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Encyclopedia > Asclepius
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Asclepius (Greek Ἀσκληπιός, transliterated Asklēpiós; Latin Aesculapius) is the demigod of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology. Asclepius represents the healing aspect of the medical arts, while his daughters Hygieia, Meditrina, Iaso, Aceso, Aglæa/Ægle and Panacea (literally, "all-healing") symbolize the forces of cleanliness, medicine and healing, respectively. The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The ancient Greeks proposed many different ideas about the primordial gods in their mythology. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon (Greek: Δωδεκάθεον < δωδεκα, dodeka, twelve + θεον, theon, of the gods), in Greek religion, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. ... The ancient Greeks had a very small number of see gods. ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, the Muses (Greek , Mousai: perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- think[1]) are a number of goddesses or spirits who embody the arts and inspire the creation process with their graces through remembered and improvised song and stage, writing, traditional music and dance. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For other uses, see Leto (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... Pan (Greek , genitive ) is the Greek god of shepherds and flocks, of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music: paein means to pasture. ... Shepherd in FăgăraÅŸ Mountains, Romania. ... In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue of a god or goddess. ... Attis wearing the Phrygian cap. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... In Greek mythology, Hygieia (Roman equivalent: Salus) was a daughter of Asclepius. ... In Roman mythology, Meditrina (healer) was the goddess of health, longevity and wine. ... Iaso (also, Iaso Tholus or Jaso; in Ionian Greek, Ieso) was the Greek goddess of recovery. ... Aceso was the greek goddess of the healing process. ... Aglaea is the name of five figures in Greek mythology // The youngest of the Charites, Aglaea or Aglaia (splendor, brilliant, shining one) was Hephaestus wife and Asclepius daughter in Greek mythology. ... In Greek mythology, Panaceia, or Πανάκεια (Latin Panacea), was the goddess of healing. ...

Contents

Mythology

Statue of Asclepius in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin.
Statue of Asclepius in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin.

Asclepius was married to Epione, with whom he had six daughters: Hygieia, Meditrina (the serpent-bearer), Panacea, Aceso, Iaso, and Aglaea, and three sons: Machaon, Telesphoros, and Podalirius. He also bore a son, Aratus, with Aristodama. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 1339 KB) Beschreibung Object in the Pergamonmuseum, Berlin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 1339 KB) Beschreibung Object in the Pergamonmuseum, Berlin. ... The Pergamon Museum The Pergamon Museum (in German, Pergamonmuseum) is one of the museums on the Museum Island in Berlin. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... In Greek mythology, Epione was the wife of Asclepius and mother of Panacea. ... In Greek mythology, Hygieia (Roman equivalent: Salus) was a daughter of Asclepius. ... In Roman mythology, Meditrina (healer) was the goddess of health, longevity and wine. ... In Greek mythology, Panaceia, or Πανάκεια (Latin Panacea), was the goddess of healing. ... Aceso was the greek goddess of the healing process. ... Iaso (also, Iaso Tholus or Jaso; in Ionian Greek, Ieso) was the Greek goddess of recovery. ... Aglaea is the name of five figures in Greek mythology // The youngest of the Charites, Aglaea or Aglaia (splendor, brilliant, shining one) was Hephaestus wife and Asclepius daughter in Greek mythology. ... In Greek mythology, Machaon was a son of Asclepius. ... In Greek mythology (especially in Thrace), Telesforos (or Telesphoros) was a son of Asclepius and Salus. ... In Greek mythology, Podalirius was a son of Asclepius. ... Aratus (Greek Aratos) (ca. ...


Coronis (or Arsinoe) became pregnant with Asclepius by Apollo but fell in love with Ischys, son of Elatus. A crow informed Apollo of the affair and he sent his sister, Artemis, to kill Coronis. Her body was burned on a funeral pyre, staining the white feathers of the crows permanently black. Apollo rescued the baby by performing the first caesarean section and gave it to the centaur Chiron to raise. Enraged by his grief, Coronis' father Phlegyas torched the Apollonian temple at Delphi, for which Apollo promptly killed him. In Greek mythology: Coronis (crow or raven), daughter of Phlegyas, King of the Lapiths, was one of Apollos lovers. ... In Greek mythology, Arsinoe referred to two different people. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Ischys Ισχυς was the son of Elatus and Hippea, and also the lover of Coronis. ... There were two figures named Elatus or Élatos in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... A caesarean section (AE cesarean section), or c-section, is a form of childbirth in which a surgical incision is made through a mothers abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more babies. ... This article is about the mythological creatures. ... Chiron and Achilles In Greek mythology, Chiron (hand) — sometimes transliterated Cheiron or rarely Kiron — was held as the superlative centaur among his brethren. ... Phlegyas, son of Ares and Chryse, King of the Lapiths in Greek mythology was father of Ixion and Coronis, one of Apollos lovers. ...


