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Encyclopedia > Asbestos
Fibrous asbestos on muscovite
Fibrous asbestos on muscovite
Asbestos
Asbestos
Asbestos
Asbestos
Blue asbestos (crocidolite) from Wittenoom, Western Australia. The ruler is 1 cm. Blue asbestos showing the fibrous nature of the mineral
Blue asbestos (crocidolite) from Wittenoom, Western Australia. The ruler is 1 cm.
Blue asbestos showing the fibrous nature of the mineral
Blue asbestos showing the fibrous nature of the mineral

Asbestos is a group of minerals with long, thin fibrous crystals. The word "asbestos" is derived from a Greek adjective meaning inextinguishable. The Greeks termed asbestos the "miracle mineral" because of its soft and pliant properties, as well as its ability to withstand heat. Asbestos can refer to: Asbestos, the mineral Asbestos Records, a record label Asbestos, Quebec Category: ... Image File history File linksMetadata Asbestos_with_muscovite. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Asbestos_with_muscovite. ... This article is about the mineral. ... Asbestos. ... Asbestos. ... Asbestos. ... Asbestos. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Wittenoom () is a town in the Pilbara region of Western Australia about 1,106 km north north east of Perth. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ...


Asbestos became increasingly popular among manufacturers and builders in the late 19th century due to its resistance to heat, electricity and chemical damage, its sound absorption and tensile strength. When asbestos is used for its resistance to fire or heat, the fibers are often mixed with cement or woven into fabric or mats. Asbestos is used in brake shoes and gaskets for its heat resistance, and in the past was used on electric oven and hotplate wiring for its electrical insulation at elevated temperature, and in buildings for its flame-retardant and insulating properties, tensile strength, flexibility, and resistance to chemicals. For other uses, see Cement (disambiguation). ... This article is about the vehicle component. ... Some seals and gaskets 1. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Socks made from flame retardant cotton. ... Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ...


The inhalation of asbestos fibers can cause serious illnesses, including mesothelioma and asbestosis. Since the mid 1980s, many uses of asbestos have been banned in many countries. Asbestos fibers are released from asbestos containing materials (ACMs). ... Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. ...

Contents

Types and associated fibres

Chrysotile asbestos
Chrysotile asbestos
Asbestos fibers
Asbestos fibers

Six minerals are defined as "asbestos" including: chrysotile, amosite, crocidolite, tremolite, anthophyllite and actinolite. Asbestos (chrysotile). ... Asbestos (chrysotile). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (880x665, 153 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Asbestos Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (880x665, 153 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Asbestos Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Chrysotile asbestos Chrysotile is an asbestiform sub-group within the serpentine group of minerals. ... Amosite is a commonly commercially-used synonym of grunerite first used by Hall. ... Amphibole (Hornblende) Amphibole defines an important group of dark-colored rock-forming inosilicate minerals composed of double chain SiO4 tetrahedra linked at the vertices and generally containing ions of iron and/ or magnesium in their structures. ... A sample of tremolite Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2. ... Anthophyllite is an amphibole mineral: (Mg, Fe)7Si8O22(OH)2, magnesium iron inosilicate hydroxide. ... Well-cleaved, dark, fine-grained chlorite-actinolite metadiabase intrudes light granitic gneiss Actinolite is an inosilicate mineral with the chemical formula Ca2(MgFe)5Si8O22(OH)2 // Mineralogy Actinolite is an intermediate member in a series between tremolite (Mg-rich) and ferro-actinolite (Fe-rich). ...


