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Encyclopedia > Ash tree
Ash tree
European Ash (Fraxinus excelsior)
European Ash (Fraxinus excelsior)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Lamiales
Family: Oleaceae
Genus: Fraxinus
Tourn. ex L.
Species

See text Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2451 KB) Fraxinus excelsior foliage and seeds. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... Families See text The Order Lamiales is a taxon in the asterid group of dicotyledonous flowering plants. ... Genera Abeliophyllum- Chionanthus- Fringetree Comoranthus- Dimetra- Fontanesia- Forestieria- Swamp-privet Forsythia- Forsythia Fraxinus- Ash Haenianthus- Hesperelaea- Jasminum- Jasmine Ligustrum- Privet Menodora- Myxopyrum- Nestegis- Noronhia- Notelaea- Nyctanthes- Olea- Olive Osmanthus- Osmanthus Phillyrea- Mock-privet Picconia- Priogymnanthus- Schrebera- Syringa- Lilac Oleaceae, the olive family, is a plant family containing 24 extant genera... Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (June 5, 1656 – December 28, 1708) was a French botanist. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ...

European Ash in flower
European Ash in flower
Narrow-leafed Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) shoot with leaves
Narrow-leafed Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) shoot with leaves
Closeup of European Ash seeds
Closeup of European Ash seeds
19th century illustration of Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus)
19th century illustration of Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus)

An ash can be any of four different tree genera from four very distinct families (see end of page for disambiguation), but originally and most commonly refers to trees of the genus Fraxinus (from Latin "ash tree") in the olive family Oleaceae. The ashes are usually medium to large trees, mostly deciduous though a few subtropical species are evergreen. The leaves are opposite (rarely in whorls of three), and mostly pinnately-compound, simple in a few species. The seeds, popularly known as keys, are a type of fruit known as a samara. The tree's common English name goes back to the Old English æsc, a word also routinely used in Old English documents to refer to spears made of ash wood. Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 427 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 427 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (493x725, 42 KB) Fraxinus angustifolia (Narrow-leafed Ash) shoot with leaves - photo User:MPF Oleaceae File links The following pages link to this file: Ash tree Categories: NowCommons | GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (493x725, 42 KB) Fraxinus angustifolia (Narrow-leafed Ash) shoot with leaves - photo User:MPF Oleaceae File links The following pages link to this file: Ash tree Categories: NowCommons | GFDL images ... European Ash seeds - photo User:MPF File links The following pages link to this file: Ash tree Categories: GFDL images ... European Ash seeds - photo User:MPF File links The following pages link to this file: Ash tree Categories: GFDL images ... Image File history File links Koeh-062. ... Image File history File links Koeh-062. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... Genera Abeliophyllum- Chionanthus- Fringetree Comoranthus- Dimetra- Fontanesia- Forestieria- Swamp-privet Forsythia- Forsythia Fraxinus- Ash Haenianthus- Hesperelaea- Jasminum- Jasmine Ligustrum- Privet Menodora- Myxopyrum- Nestegis- Noronhia- Notelaea- Nyctanthes- Olea- Olive Osmanthus- Osmanthus Phillyrea- Mock-privet Picconia- Priogymnanthus- Schrebera- Syringa- Lilac Oleaceae, the olive family, is a plant family containing 24 extant genera... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Deciduous means temporary or tending to fall off (deriving from the Latin word decidere, to fall off) and is typically used in reference to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Maple samara or key A samara is a type of fruit in which a flattened wing of fibrous, papery tissue develops from the ovary wall. ...

Contents

Selected species

Ashes of eastern North America
Ashes of western and southwestern North America
  • Fraxinus anomala Single-leaf Ash
  • Fraxinus cuspidata Fragrant Ash
  • Fraxinus dipetala California Ash or Two-petal Ash
  • Fraxinus dubia
  • Fraxinus gooddingii Goodding's Ash
  • Fraxinus greggii Gregg's Ash
  • Fraxinus latifolia Oregon Ash
  • Fraxinus lowellii Lowell Ash
  • Fraxinus papillosa Chihuahua Ash
  • Fraxinus purpusii
  • Fraxinus rufescens
  • Fraxinus texensis Mountain Ash or Texas Ash
  • Fraxinus uhdei Shamel Ash or Tropical Ash
  • Fraxinus velutina Velvet Ash
Ashes of the Western Palearctic (Europe, north Africa and southwest Asia)
Ashes of the Eastern Palearctic (central & eastern Asia)
  • Fraxinus apertisquamifera
  • Fraxinus baroniana
  • Fraxinus bungeana Bunge's Ash
  • Fraxinus chinensis Chinese Ash or Korean Ash
  • Fraxinus chiisanensis
  • Fraxinus floribunda Himalayan Manna Ash
  • Fraxinus griffithii Griffith's Ash
  • Fraxinus hubeiensis
  • Fraxinus japonica Japanese Ash
  • Fraxinus lanuginosa
  • Fraxinus longicuspis
  • Fraxinus malacophylla
  • Fraxinus mandshurica Manchurian Ash
  • Fraxinus mariesii Chinese Flowering Ash
  • Fraxinus micrantha
  • Fraxinus paxiana
  • Fraxinus platypoda
  • Fraxinus raibocarpa
  • Fraxinus sieboldiana Japanese Flowering Ash
  • Fraxinus spaethiana Späth's Ash
  • Fraxinus trifoliata
  • Fraxinus xanthoxyloides Afghan Ash

