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Encyclopedia > Ashanti Confederacy
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A shrunken Ashanti Confederacy near the end of its existence in 1896
A shrunken Ashanti Confederacy near the end of its existence in 1896

The Ashanti Kingdom or Confederacy was a powerful state in West Africa in the years prior to European colonization. It was located in what is today southern and central Ghana. Download high resolution version (1624x1824, 535 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1076x1632, 314 KB) The Gold Coast and Ashanti Confederacy in 1896. ... Download high resolution version (1076x1632, 314 KB) The Gold Coast and Ashanti Confederacy in 1896. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ...

Contents


People

The Ashanti (also Asante) are a major ethnic group from Africa who speak a dialect of Akan. Prior to European colonisation, the Ashanti Confederacy was a major state, particularly during the period from 1570 to 1900. Ashanti wealth was based on the region's substantial gold deposits, which were mined to create intricate works of art. A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia. ... Akan languages edition of Wikipedia Akan languages are those languages belonging to the Kwa language family spoken in Ghana and the Côte dIvoire: Agona Ahafo Akuapem Akyem (Akyem Bosome) Anyi Asen Asante (Ashanti) Attié Baule Brong Chakosi Dankyira Fante (Fanti, Mfantse) Guang Kwahu Twi Also, Akan is itself... The Scramble for Africa (AKA Race for Africa) was the period between the 1880s and the start of World War I, when colonial empires in Africa proliferated more rapidly than anywhere else on the globe. ... Events January 23 - The assassination of regent James Stewart, Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war February 25 - Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England with the bull Regnans in Excelsis May 20 - Abraham Ortelius issues the first modern atlas. ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ...


Ashanti was one of the African states able to offer serious resistance to the European invaders. Britain fought four wars against the Ashanti kings between 1826 and 1896 (the Anglo-Ashanti Wars), one of which was notable as the first conflict in which the Maxim gun was used. In 1900, the British finally subdued the kingdom and named it the Gold Coast colony. A much-loved figure in Ashanti history is Yaa Asantewaa, a leader of the resistance against British colonialism in 1896. The Anglo-Ashanti Wars were a series of four notable wars between the British and the Ashanti kings between 1826 and 1896. ... An early Maxim gun in operation with the Royal Navy The Maxim gun was the first self-acting machine gun. ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday. ... Flag of Gold Coast Gold Coast was a British colony on the Gulf of Guinea in west Africa. ... Yaa Asantewaa (c. ... World map of colonialism at the end of the Second World War in 1945. ... 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Under successive paramount chiefs (called "Asantehenes") the kingdom also participated in the African slave trade. The Ashanti would sometimes capture people of surrounding regions and sell them to European slavers. This trade ceased in the early-to-middle 19th century, the Ashanti confederacy had already banned slave trading from 1827 onwards. The Asantehene is the ruler of the Ashanti people. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Naval Battle of Navarino by Carneray 1827 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Part of the territory occupied by the Kingdom of Ashanti is part of what is now Ghana. The hereditary Ashanti crown continues to be honoured by the Ashanti people, alongside the authority of the state.


The Golden Stool

Synonymous with the Ashanti is the legend of the 'Golden Stool' (sika 'dwa), the legend actually tells of the birth of the Ashanti kingdom itself. In the seventeenth century in order for the Ashanti to win their independence from 'Denkyira', then a powerful state, a meeting of all the clan heads of each of the Ashanti settlements was called, in this meeting the 'Golden Stool' was commanded down from the heavens by 'Okomfo Anokye', the fetish Priest, or sage, to the very first Asantehene (Ashanti king); 'Osei-tutu', the Golden stool floated down, from the heavens straight into the lap of Osei-tutu. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


Okomfo Anokye declared the stool to be the symbol of the new Ashanti union ('Asanteman') allegiance was sworn to the Golden Stool and to Osei Tutu as the Asantehene, the newly founded Ashanti union went to war with Denkyira, defeating them in the process.


The Golden Stool is sacred to the Ashanti, it is believed that the Golden Stool contains the 'Sunsum' - spirit or soul of the Ashanti people, - just as man cannot not live without a soul, so the Ashanti would cease to exist if the Golden Stool were to be taken from them. The Golden stool is not just sacred, it is a symbol of nationhood, a symbol that binds or unifies all Ashanti.