White

Chrysotile, CAS No. 12001-29-5, is obtained from serpentine rocks which are common throughout the world. Chrysotile fibers are curly as opposed to fibers from amosite, crocidolite, tremolite, actinolite, and anthophyllite which are needlelike.[1] Chrysotile, along with other types of asbestos, has been banned in dozens of countries and is only allowed in the United States and Europe in very limited circumstances. Chrysotile has been used more than any other type and accounts for about 95% of the asbestos found in buildings in America.[2] Applications where chrysotile might be used include the use of joint compound. It is more flexible than amphibole types of asbestos; it can be spun and woven into fabric. The most common use is within corrugated asbestos cement roof sheets typically used for outbuildings, warehouses and garages. It is also found as flat sheets used for ceilings and sometimes for walls. Numerous other items have been made containing chrysotile including brake linings, cloth behind fuses (for fire protection), pipe insulation, in floor tiles and in rope seals to boilers.[citation needed] Chrysotile asbestos Chrysotile is an asbestiform sub-group within the serpentine group of minerals. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... For other uses, see Serpentine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Joint compound is a white substance similar to plaster used to seal joints between sheets of drywall, primarily in building construction. ... For the logical fallacy, see Amphibology. ... Fabric may mean: Cloth, a flexible artificial material made up of a network of natural or artificial fibres Fabric (club), a London dance club Fibre Channel fabric, a network of Fibre Channel devices enabled by a Fibre Channel switch using the FC-SW topology This is a disambiguation page, a...


Mg3[Si2O5](OH)4


Brown

Amosite, CAS No. 12172-73-5, is a trade name for the amphiboles belonging to the Cummingtonite - Grunerite solid solution series, commonly from Africa, named as an acronym from Asbestos Mines of South Africa. One formula given for amosite is Fe7Si8O22(OH)2. It is found most frequently as a fire retardant in thermal insulation products and ceiling tiles.[2] Amosite is a commonly commercially-used synonym of grunerite first used by Hall. ... A trade name, also known as a trading name or a business name, is the legal name of a business, or the name which a business trades under for commercial purposes. ... For the logical fallacy, see Amphibology. ... Cummingtonite or magnesium iron silicate hydroxide is a metamorphic index mineral with the chemical composition (Mg,Fe)7Si8O22(OH)2. ... Fig. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ...


Blue

Crocidolite, CAS No. 12001-28-4 is an amphibole found primarily in southern Africa, but also in Australia and possibly Russia. It is the fibrous form of the amphibole riebeckite. One formula given for crocidolite is Na2Fe2+3Fe3+2Si8O22(OH)2. Notes: chrysotile commonly occurs as soft friable fibers. Asbestiform amphibole may also occur as soft friable fibers but some varieties such as amosite are commonly straighter. All forms of asbestos are fibrillar in that they are composed of fibers with widths less than 1 micrometre that occur in bundles and have very long lengths. Asbestos with particularly fine fibers is also referred to as "amianthus". Amphiboles such as tremolite have a crystal structure containing strongly bonded ribbonlike silicate anion polymers that extend the length of the crystal. Serpentine (chrysotile) has a sheetlike silicate anion which is curved and which rolls up like a carpet to form the fiber.[3] Amphibole (Hornblende) Amphibole defines an important group of dark-colored rock-forming inosilicate minerals composed of double chain SiO4 tetrahedra linked at the vertices and generally containing ions of iron and/ or magnesium in their structures. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Riebeckite is a sodium-rich member of the amphibole group of minerals, chemical formula Na2(Fe,Mg)5Si8O22(OH)2. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... For the meaning of fiber in nutrition, see dietary fiber. ... Look up asbestiform in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Amosite is a commonly commercially-used synonym of grunerite first used by Hall. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In chemistry, a silicate is a compound containing an anion in which one or more central silicon atoms are surrounded by electronegative ligands. ... An anion is an ion with negative charge. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Chrysotile asbestos Chrysotile is an asbestiform sub-group within the serpentine group of minerals. ...


Other materials

Other regulated asbestos minerals, such as tremolite asbestos, CAS No. 77536-68-6, Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2; actinolite asbestos (or smaragdite), CAS No. 77536-66-4, Ca2(Mg, Fe)5(Si8O22)(OH)2; and anthophyllite asbestos, CAS No. 77536-67-5, (Mg, Fe)7Si8O22(OH)2; are less commonly used industrially but can still be found in a variety of construction materials and insulation materials and have been reported in the past to occur in a few consumer products. For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... In commerce, a product is a good economics and accounting good or service which can be bought and sold. ...


