Shatapatha Brahmana emphasizes the royal nature of the Ashvamedha: Shatapatha Brahmana (Brahmana of one-hundred paths) is one of the prose texts describing the Vedic ritual. ...

Verily, the Asvamedha means royal sway: it is after royal sway that these strive who guard the horse. (ŚBM trans. Eggeling 1900)

It repeatedly states that "the Asvamedha is everything" (ŚBM trans. Eggeling 1900)

Known historical performances

Pusyamitra Sunga is said to have performed the Ashvamedha rite after he toppled Mauryan rule in 185 BC. Pusyamitra Sunga (also Pushyamitra Shunga) was the founder of the Indian Sunga dynasty (185-78 BCE). ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Mauryan empire was Indias first great unified empire. ...

A historically documented performance of the Ashvamedha is during the reign of Samudragupta I (d. 380), the father of Chandragupta II. Special coins were minted to commemorate the Ashvamedha and the king took on the title of Maharajadhiraja after successful completion of the sacrifice. Samudragupta, ruler of the Gupta Empire (c. ... This article is about the year 380 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A380. ... Coins of Chandragupta II. The period of prominence of the Gupta dynasty is very often referred to as the Golden Age of India. ...

There were a few of later performances, one by Raja of Kannauj in the 12th century, unsuccessfully, as Prithviraj Chauhan thwarted his attempt and later married his daughter. The last known instance seems to be in 1716 CE, by Jai Singh II of Amber, a prince of Jaipur[1] Prithviraj III (1165?-1192) was a king of the Rajput Chauhan (Chahamana) dynasty. ... Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh (November 3, 1688-September 21, 1743) was ruler of the kingdom of Amber (later called Jaipur. ... , Jaipur   (Hindi: जयपुर, Urdu: جے پور), also popularly known as the Pink City, historically sometimes rendered as Jeypore, is the capital of Rajasthan state, India. ...

Performances in Itihasa

illustration of the Ramayana by Sahib Din, 1652. Kausalya is depicted slaying the horse (left) and lying beside it (right)

Performances of the Ashvamedha feature in the epics Ramayana (1.10–15) and Mahabharata. Image File history File links Asvamedha_ramayana. ... Image File history File links Asvamedha_ramayana. ... Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...

In the Mahabharata, the sacrifice is performed by Yudhishtira (Book 14), his brothers guarding the horse as it roamed into neighbouring kingdoms. Arjuna defeats all challengers. The Mahabharata says that the Ashvamedha as performed by Yudhishtira adhered to the letter of the Vedic prescriptions. After the horse was cut into parts, Draupadi lies beside the slain animal (14.89).[citation needed] Yudhisthira was the son of King Pandu and Queen Kunti. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... Draupadi. ...

In the Ramayana, Rama's father Dasharatha performs the Ashvamedha, which is described in the bala kanda (book 1) of the poem. The Ramayana provides far more detail than the Mahabharata. Again it is stated that the ritual was performed in strict compliance with Vedic prescriptions (1.14.10). Dasaratha's chief wife Kausalya circumambulates the horse and ritually pierces its flesh (1.14.33). Then "Queen Kausalya desiring the results of ritual disconcertedly resided one night with that horse that flew away like a bird." [1-14-34].[2] At the conclusion of the ritual Dasharatha symbolically offers his other wives to the presiding priests, who return them in exchange for expensive gifts (1.14.35).[3] Rama ( in IAST, in Devanāgarī) or Ramachandra is a legendary or historical king of ancient India. ... Dasaratha in Hindu mythology is the king of Ayodhya and a descendant of Raghuvamsa. ... In Hindu Mythology, Kausalya is the wife of King Dasaratha and the mother of Rama. ...