In 1900 an attempt by the British Gold Coast governor, Frederick Hodgson, to capture the Golden Stool, led to an uprising, spearheaded by 'Yaa Asantewaa', which took several months to put down. 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday. ... The Republic of Ghana is a nation of Africa, specifically West Africa within Côte dIvoire to the west, Burkina Faso in the north, Togo to the east, and borders the Gulf of Guinea to its south. ... Yaa Asantewaa (c. ...


Geography

The confederacy was one of a series of kingdoms along the coast including Dahomey, Benin, and Yoruba. All of these states were based on trade, especially gold, ivory, and slaves, which were sold to first Portuguese and later Dutch and British traders. The region also had dense populations and large agricultural surpluses, allowing the creation of substantial urban centres. Dahomey was a kingdom in Africa, situated in what is now the nation of Benin. ... The Yoruba (native name Yorùbá) are the largest single ethno-lingusitic group or ethnic nation in Nigeria and the largest single ethnic nation in Africa. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... An elaborately carved ivory decoration Ivory is a hard, white, opaque substance that is the bulk of the teeth and tusks of animals such as the elephant, hippopotamus, walrus, mammoth, narwhal, etc. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ...


History

Origins (1400s-1600’s)

The Ashanti, Adansi, Akyem, Assin, and Denkyira peoples of Ghana, like the Baule of Ivory Coast, are subgroups of the West African Akan nation said to have migrated from the vicinity of the north-western Niger River after the fall of the Ghana Empire in the 1200s. [1] Akan political organization centred on various clans, each headed by a paramount chief or Amanhene. [2] One of these clans, the Oyoko, settled Ghana’s sub-tropical forest region, establishing a centre at Kumasi. [3] During the mid-1600s, under Chief Oti Akenten, the Oyoko started consolidating other Ashanti clans into a loose confederation that occurred without destroying the authority of each paramount chief over his clan.[4] This was done in part by military assault, but largely by uniting them against the Denkyira, who had previously dominated the region. The Ashanti (also Asante) are a major ethnic group from Africa. ... Adansi is the name of two sub-national districts in Ghana - Adansi East and Adansi West. ... Côte dIvoire (often called Ivory Coast in English; see below about the name) is a country in West Africa. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Akan may be: Akan people, an ethnic group from western Africa Akan States, any of several states organized in the 16th or 17th century century by the Akan people Akan languages, a stock of dialects spoken by the Akan people Akan District, Hokkaido Akan, Hokkaido, a town in Akan District... Map of Niger River with Niger River basin in green. ... The Ghana Empire in Africa The Empire of Ghana (existed c. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1150s 1160s 1170s 1180s 1190s - 1200s - 1210s 1220s 1230s 1240s 1250s Years: 1200 1201 1202 1203 1204 1205 1206 1207 1208 1209 Events and Trends 1200 University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France 1202-1204 Fourth Crusade - diverted to... Motto: Freedom and Justice Anthem: God Bless Our Homeland Ghana Capital Accra Largest city Accra Official language(s) English (official), Ga, Twi, Ewe, Dagbani, Fante, and others. ... Kumasi is the capital city of the Ashanti Region of Ghana. ... Categories: 1600s ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ...


Osei Tutu and his successors oversaw a policy of political and cultural unification and the union had reached its full extent by 1750. It remained an alliance of several large towns which acknowledged the sovereignty of the ruler of Kumasi, known as the Asantehene. Events March 2 - Small earthquake in London, England April 4 - Small earthquake in Warrington, England August 23 - Small earthquake in Spalding, England September 30 - Small earthquake in Northampton, England November 16 – Westminster Bridge officially opened Jonas Hanway is the first Englishman to use an umbrella James Gray reveals her sex... Kumasi is the capital city of the Ashanti Region of Ghana. ... The Asantehene is the ruler of the Ashanti people. ...


The new home of the Ashanti was rich in river-gold and kola nuts, and they were soon trading with the Songhay Empire, the Hausa states and by 1482 with the Portuguese at the coastal fort Sao Jorge da Mina, later Elmina. Species See treat Kola nut (Cola) is a genus of about 125 species of trees native to the tropical rainforests of Africa, classified in the family Malvaceae, subfamily Sterculioideae (or treated in the separate family Sterculiaceae). ... From the early 15th to the late 16th century, the Songhai Empire was one of the largest African empires in history. ... The Hausa are a people of northern Nigeria and south-eastern Niger. ... Events Portuguese fortify Fort Elmina on the Gold Coast Tizoc rules the Aztecs Diogo Cão, a Portuguese navigator, becomes the first European to sail up the Congo. ... Elmina is a town on the Atlantic Ocean coast of Ghana, lying west of Cape Coast. ...