North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Binomial name Fraxinus americana L. The White Ash (Fraxinus americana) is one of the largest of the ash genus Fraxinus, growing to 35 m tall. ... Fraxinus nigra, the Black Ash, is a medium-size tree which occurs in the northeastern United States and much of eastern Canada. ... Binomial name Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. ... Pumpkin ash (Fraxinus profunda), also called red ash of the Olive (Oleaceae family, is a large tree of swamps and bottom lands where it often develops a swollen or pumpkin-shaped butt. ... Binomial name Fraxinus quadrangulata Blue Ash is a tree, Fraxinus quadrangulata, that is native to the east-central United States, from westernmost Pennsylvania south and west to eastern Oklahoma, and also just into southernmost Ontario in Canada. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Binomial name Hook. ... Binomial name Fraxinus latifolia Benth. ... Binomial name Fraxinus texensis L. The Texas Ash or Mountain Ash (Fraxinus texensis) is of the ash genus Fraxinus. ... The Velvet ash tree or Fraxinus velutina is a member of the Olive Family (Oleacea. ... The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface (see map). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl The Narrow-leafed Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) is a species of ash native to central and southern Europe, northwest Africa, and southwest Asia. ... Binomial name Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl The Narrow-leafed Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) is a species of ash native to central and southern Europe, northwest Africa, and southwest Asia. ... Binomial name Fraxinus excelsior L. The European Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) is a tall tree, native to most of Europe, with the exception of northern Scandinavia and southern Mediterranean Europe. ... Binomial name Fraxinus ornus L. Fraxinus ornus (Flowering Ash or Manna Ash) is a species of ash which occurs in Europe. ... The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface (see map). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Fraxinus mandshurica Marsh. ...

Threats

The emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis, a wood-boring beetle accidentally introduced to North America from eastern Asia with ash wood products in about 1998, has killed millions of trees in southeast Michigan, adjacent Ontario, and some isolated smaller areas on eastern North America. It threatens some 7 billion ash trees in North America. Ash is also used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species - see list of Lepidoptera which feed on Ashes. Binomial name Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888 The Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis or Agrilus marcopoli) is a shiny green beetle and an invasive species known for killing ash trees in the United States. ... Suborders Adephaga Archostemata Myxophaga Polyphaga See subgroups of the order Coleoptera Beetles are the most diverse group of insects. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ... Ashes () are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species including: Ash Pug (Eupithecia fraxinata) The Brick (Agrochola circellaris) Brown-tail (Euproctis chrysorrhoea) Copper Underwing (Amphipyra pyramidea) Emperor Moth (Pavonia pavonia) The Engrailed (Ectropis crepuscularia) Feathered Thorn (Colotois pennaria) November Moth (Epirrita dilutata) Purple Thorn...


Uses

The wood is hard (a hardwood), tough and very strong but elastic, extensively used for making bows, tool handles, quality wooden baseball bats, hurley sticks and other uses demanding high strength and resilience. It is also used as material for the bodies of guitars, known for its bright, cutting tone and sustaining quality. Ash veneers are extensively used in office furniture. It also makes excellent firewood. The two most economically important species for wood production are White Ash in eastern North America, and European Ash in Europe. The Green Ash is widely planted as a street tree in the United States. The inner bark of the Blue Ash has been used as a source for a blue dye. The cortex (bark) of Fraxinus rhynchophylla HANCE (Chinese: Ku li bai la shu), Fraxinus chinensis ROXB. (Chinese: Bai la shu), Fraxinus szaboana English (Chinese: Jian ye bai la shu) and Fraxinus stylosa English (Chinese: su zhu bai la shu)are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for diarrhea, dysenteric disorder, and vaginal discharge. It is also good for the eyes where there is symptoms of redness, swelling, and pain. The dosage is 6-12 grams. For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Beech is a typical temperate zone hardwood For the record label, see Hardwood Records. ... This image depicts a typical bow, as made by the Huns, lying against a tree. ... A modern hammer is directly descended from ancient hand tools A tool or device is a piece of equipment which typically provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task, or provides an ability that is not naturally available to the user of a tool. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sliotar(Ball) and Hurley A hurley (Irish: camán) is a wooden stick approx one metre (three feet) long with a flattened, curved end, used to hit a sliotar (leather ball) in the Irish sport of hurling. ... Wood burning is the largest current use of biomass derived energy. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Cultural aspects