The ritual is performed again towards the end of the poem, but in very different circumstances. It figures centrally in the uttara kanda (book 7) where it leads to the final major story in the poem. In this narrative, Rama was married to a single wife, Sita, who at the time was not with him, having been excluded from Rama's capital of Ayodhya. She was therefore represented by a statue for the queen's ceremony (7.x[citation needed]). Sita was living in Valmiki's forest ashram with her twin children by Rama, Lava and Kusha, whose birth was unknown to Rama. In its wanderings, the horse, accompanied by an army and the monkey-king Hanuman, enters the forest and encounters Lava, who ignores the warning written on the horse's headplate not to hinder its progress. He tethers the horse, and with Kusha challenges the army, which is unable to defeat the brothers. Recognising Rama's sons, Hanuman sends them to Ayodhya where they are reconciled with their father, who also accepts Sita back at court. Sita, however, no longer wishes to live, and is absorbed by the earth. It is never stated whether the sacrifice was completed, but after Sita's death Rama is said to have repeatedly performed the Ashvamedha using the golden statue as a substitute for his wife.[citation needed] Lord Rama (center) with wife Sita, brother Lakshmana and devotee Hanuman. ... Ayodhya   (Hindi: अयोध्या, Urdu: ایودھیا IAST Ayodhyā) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ... Valmiki composes the Ramayana Maharishi Valmiki (Sanskrit: वाल्मिकी, vālmikÄ«) is the author of the Hindu epic Ramayana. ... Lava and his twin brother Kusha are the children of the Hindu God Rama and his wife Sita Devi, whose story is told in the Ramayana. ... Kusha (also spelt Kush and Kusa) has more than one meaning:- Kusha and his twin brother Lava are the children of the Hindu God Rama and his wife Sita Devi, whose story is told in the Ramayana. ... For the Tamil movie by same name see Anjaneya (film). ...

Some historians believe that the bala kanda and uttara kanda were latter interpolations to the authentic form of the Ramayana, due to references to Greek, Parthians and Sakas, dating to no earlier than the 2nd century BCE[4]

Indo-European comparison

Main article: horse sacrifice

Many Indo-European branches show evidence for horse sacrifice, and comparative mythology suggests that they derive from a PIE ritual. The Ashvamedha is the clearest evidence preserved, but vestiges from Latin and Celtic traditions allow the reconstruction of a few common attributes. Many Indo-European branches show evidence for horse sacrifice, and comparative mythology suggests that they derive from a PIE ritual. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... Ancient anthropomorphic Ukrainian stone stela (Kernosovka stela), possibly depicting a late Proto-Indo-European god, most likely Dyeus The existence of similarities among the deities and religious practices of the Indo-European peoples allows glimpses of a common Proto-Indo-European religion and mythology. ...

The Gaulish personal name Epomeduos is from *ek'wo-medhu- "horse+mead", while ashvamedha is either from *ek'wo-mad-dho- "horse+drunk" or *ek'wo-mey-dho- "horse+strength". The reconstructed myth involves the coupling of a king with a divine mare which produced the divine twins. Some scholars, including Edgar Polomé, regard the reconstruciton of a PIE ritual as unjustified due to the difference between the attested traditions (EIEC s.v. Horse, p. 278). The Divine twins are a mytheme of Proto-Indo-European mythology. ... The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture or EIEC, edited by James P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams, was published in 1997 by Fitzroy Dearborn. ...

Vedanta and Puranas

The Brhadaranyaka Upanishad (a mystical appendix to the Shatapatha Brahmana and likely the oldest of the Upanishads) has a creation myth where Mṛtyu "Death" takes the shape of a horse, and includes an identification of the Ashvamedha with the Sun:[5] The prime Upanishad among the many Upanishads written in ancient India, known very widely for its profound philosophical statements. ... Shatapatha Brahmana (Brahmana of one-hundred paths) is one of the prose texts describing the Vedic ritual. ... Creation beliefs and stories describe how the universe, the Earth, life, and/or humanity came into being. ...

Then he became a horse (ashva), because it swelled (ashvat), and was fit for sacrifice (medhya); and this is why the horse-sacrifice is called Ashva-medha [...] Therefore the sacrificers offered up the purified horse belonging to Prajapati, (as dedicated) to all the deities. Verily the shining sun [ye tapati] is the Asvamedha, and his body is the year; Agni is the sacrificial fire (arka), and these worlds are his bodies. These two are the sacrificial fire and the Asvamedha-sacrifice, and they are again one deity, viz. Death. (BrUp 1.2.7. trans. Müller)