Government

The Asantehene, the ruler of the Ashanti, was crowned on the sacred Golden Stool, the Sika 'dwa that came to symbolise their power.


The Asantehene was the sole person allowed to sentence people to death and was the leader of the Ashanti in wartime. In times of conflict each member of the confederacy would have to send troops to the Asantehene's army. Each member of the confederacy was also obliged to send annual tribute to Kumasi. The Asantehene is the ruler of the Ashanti people. ... Kumasi is the capital city of the Ashanti Region of Ghana. ...


All other governing powers were left to the members of the confederacy. Each of these were ruled by a governing council made up of the powerful men of the community.


European Colonisation

The history of the confederacy was one of slow centralisation. In the early nineteenth century the Asantehene used the annual tribute to set up a permanent standing army armed with rifles, which allowed much closer control of the confederacy. Despite still being called a confederacy it was one of the most centralised states in sub-Saharan Africa. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Ashanti strongly resisted attempts by Europeans, mainly the British, to subjugate them. The Ashanti aligned themselves with the Dutch to limit British influence in the region. But Britain still annexed neighbouring areas, including the Fante. In 1807 disputes with the Fante led to the Ashanti-Fante War, in which the Ashanti were victorious under Asantehene Osei Bonsu ("Osei the whale"). In the 1811 Ga-Fante War the Ashanti were less successful, but still captured a British fort. In 1814 the Ashanti launched an invasion of the Gold Coast, with mixed results, they were able to defeat some of the Fante tribes along the coast. This article is about the continent. ... For the writer, see John Fante. ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For the writer, see John Fante. ... The Ashanti-Fante War (1806 - 1807) was fought between the Ashanti Confederacy and the Fante Confederacy of present-day Ghana. ... Joyce Rollins is a lesbian. ... Ga-Fante war in 1811 was a tribal war in African Ashanti Confederacy situated roughly in present day Ghana. ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Ashanti Invasion of the Gold Coast in 1814-16, also called Ashanti-Akim-Akwapim War was the expansion of West African Kingdom of Ashanti against alliance of Akim and Akwapim tribes. ... For the writer, see John Fante. ...


In 1821, the British Crown took over control of the coastal trading posts from the Africa Company. In 1823, Asantehene Osei Tutu Kwame died, and was replaced by Osei Yaw Akoto. After this, the Ashanti led an attack on the British coastal outposts. The Ashanti fought against a force comprised of Africans and Englishmen led by Sir Charles McCarthy in January 1824. The Ashanti won the battle, in which McCarthy was killed. 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen_in_Parliament) legislative power. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Look up English in Wiktionary, the free dictionary As an adjective, English refers to anything from or pertaining to England. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1826 the Ashanti fought against the British and the British's coastal tribal allies. The Ashanti lost the campaign. In 1831, a treaty by the two sides led to thirty years of peace. The Ashanti borders were acknowledged by the British, but the Ashanti were forced to acknowledge British control of most of the coast. The decided border was the Pra river. The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1831 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Pra River (Пра in Russian) is a river in the Ryazan Oblast in Russia, a left tributary of the Oka River. ...


The Ashanti crossed the Pra in 1853 and 1854 during skirmishes with tribes that were British allies. In 1863 a large Ashanti delegation crossed the Pra in pursuit of a fugitive, Kwesi Gyani. The British governor panicked and requested troops from England to invade the Ashanti Confederacy, but the request was refused. The British sent West Indian troops to protect the British territory, but due to sickness caused by the wet season, they were withdrawn months later.


In 1874 the British took the offensive and invaded the Ashanti homeland. A column led by Sir Garnet Wolseley, which comprised 2500 British troops as well as several thousand West Indian and African troops sacked Kumasi, which they then burned. The British formally declared the coastal regions to be the Gold Coast colony. 1882 caricature from Punch Garnet Joseph Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley of Cairo, (June 4, 1833 - March 26, 1913) was a British field marshal. ... Flag of Gold Coast Gold Coast was a British colony on the Gulf of Guinea in west Africa. ...