Chiron taught Asclepius the art of surgery, teaching him to be the most well-respected doctor of his day. According to the Pythian Odes of Pindar, Chiron also taught him the use of drugs, incantations and love potions. In The Library, Apollodorus claimed that Athena gave him a vial of blood from the Gorgons. Gorgon blood had magical properties: if taken from the left side of the Gorgon, it was a fatal poison; from the right side, the blood was capable of bringing the dead back to life. According to some, Asclepius fought alongside the Achaeans in the Trojan War, and cured Philoctetes of his famous snake bite. However, others have attributed this to either Machaon or Podalirius, Asclepius' sons, who Homer mentions repeatedly in his Iliad as talented healers. Asclepius, on the other hand, is only referred to by Homer in relation to Machaon and Podalirius. For the PINDAR military bunker in London, please see the PINDAR section of Military citadels under London Pindar (or Pindarus, Greek: ) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was a Greek lyric poet. ... The Bibliotheca (in English Library), in three books, provides a grand summary of traditional Greek mythology and heroic legends. ... Apollodorus was a common name in ancient Greece. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek mythological monster. ... The Achaeans (in Greek , Achaioi) is the collective name given to the Greek forces in Homers Iliad (used 598 times). ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... In Greek mythology, Philoctetes (also Philoktêtês or Philocthetes, Φιλοκτήτης) was the son of King Poeas of Meliboea in Thessaly. ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... For the Machaon of the Trojan War, see Machaon (mythology). ... In Greek mythology, Podalirius was a son of Asclepius. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ...


Asclepius' powers were not appreciated by all, and his ability to revive the dead soon drew the ire of Zeus, who struck him down with a thunderbolt. According to some, Zeus was angered, specifically, by Asclepius' acceptance of money in exchange for resurrection. Another story says Asclepius healed people and may have even made them immortal. This was unacceptable to the god of the Underworld, Hades, who considered these souls his rightful property. Hades prevailed upon Zeus, his brother and king of the gods, to hurl a lightningbolt through Asclepius's head. Zeus proclaimed that all of medicine thereafter could only be palliative -- make the person more comfortable while they either die or get well on their own -- but cures were not allowed. Others say that Zeus killed Asclepius after he agreed to resurrect Hippolytus at the behest of Artemis. Zeus may or may not have smitten Hippolytus with the same bolt. Either way, Asclepius' death at the hands of Zeus illustrates man's inability to challenge the natural order that separates mortal men from the gods.[citation needed] For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ...

Statue of Asclepios Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara
Statue of Asclepios
Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara

In retaliation for Asclepius' murder at the hands of Zeus, Apollo killed the Cyclopes, who fashioned Zeus' thunderbolts. According to Euripides' play Alkestis, Apollo was then forced into the servitude of Admetus for nine years. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 288 × 598 pixelsFull resolution‎ (546 × 1,134 pixels, file size: 246 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 288 × 598 pixelsFull resolution‎ (546 × 1,134 pixels, file size: 246 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Anatolian Civilizations Museum of Ankara, has been elected as the European Museum of the Year in 1997. ... This page is about the mythical creature. ... A statue of Euripides. ... Alcestis is one of the earliest surviving works of the Greek playwright Euripides. ... In Greek mythology, Admetus was a king of Pherae in Thessaly, succeeding his father Pheres after whom the city was named. ...


After he realized Asclepius' importance to the world of men, Zeus placed him in the sky as the constellation Ophiuchus. The name, "serpent-bearer," refers to the Rod of Asclepius, which was entwined with a single serpent. This symbol has now become a symbol for physicians across the globe. However, one should be careful not to confuse the Staff of Asclepius, which features a single serpent wrapped around a roughhewn branch, with the Caduceus of Mercury (Roman), or Karykeion of Hermes (Greek). The Caduceus, which features two intertwined serpents (rather than the single serpent in Asclepius' wand), as well as a pair of wings, has long been a symbol of commerce. It is thought that the two were first confused in the seventh century A.D., when alchemists often used the caduceus to symbolize their association with magical or "hermetic" arts.[citation needed] This article is about the star grouping. ... Ophiuchus (IPA: ), formerly referred to as Serpentarius (IPA: ), the former originating in the Greek language and the latter in the Latin language, both meaning serpent-holder, is one of the 88 constellations and was also one of the 48 listed by Ptolemy. ... Rod of Asclepius The Rod of Asclepius (also known as Asklepios or Aesculapius) is an ancient Greek symbol associated with astrology and healing the sick with medicine. ... For the medical symbol often mistakenly referred to as a caduceus, see Rod of Asclepius. ... A sculpture of the Roman god Mercury by 17th-century Flemish artist Artus Quellinus. ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ...