The Upanishads describe ascetic austerities as an "inner Ashvamedha", as opposed to the "outer" royal ritual performed in the physical world, in keeping with the general tendency of Vedanta to move away from priestly ritual towards spiritual introspection; verse 6 of the Avadhuta Upanishad has: In Hinduism, Prajapati is Lord of Creatures, thought to be depicted on ancient Harappan seals, sitting in yogic posture, with an erection and what appear to be bison horns. ... The Upanishads (Devanagari: उपनिषद्, IAST: upaniṣad) are part of the Vedas and form the Hindu scriptures which primarily discuss philosophy, meditation, and the nature of God; they form the core spiritual thought of Vedantic Hinduism. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Avadhuta (अवधूत is a term from the Dharmic Religions of India referring to a somewhat eccentric type of mystic or saint who has risen above bodily-consciousness, duality, and worldly concerns and acts without consideration for standard social etiquette. ...

"Through extreme devotion [sam-grahaneṣṭi] he [the ascetic] performs ashvamedha within [anta]. That is the greatest sacrifice [mahā-makha] and the greatest meditation [mahā-yoga]."

According to the Brahma Vaivarta Purana (185.180),[6] the Ashvamedha is one of five rites forbidden in the Kali Yuga. Brahma Vaivart Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is divided into four parts. ... Kali Yuga is also the title of a book by Roland Charles Wagner. ...

Arya Samaj

In the Arya Samaj reform movement of Dayananda Sarasvati, the Ashvamedha is considered an allegory or a ritual to get connected to the "inner Sun" (Prana)[7] Dayananda in his Introduction to the commentary on the Vedas had to reject the classical commentaries of the Vedas by Sayana, Mahidhara and Uvata as medieval corruptions "opposed to the real meaning of the Vedas" (p. 443) in order to arrive at an entirely symbolic interpretation of the ritual: "An empire is like a horse and the subjects like other inferior animals" (p. 448). Thus, VSM 23.22, literally "he beats on the vulva (gabha), the penis (pasas) oozes repeatedly (ni-galgaliti) in the receptacle" is interpreted not in terms of the horse and the queen, but in terms of the king and his subjects, "The subjects are called gabha (to be seized), kingly power called pasa (to be penetrated)" (p. 454). This interpretation is apparently based on a verse from Shatapatha Brahmana [8]. Arya Samaj (Aryan Society or Society of Nobles) is a Hindu reform movement in India that was founded by Swami Dayananda in 1875. ... Swami Dayananda Saraswati (स्‍वामी दयानन्‍द सरस्‍वती) (1824 - 1883) is an important Hindu religious scholar born in Gujarat, India. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ... Prana (, IAST: ) is a Sanskrit word meaning breath and refers to a vital, life-sustaining force of living beings and vital energy in natural processes of the universe. ... Sayana (सायण) was the great 14th century commentator on the Vedas. ... MahÄ«dhara (the name means earth-bearing, a mythological mountain in the Mahabharata, and also an epithet of Vishnu) was a 16th century commentator of the Vedas, author of the Mantramahodadhi (mantra-uda-dhí great ocean of mantras, ca. ... Uvaá¹­a was a commentator of the Vedas He wrote commentaries of the prātiśākhyas, notably on the Rigveda-pratishakhya of Shaunaka. ...

Following Dayananda, Arya Samaj disputes the very existence of the pre-Vedantic ritual; thus Swami Satya Prakash Saraswati claims that Swami Satya Prakash Saraswati is an author on topics of Hinduism influenced by Swami Dayananda Saraswatis Arya Samaj reform movement. ...

"the word in the sense of the Horse Sacrifice does not occur in the Samhitas [...] In the terms of cosmic analogy, ashva is the Sun. In respect to the adhyatma paksha, the Prajapati-Agni, or the Purusha, the Creator, is the Ashva; He is the same as the Varuna, the Most Supreme. The word medha stands for homage; it later on became synonymous with oblations in rituology, since oblations are offered, dedicated to the one whom we pay homage. The word deteriorated further when it came to mean 'slaughter' or 'sacrifice'."[9]