In 1891, the Asanti turned down an unofficial offer to become a British protectorate. From 1894 to 1895, the Asanti negotiated with England about becoming a British protectorate, and accepting a British Resident in Kumasi, who would be consulted on major decisions made by the Kumasi. In December of 1895, Sir Francis Scott left Cape Coast with an expedition force. It arrived in Kumasi in January 1896. The Asantehene directed the Ashanti to not resist. Shortly thereafter, Governor William Maxwell arrived in Kumasi as well. Asantehene Agyeman Prempeh was deposed and arrested. A British Resident was permanently placed in the city, and soon after a British fort. Francis Reginald Scott (Frank Scott, F.R. Scott) (August 1, 1899 - January 30, 1985) was a Canadian poet, intellectual and constitutional expert. ...


The Ashanti kingdom, cut off from traditional trade routes slowly fell apart. In March 1900, the governor of the Gold Coast, Sir Frederick Hodgson, travelled to Kumasi and demanded the Ashanti's Golden Stool. This caused the Ashanti to rise up, and soon Hodgson fled to the local fort and found himself under siege. Eventually, the fort was relieved and by September, the Ashanti had been put down. Sporadic fighting by Ashanti partisans continued for a number of years as the Asantehene was forced into exile.


Independence

Relations improved, however, and in 1926 the Asantehene was given ceremonial control over Kumasi. In 1935 the full role of leader of the Ashanti people was restored, but limited to purely ceremonial functions.


Upon independence the Gold Coast became known as Ghana. The hereditary Ashanti crown continues to be honoured by the Ashanti people alongside the authority of the state.


See also

Bono Manso (sometimes Bono Mansu) was an ancient trading town in what is now the Nkoranza district of the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana. ... Dagomba is a kingdom in northern Ghana. ... The Fante Confederacy can refer either to the loose alliance of the Fante states in existence at least since the eighteenth century, or it can refer to the briefly lived Confederation formed in 1868 and dissolved in 1874. ... Côte dIvoire (often called Ivory Coast in English; see below about the name) is a country in West Africa. ... Kusi Obodom was the ruler of the Ashanti Confederacy (located in present-day Ghana) from 1750 to 1764, during the Oyoko Abohyen dynasty. ... List of Rulers of the Akan (Bron) state of Asante (Asanteman) (Ashanti) Territory comprised part of present-day southern Ghana (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) See also Akan Ghana Gold Coast Lists of Incumbents ... Opoku Ware I (born 1700 - died ?) was an Asantehene - the ruler of the Ashanti - in the now-disbanded Ashanti Confederacy which occupied parts of what is now Ghana. ... Osei Kwame Panyin was the ruler of the Ashanti Confederacy (located in present-day Ghana) from 1777 to 1803, holding the title of Asantehene. ... Salaga is a city in Ghanas Northern Region and the capital of its East Gonja district. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... Togoland was a German protectorate in West Africa. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ...

References

  1. http://acona-usacanada.org/asantehistory1.html
  2. http://www.ashanti.com.au/pb/wp_5e360041.html
  3. http://www.ashanti.com.au/pb/wp_8078438f.html
  4. http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-5197.html

External links

  • Ashanti Kingdom in Detail Profiles history and other aspects of the kingdom.
  • Ashanti Page at the Ethnographic Atlas, maintained at Centre for Social Anthropology and Computing, University of Kent, Canterbury
  • Ashanti Kingdom at the Wonders of the African World, at PBS
  • Ashanti Culture contains a selected list of Internet sources on the topic, especially sites that serve as comprehensive lists or gateways
  • Africa Guide contains information about the culture of the Ashanti

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ashanti Confederacy Information (1545 words)
Prior to European colonisation, the Ashanti Confederacy was a major state, particularly during the period from 1570 to 1900.
Britain fought four wars against the Ashanti kings between 1826 and 1896 (the Anglo-Ashanti Wars), one of which was notable as the first conflict in which the Maxim gun was used.
The Ashanti, Adansi, Akyem, Assin, and Denkyira peoples of Ghana, like the Baule of Ivory Coast, are subgroups of the West African Akan nation said to have migrated from the vicinity of the north-western Niger River after the fall of the Ghana Empire in the 1200s.
Ashanti (2173 words)
The Ashantis went from being a tributary state, to a confederation of states, and ultimately a centralized hierarchical kingdom.
Unique to West Africa, the Ashanti government was built upon a sophisticated bureaucracy in Kumasi, with separate Ministries to handle the state's affairs.
Of particular note was Ashanti's Foreign Office based in Kumasi; despite its small size, the Ashanti Foreign Office allowed the state to pursue complex arrangements with foreign powers, and the Office itself contained separate departments for handling relations with the British, French, Dutch, and Arabs individually.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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