The Greeks used the name Asclepius to translate Imhotep.[citation needed] This article is about the ancient Egyptian official. ...


Cult

Asclepios' most famous sanctuary was in Epidaurus in Northeastern Peloponnese. Another famous "asclepieion" was on the island of Kos, where Hippocrates, the legendary doctor, may have begun his career. Other asclepieions were situated in Trikala, Gortys (in Arcadia), and Pergamum in Asia. Panoramic view of the theater at Epidaurus Epidaurus (Epidauros) was a small city (polis) in ancient Greece at the Saronic Gulf. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... Port and city view of Kos town on the island Kos. ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Trikala (disambiguation). ... Gortyn (Greek Γορτυς/Gortys, also Γορτύν/Gortun or Γόρτυνα/Gortuna) is a town in the Greek island of Crete, 45 km away from the capital Heraklion. ... Pergamon or Pergamum (modern day Bergama in Turkey) was a Greek city, in northwestern Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern day Bakir), that became an important kingdom during the Hellenistic period, under the Attalid dynasty, 282... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


In honor of Asclepios, snakes were often used in healing rituals. Non-venomous snakes were left to crawl on the floor in dormitories where the sick and injured slept. Starting about 300 BC, the cult of Asclepios grew very popular. His healing temples were called asclepieion; pilgrims flocked to them to be healed. They slept overnight and reported their dreams to a priest the following day. He prescribed a cure, often a visit to the baths or a gymnasium. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC - 300s BC - 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC Years: 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC - 300 BC - 299 BC 298 BC... In ancient Greece, an asclepieion was a healing temple, sacred to the god Asclepius. ...


It is also written by Lewis Farnell, that some healing temples used sacred dogs to lick the wounds of the sick petitioners. 1


The original, ancient Hippocratic Oath begins with the invocation "I swear | by Apollo the Physician and by Asclepius and by Hygieia and Panacea and by all the gods . . ." Scholars have written that this oath may not have been written by Hippocrates, but by or with others in his school, or followers of Pythagoras. 2 For other uses, see Hippocratic Oath (disambiguation). ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; between 580 and 572 BC–between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian (Greek) philosopher[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ...


Some later religious movements claimed links to Asclepios. In the 2nd Century AD The False Prophet Alexander claimed that his god Glycon was an incarnation of Asclepios. Alexander of Abonutichus (d. ... Late second-century statue of Glycon. ...


The botanical genus Asclepias (commonly known as milkweed), is named after him, and includes the medicinal plant A. tuberosa or "Pleurisy root". Species See text. ...


Etymology

The etymology of the name is unknown. In his revised version of Frisk's Griechisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, R.S.P. Beekes gives this summary of the different attempts: [1] Hjalmar Frisk (1900 - 1984) was a Swedish linguist in Indo-European studies and rector of Göteborg University 1951-1966. ... Author of many books about Proto-Indo-European, the reconstructed parent language of most of the European languages and of the languages of Central Asia and India (includes most or all of the languages of Iran, India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, etc. ...

"H. Grégoire (with R. Goossens and M. Mathieu) in Asklépios, Apollon Smintheus et Rudra 1949 (Mém. Acad. Roy. de Belgique. Cl. d. lettres. 2. sér. 45), explains the name as 'the mole-hero', connecting σκάλοψ, ἀσπάλαξ 'mole' and refers to the resemblance of the Tholos in Epidauros and the building of a mole. (Thus Puhvel, Comp. Mythol. 1987, 135.) But the variants of Asklepios and those of the word for 'mole' do not agree.
The name is typical for Pre-Greek words; apart from minor variations (β for π, αλ(α) for λα) we find α/αι (a well known variation; Fur. 335 - 339) followed by -γλαπ- or -σκλαπ-/-σχλαπ/β-, i.e. a voiced velar (without -σ-) or a voiceless velar (or an aspirated one: we know that there was no distinction between the three in the substr. language) with a -σ-. I think that the -σ- renders an original affricate, which (prob. as δ) was lost before the -γ- (in Greek the group -σγ- is rare, and certainly before another consonant); Beekes Pre-Greek.
Szemerényi's etymology (JHS 94, 1974, 155) from Hitt. assula(a)- 'well-being' and piya- 'give' cannot be correct, as it does not explain the velar."

