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The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections , collected by Imam Muslim. ... as-Sunan as-Sughra (Arabic: السنن الصغرى), also known as Sunan an-Nasai (Arabic: سنن النسائي) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, and was collected by Al-Nasai. ... Sunan Abu Daud (Arabic: ) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections , collected by Abu Daud. ... Sunan al-Tirmidhi is one of the six most authentic canonical hadith collections of the Sunnis, collected by al-Tirmidhi. ... Sunan Ibn Maja is the last compiled of Sunni Islams six canonical hadith collections, compiled by Ibn Maja. ... The Muwatta is a collection of hadith of the Muhammad that form the basis for the jurisprudence of the Maliki school. ... Sunan al-Darami is a Hadith collection consider by some Sunnis to be the sixth of the Six major Hadith collections. ...

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The Ash'ari theology (Arabic الأشاعرة al-asha`irah) is a school of early Muslim speculative theology founded by the theologian Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (d. 324 AH / 936 AD). The disciples of the school are known as Ash'arites, and the school is also referred to as Ash'arite school. Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Abu al-Hasan bin Ismael al-Ashari (Arabic ابو الحسن بن إسماعيل اﻷشعري) (c. ... Events King Taejo of Goryeo (Wanggeon) defeats Hubaekje. ...


It was instrumental in drastically changing the direction of Islamic theology, separating its development radically from that of theology in the Christian world. Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It can also refer to the study of other religious topics. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who...

Contents

Overview

In contrast to the Mutazilite school of theologians, the Asharite view was that comprehension of unique nature and characteristics of God were beyond human capability. And that, while man had free will, he had no power to create anything. It was a Taqlid-based view which did not assume that human reason could discern morality. A critical spirit of inquiry was far from absent in the Asharite school. Rather, what they lacked, was a trust in reason itself, separate from a moral code, to decide what experiments or what knowledge to pursue. The modern sociology of knowledge could reasonably be said to be based firmly on Asharite views, as illustrated by modern experiences of science without ethics. Mutazili (Arabic المعتزلة) is an extinct theological school of thought within Islam. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Morality. ... The sociology of knowledge is the study of the relationship between human thought and the social context within which it arises, and of the effects prevailing ideas have on societies. ...


Promoting figures

al-Ghazali

Despite being named for Ash'ari, the most influential work of this school's thought was The Incoherence of the Philosophers, by the Persian polymath al-Ghazali (d. 1111). He laid the groundwork to "shut the door of ijtihad" in the subsequent centuries in all Sunni Muslim state. It is one of the most influential works ever produced. Ibn Rushd (Averroes), a rationalist, famously responded that "to say that philosophers are incoherent is itself to make an incoherent statement." Rushd's book, The Incoherence of the Incoherence, attempted to refute Al-Ghazali's views, though the work was not well received in the Muslim community. The Incoherence of the Philosophers (Tahafut al-Falasifa) is the title of a landmark polemic in Islamic philosophy by the Sufi sympathetic Al-Ghazali of the Asharite school against the neoplatonic school of thought in Islamic Philosophy. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-Ghazzālī (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... Events The Synod of Rathbreasail marked the transition of the Irish church from a monastic to a diocesan one Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Paschal II Baldwin VII becomes Count of Flanders Births Henry of Blois, bishop of Winchester (died 1171) Andrei Bogolyubsky, prince of Vladimir... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ...


His book The Revival of the Religious Sciences in Islam was the cornerstone of the school's thinking, and combined theology, skepticism, mysticism, Islam and other conceptions, discussed in depth in the article on Islamic philosophy. Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... This article is about the psychological term. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ...


Other figures

  • Fakhr al-Din Razi (d. 1209) was a Persian mathematician, physicist, physician, philosopher, and a master of Kalam - the school of early Muslim philosophy that focused on the application of ijtihad and questioning to develop fiqh or jurisprudence. He wrote an encyclopedia of science, which was influential, and a later referent for such modern efforts as the Islamization of knowledge, which have similar intention.
  • Ibn Khalladun (d. 1406) was North African born Arab Muslim historian, pedagogue, philosopher particularly interested in history and sociology. The Muqadimmah is still referenced today in these fields.

Other works of universal history from al-Tabari, al-Masudi, Ibn al-Athir, and ibn Khaldun himself, were quite influential in what we now call archaeology and ethnology. Other than Khaldun, these were not Asharites, but worked in a relatively modern style that historians of the present would recognize. At the time, 13th century, the Christian world was simply not authoring honest histories, and the investigation of other cultures was a Muslim monopoly. Abu `Abdallah Muhammad bin `Umar al-Razi, known as Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, (1149–1209) is a famous and well known Muslim theologian and philosopher from Ray, Iran, Persia. ... Events Albigensian Crusade against Cathars (1209-1218) the Franciscans are founded. ... Kalam in Arabic means speech or discourse and refers to the Islamic tradition of seeking theological principles through dialectic. ... Early Muslim philosophy can be starkly divided into four clear sets of influences: First, the life of Muhammad or sira which generated both the Quran (revelation) and hadith (his daily utterances and discourses on social and legal matters), during which philosophy was defined by acceptance or rejection of his... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Islamization of knowledge is a term which describes a variety of attempts and approaches to synthesize the ethics of Islam with various fields of modern thought. ... Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist born in present-day Tunisia. ... Events Construction of Forbidden City begins in Beijing. ... The Muqaddimah records an early Muslim view of universal history. Many modern thinkers view it as one of the first works of sociology. ... The name al-Tabari means simply from Tabaristan, thus more than one Muslim scholar is known by this designation: Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, Ali the scholar from Tabiristan (838-870 A.D.) was the writer of a medical encyclopedia and the teacher of the scholar physician Zakariya al... Abd al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn Masudi (d. ... Izz ad-Dīn Hassan Karam pour Athīr (1160–1233), was a 13th century Iranian/Persian historian born in Cizre in Northern Kurdistan province. ... This July 2007 does not cite any references or sources. ... Ethnology (from the Greek ethnos, meaning people) is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyses the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the racial or national divisions of humanity. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


Influence and modern assessment

The influence of the Asharites is still hotly debated today.


Most agree that the Asharites permitted philosophical methods to continue to be applied to science and technology. Because of them, the 12th-to-14th century marked the peak of innovation in Muslim civilization. During this period many remarkable achievements of engineering and social organization were made. The rigorous means by which the Asharites had reached their conclusions were largely responsible for these achievements.


However, certain Western commentators blame Asharites for curtailing much of the Islamic world's innovation in sciences and technology, alleging that while the Islamic world stagnated innovation generally revived in the West after The Renaissance with emergence of scientific method. This method, however, was based on traditional Islamic methods of ijtihad (open inquiry) and isnad (backing or scientific citation). The Asharites not only did not reject these methods, but indeed promoted them. By Region: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance -French Renaissance -German Renaissance -English Renaissance The Renaissance was a great cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The isnad (Arabic اسناد or in Quranic era Arabic اسند) are the citations or backings that establish the legitimacy of the hadith, which are the sayings of Muhammad, Prophet of Islam. ... Scientific citation is the process by which conclusions of previous scientists are used to justify experimental procedures, apparatus, goals or theses. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Quest (19524 words)
Elshana was just the latest Ashari to begin the quest, and she anxiously awaited her chance to challenge Telain and free the Ashari and Hosul from his grasp.
He already assumed Elshana was Ashari, there were no other reasons that a young woman would travel into this land or have the obvious skill and control with a sword as she had amply shown.
The other Ashari had pulled away as she had begun to take him inside and now he was focused entirely on the woman making love to him.
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