arguing that the animals listed as sacrificial victims are just as symbolic as the list of human victims listed in the Purushamedha[10] (which is generally accepted as a purely symbolic sacrifice already in Rigvedic times). Other commentators accept the existence of the sacrifice but reject the notion that the queen lay down with the dead horse. Thus Subhash Kak in a blog posting suggests that the queen lay down with a toy horse rather than with the slaughtered stallion, due to presence of the word Ashvaka, similar to Shivaka meaning "idol or image of Shiva"[11] In Hinduism, Purusha ([Cosmic] Man) is the self which pervades the universe. ... In Vedic religion, Varuna (Devanagari:वरुण, IAST:) is a god of the sky, of rain and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law and of the underworld. ... Purushamedha (lit. ... Subhash Kak (सुभाष काक) (born March 26, 1947, Srinagar, Kashmir) is Delaune Distinguished Professor of Electrical Engineering and Professor in the Asian Studies and Cognitive Science Programs at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. ...

All World Gayatri Pariwar since 1991 has organized performances of a "modern version" of the Ashvamedha where a statue is used in place of a real horse, according to Hinduism Today with a million participants in Chitrakoot, Madhya Pradesh on April 16 to 20, 1994.[12] Such modern performances are sattvika Yajnas where the animal is worshipped without killing it,[13], the religious motivation being prayer for overcoming enemies, the facilitation of child welfare and development, and clearance of debt,[14] entirely within the allegorical interpretation of the ritual, and with no actual sacrifice of any animal, nor any sexual connotations. TODO: Insert brief description and other sections here Read How_to_edit_a_page for instructions All World Gayatri Pariwar (AWGP) Gayatri ... Chitrakoot is a religious town in the Bundelkhand region of central India, notable for the number of its temples and sites from Hindu mythology. ... , Madhya PradeÅ›   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... In Hindu philosophy, sattva (Sanskrit purity, literally existence, reality; adjectival pure, anglicised sattvic) is the highest of the three gunas in Samkhya, sāttvika pure, rājasika dim, and tāmasika dark. // For an object or food to be sāttvika, it must be uncontaminated and should not spread evil... In Hinduism, Yajña यज्ञ (Sanskrit yajñá worship, prayer, praise; offering, oblation, sacrifice) is a Vedic ritual of sacrifice performed to please the Devas, or sometimes to the Supreme Spirit Brahman. ...

Modern anxieties and propaganda

The mock bestiality and necrophilia involved in the ritual caused considerable consternation among the scholars first editing the Yajurveda. Griffith (1899) omits verses VSM 23.20–31 (the ritual obscenities), protesting that they are "not reproducible even in the semi-obscurity of a learned European language" (alluding to other instances where he renders explicit scenes in Latin rather than English). A. B. Keith's 1914 translation[15] also omits verses. Look up Bestiality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Necrophilia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Yajurveda (Sanskrit , a tatpurusha compound of sacrifice + veda knowledge) is one of the four Hindu Vedas. ... Ralph Thomas Hotchkin Griffith (1826-1906), scholar of indology, translated the vedic scriptures into English. ...

This part of the ritual offended the Dalit reformer and framer of the Indian constitution B. R. Ambedkar and is frequently mentioned in his writings as an example of the perceived degradation of Brahmanical culture.[16]. It is also a popular topic in anti-Brahminist propaganda, in spite of the fact that all contemporary performances do not involve any aspect of mock bestiality or necrophilia at all. The anti-Hindu propaganda website Dalitstan featured articles "exposing" the part of the ritual in question, conflated with other aspects of Hinduism related to sexuality (such as the Shivalingam) as a means to denigrate Hinduism. In South Asias caste system, a Dalit; often called an untouchable; is a person of shudra; the lowest of the four castes. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (Marathi: बाबासाहेब भीमराव रामजी आंबेडकर) (April 14, 1891 — December 6, 1956) was a Buddhist revivalist, Indian jurist, scholar and Bahujan political leader who is the chief architect of the Indian constitution. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Anti-Hindu leaflet launched by fundamentalist Christian churches Anti-Hindu prejudice is a negative perception against Hinduism, Hindus and Indian or Hindu culture. ... The Dalitstan Organization is an anti-Brahminanism organisation that advocates misdeeds done by brahmins agains Dalits in India. ... Linga worship (Estate of Cynthia and Harlen Welsh) Lingam or Linga (Sanskrit: Gender as in purusha-linga : male sexual organ) is used as a symbol for the worship of the Hindu God Shiva. ...