One might add that even though Szemerényi's etymology (Hitt. asula- + piya-) does not account for the velar, it is perhaps inserted spontaneously in Greek due to the fact that the cluster -sl- was uncommon in Greek: so, *Aslāpios would become *Asklāpios automatically. For other uses, see Mole. ... The Treasure of Atreus tholos in 2004 Beehive tombs, also known as Tholos tombs (plural tholoi), are a style of Mycenaean chamber tomb from the Bronze Age. ... Panoramic view of the theater at Epidaurus Epidaurus (Epidauros) was a small city (polis) in ancient Greece at the Saronic Gulf. ... A molehill is a mound of soil raised by a burrowing mole. ... The voiced velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... Oswald Szemerényi (7 September 1913, London – 29 December 1996, Freiburg) was an Indo-Europeanist, with strong interests in Comparative linguistics in general. ... The Journal of Hellenic Studies or JHS is a bound journal containing archaeological articles regarding Hellenic Studies and reviews of recent books of importance to Hellenic studies. ... Hittite is the extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who created an empire centered on ancient Hattusas (modern BoÄŸazkale) in north-central Anatolia (modern Turkey). ... A velar stop or velar plosive is a type of consonant. ...


Popular Culture

In Robert Graves' historical novel, Hercules, My Shipmate, Asclepius was an ordinary mortal who accidentally resuscitated a drowned boy by moving his limbs in imitation of life's activities. This enraged the priestesses of Hecate, and they promptly killed him when he refused to stop such unnatural activities. Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... For other uses, see Hecate (disambiguation). ...


In the fourth book of the Kushiel's Legacy series, Kushiel's Scion by Jacqueline Carey, Imriel de la Courcel encounters Asclepius in a dream, where he is encouraged to heal himself and bear his scars with pride, referencing his inability to come to turns with the darkness of his past. "Even a stunted tree reaches for the light." Kushiels Legacy is a trilogy of fantasy novels by Jacqueline Carey, comprising Kushiels Dart, Kushiels Chosen, and Kushiels Avatar. ... Kushiels Scion is the 2006 novel by Jacqueline Carey, following on from the Kushiels Legacy trilogy (Kushiels Dart, Kushiels Chosen, and Kushiels Avatar). ... Jacqueline Carey (born 1964 in Highland Park, Illinois) is an author and novelist, primarily of fantasy fiction. ...


In the Trauma Center video games, those gifted with the Healing Touch (the ability to induce superhuman concentration and appear to slow time or improve the patient's vitals while performing well in the operation allowing the player to perform miracle surgeries) are said to be "descended from Asclepius." One of the chapter names is called "Striving for Asclepius." It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Trauma_Center:_Under_the_Knife. ...


In the Japanese graphic novel Get Backers, one of the main characters Ban Mido uses the power of the card Asclepius in the Divine design saga of the story. This version of Asclepius uses the evil eye, an illusion-conjuring power and an attack called snake bite that uses the strength of a snake's jaws to crush his opponents. GetBackers (Japanese: &#12466;&#12483;&#12488;&#12496;&#12483;&#12459;&#12540;&#12474;) is a manga series written by Yuya Aoki and illustrated by Rando Ayamine. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Associated with the Roman/Etruscan god Vediovis. In Etruscan and Roman mythology Veiovis, Veive or Vediovis, was an old Italian or Etruscan deity. ...


Footnotes

  • 1 cf. L.R. Farnell, Greek Hero Cults and Ideas of Immortality, Chapter 10, "The Cult of Asklepios" (pp.234-279), p.240
  • 2 cf. L.R. Farnell, Greek Hero Cults and Ideas of Immortality, Chapter 10, "The Cult of Asklepios" (pp.234-279), p.269: "The famous Hippocratean oath may not be an authentic deliverance of the great master, but is an ancient formula current in his school."

References

  • Lewis Richard Farnell, Greek Hero Cults and Ideas of Immortality, 1921.

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Asclepius (615 words)
The main attribute of Asclepius is a physician's staff with an Asclepian snake wrapped around it; this is how he was distinguished in the art of healing, and his attribute still survives to this day as the symbol of the modern medical profession.
The mother of Asclepius, Coronis, was a mortal, the daughter of Phlegyas, a king of Thessaly.
The cult of Asclepius became very popular during the 300s BCE and the cult centres (known as an Asclepieion) were used by priests to cure the sick.
Asclepius, Greek Mythology Link - www.maicar.com (615 words)
When Asclepius was still in the womb, Apollo killed his mother Coronis 2 for having wedded Ischys; and as for the crow who told the god about the wedding, Apollo cursed it and, changing its color from white into fl.
Asclepius, having become a surgeon, and having carried his art to a great pitch, not only prevented some from dying, but even raised up the dead; for he had received from Athena the blood that flowed from the veins of Medusa 1.
Asclepius became the first and greatest of healers because he was the son of Apollo.
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