In Norse mythology, the World Tree Yggdrasil is commonly held to be an ash tree, and the first man, Ask, was formed from an ash tree (the first woman was made from elm). Elsewhere in Europe, snakes were said to be repelled by ash leaves or a circle drawn by an ash branch. Irish folklore claims that shadows from an ash tree damage crops. In Cheshire, it is said that ash could be used to cure warts or rickets. See also the letter ash. Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... This tree from the Viking Age Överhogdal tapestries is believed to show Yggdrasil with Viðópnir. ... Ask and Embla on a postage stamp of the Faroe Islands, 2003 by Anker Eli Petersen. ... Species See Elm species, varieties, cultivars and hybrids Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees making up the genus Ulmus, family Ulmaceae, found throughout the Northern Hemisphere from Siberia to Indonesia, Mexico to Japan. ... Infraorders and Families Alethinophidia - Nopcsa, 1923 Acrochordidae- Bonaparte, 1831 Aniliidae - Stejneger, 1907 Anomochilidae - Cundall, Wallach & Rossman, 1993 Atractaspididae - Günther, 1858 Boidae - Gray, 1825 Bolyeriidae - Hoffstetter, 1946 Colubridae - Oppel, 1811 Cylindrophiidae - Fitzinger, 1843 Elapidae - F. Boie, 1827 Loxocemidae - Cope, 1861 Pythonidae - Fitzinger, 1826 Tropidophiidae - Brongersma, 1951 Uropeltidae - Müller, 1832... Cheshire (or, archaically, the County of Chester)[1] is a county in North West England. ... n. ...


In Greek mythology, the Meliai were nymphs of the ash, perhaps specifically of the Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus), as dryads were nymphs of the oak. Many echoes of archaic Hellene rites and myth involve ash trees. The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... In Greek mythology, the Meliae were nymphs of the manna-ash tree. ... The Dryad by Evelyn De Morgan Dryads are female tree spirits in Greek mythology. ...


Other name uses (Green Tree)

In North America, the name "Mountain ash" is applied to species of the genus Sorbus, more commonly known in the UK as Rowans and Whitebeams, and the name "Prickly ash" is applied to Zanthoxylum americanum and other Zanthoxylums, all in the family Rutaceae, the rue and citrus family. In Australia, many common eucalyptus species are called ash because they too produce hard, fine-grained timber. The best known of these is the Mountain Ash, the tallest broadleaf tree in the world. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Subgenera Sorbus Aria Micromeles Cormus Torminaria Chamaemespilus The genus Sorbus is a genus of about 100-200 species of trees and shrubs in the subfamily Maloideae of the Rose family Rosaceae. ... Species Sorbus subgenus Sorbus Sorbus aucuparia - European Rowan Sorbus americana - American mountain ash Sorbus cashmeriana - Kashmir Rowan Sorbus commixta - Japanese Rowan Sorbus decora - Showy mountain ash Sorbus glabrescens - White-fruited Rowan Sorbus hupehensis - Hubei Rowan Sorbus matsumurana Sorbus sargentiana - Sargents Rowan Sorbus scalaris - Ladder Rowan Sorbus sitchensis - Sitka mountain... Species Sorbus subgenus Aria Sorbus aria - Common Whitebeam Sorbus arranensis - Arran Whitebeam Sorbus bristoliensis - Bristol Gorge Whitebeam Sorbus devoniensis - Devon Whitebeam Sorbus folgneri - Folgners Whitebeam Sorbus intermedia - Swedish Whitebeam Sorbus mougeotii - Vosges Whitebeam Sorbus rupicola - Rock Whitebeam Sorbus thibetica - Tibetan Whitebeam Sorbus vestita - Himalayan Whitebeam Plus many other species... Prickly ash refers to two different species: Aralia spinosa and Zanthoxylum americanum. ... Species See text Zanthoxylum (from the Greek ξανθὸν ξύλον, yellow wood) is a genus of about 250 species of deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs in the family Rutaceae, native to warm temperate and subtropical areas worldwide. ... Genera About 160 genera; selected important genera: Amyris - West Indian Sandalwood Choisya - Mexican orange Citrus - Citrus Dictamnus - Burning-bush Fortunella - Kumquat Melicope - Corkwood, Alani Murraya - Curry tree Phellodendron - Cork-trees Poncirus - Trifoliate orange Ptelea - Hoptree Ruta - Rue Skimmia - Skimmia Tetradium (Euodia) - Euodias Zanthoxylum - Toothache trees Rutaceae is a family of... This article is about the plant genus. ... Binomial name F.Muell. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ...

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Fraxinus

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ash Tree (1913 words)
There are frequent allusions to the Ash throughout European literature, since its tough saplings were naturally chosen by both Greeks and Romans for their spears, whilst the agricultural writers of the latter nation recommend its wood for agricultural implements, a use to which it is still largely applied.
The Ash attains a height of from thirty to fifty, or even from seventy to ninety feet, with a girth commonly of five or six, but in exceptional instances of as much as twenty feet.
Few trees are less particular as to soil than the Ash; but perhaps the sugar which in warmer latitudes exudes as "manna" from allied species produces in the North that greater luxuriance of growth which gives us the tree in its highest beauty.
Ash Tree Publishing Terms Letter and Distributors Information (557 words)
Banyan Tree Book Distributors Contact: Susan Vanderheiden 08 8363 4244
Some years, Ashtree might save as many as 116 mature trees as a result of printing our books on this paper
Look for the logo on copyright pages and urge your favorite bookseller to sell books on paper that doesn't come from endangered forests.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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