  1. ^ Bowker, John, The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, New York, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 103
  2. ^ Translation by Desiraju Hanumanta Rao & K. M. K. Murthy
  3. ^ Online version of the Ramayana in Sanskrit and English
  4. ^ The cultural Heritage of India, Vol. IV, The Religions, The Ramakrishna Mission, Institute of Culture
  5. ^ implicitly, in eṣa vā aśvamedho ya eṣa tapati "verily, that Ashvamedha is that which gives out heat [tap-]"
  6. ^ Quoted in Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, A.C. (1975). Srimad-Bhagavatam. The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. Retrieved on 2006-07-31.
  7. ^ as a bahuvrihi, saptāśva "having seven horses" is another name of the Sun, referring to the horses of his chariot.; akhandjyoti.org glosses 'ashva' as "the symbol of mobility, valour and strength" and 'medha' as "the symbol of supreme wisdom and intelligence", yielding a meaning of 'ashvamedha' of "he combination of the valour and strength and illumined power of intellect"
  8. ^ [1] Sh.Br 13:2:9:6
  9. ^ The Critical and Cultural Study of the Shatapatha Brahmana by Swami Satya Prakash Saraswati, p. 415
  10. ^ ibid., p. 476
  11. ^ Kak, Subhash. Some Things Don't Square Up. Retrieved on 2006-07-31.
  12. ^ Hinduism Today, June 1994
  13. ^ Ashwamedha Yagam in city,The Hindu
  14. ^ Ashwamedhayagnam.org
  15. ^ Keith, Arthur Berridale (trans), The Veda of the black Yajus school entitled Taittiriya sanhita, Oxford, 1914, pp. 615-16
  16. ^ B.R. Ambedkar, Revolution and Conter-Revolution in Ancient India

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 31 is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A bahuvrihi (बहुवृहि), or bahuvrihi compound, is a particular kind of compound word that refers to something that is not specified by any of its parts by themselves (i. ... In Hinduism, Surya (Devanagari: सूर्य, sūrya) is the chief solar deity,one of the Adityas, son of Kasyapa and one of his wife Aditi[1] ,in Nordics Tyr he is said to be the son of Dyaus Pitar. ... A sun chariot is a mythological representation of the sun riding in a chariot. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 31 is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


  • Ralph Thomas Hotchkin Griffith, The Texts of the White Yajurveda. Translated with a Popular Commentary (1899),
    • 1987 reprint: Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi, ISBN 8121500478
    • 1990 reprint: edited and enlarged by Surendra Pratap, Nag Publishers,11A/U, A,Jawahar Nagar, Delhi, ISBN 81-7081-2127
  • Ramavarapu Krishnamurti Shastri (trans.), Krishna Yajurvedeeya Taittiriya Samhita, Book VII, The Tirupati Tirumala Devasthanams, Tirumala Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh (2003).
  • Dasaradhi Rangacharya,'Srimad-Andhra Vachana Shukla Yajurveda Samhita' (White Yajurveda Samhita in Telugu), Emesco Books, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh (1999)
  • Dayananda Sarasvati, Introduction to the commentry on the Vedas, Meharchand lachhmandas Publications; 1st ed. (1981), Sarvadeshik Arya Pratinidhi Sabha; 2nd ed. (1984) [2]

Ralph Thomas Hotchkin Griffith (1826-1906), scholar of indology, translated the Vedic scriptures into English. ... Swami Dayananda Saraswati (स्‍वामी दयानन्‍द सरस्‍वती) (1824 - 1883) is an important Hindu religious scholar born in Gujarat, India. ...

See also

  Results from FactBites:
.:SAKSIVC: Vedic Literature: Yajur Veda: Krişhņa Yajur Veda: Ashvamedha:. (2555 words)
There are two different types of Ashvamedhas; one is a complete inner yajňa involving the prāņa-shakti and does not involve any horse; the second is an elaborate rite in which the animal steed plays a key role.
Ashvamedha means offering of the life-power with all its impulses, desires, enjoyments, frustrations and also its material counterpart.
The epic Rāmāyaņa in the chapter (1.24.33) mentions the Ashvamedha and the role of queen Kausalya in it.
  More results at FactBites »



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