Other natural and not currently regulated asbestiform minerals, such as richterite, Na(CaNa)(Mg, Fe++)5(Si8O22)(OH)2, and winchite, (CaNa)Mg4(Al, Fe3+)(Si8O22)(OH)2, may be found as a contaminant in products such as the vermiculite containing zonolite insulation manufactured by W.R. Grace and Company. These minerals are thought to be no less harmful than tremolite, amosite, or crocidolite, but since they are not regulated, they are referred to as "asbestiform" rather than asbestos although may still be related to diseases and hazardous. Vermiculite is a natural, non toxic mineral that expands with the application of heat. ... Vermiculite is a natural mineral which expands with the application of heat. ... W. R. Grace and Company NYSE: GRA is a conglomerate founded in 1854 by William Russell Grace (1832-1904). ...


Production trends

Asbestos output in 2005
Asbestos output in 2005

In 2005, 2.2 million tons of asbestos were mined worldwide. Russia was the largest producer with about 40% world share followed by China and Kazakhstan.[4] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of asbestos output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Russia - 925,000 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of asbestos output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Russia - 925,000 tonnes). ...


Uses

Historic usage

Asbestos was named by the ancient Greeks who also recognized certain hazards of the material. The Greek geographer Strabo and the Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder noted that the material damaged lungs of slaves who wove it into cloth.[5][6] Charlemagne, the first Holy Roman Emperor, is said to have had a tablecloth made of asbestos.[7][8][9] The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ... Coats of arms of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 to 1576. ...


Wealthy Persians, who bought asbestos imported over the Hindu Kush, amazed guests by cleaning the cloth by simply exposing it to fire. According to Biruni in his book of Gems, any cloths made of asbestos (Persian: آذرشست, āzarshast or Persian: آذرشب, āzarshab) were called (Persian: شستكه) shastakeh[10]. Some of the Persians believed the fiber was fur from an animal (named samandar, Persian: سمندر) that lived in fire and died when exposed to water.[11][12] This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Biruni commemorated on a Soviet stamp for his millennial anniversary. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... A 16th-century image of a salamander from M. M. Pattison Muirs The Story of Alchemy and the Beginnings of Chemistry The salamander an amphibian of the order Urodela. ... Farsi redirects here. ...


Some archeologists believe that ancients made shrouds of asbestos, wherein they burned the bodies of their kings, in order to preserve only their ashes, and prevent their being mixed with those of wood or other combustible materials commonly used in funeral pyres.[13] Others assert that the ancients used asbestos to make perpetual wicks for sepulchral or other lamps.[9][11] In more recent centuries, asbestos was indeed used for this purpose. Although asbestos causes skin to itch upon contact, ancient literature indicates that it was prescribed for diseases of the skin, and particularly for the itch. It is possible that they used the term asbestos for alumen plumosum, because the two terms have often been confused throughout history.[13] For the sepulchral burial site of Jesus in Jerusalem, see Church of the Holy Sepulchre. ... The History of literature begins with the history of writing, in Bronze Age Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt, although the oldest literary texts that have come down to us date to a full millennium after the invention of writing, to the late 3rd millennium BC. The earliest literary authors known by... The lid of a soapstone box to show the characteristic look of the stone. ...


Asbestos became more widespread during the industrial revolution; in the 1860s it was used as insulation in the U.S. and Canada. Development of the first commercial asbestos mine began in 1879 in the Appalachian foothills of Quebec.[14] By the mid 20th century uses included fire retardant coatings, concrete, bricks, pipes and fireplace cement, heat, fire, and acid resistant gaskets, pipe insulation, ceiling insulation, fireproof drywall, flooring, roofing, lawn furniture, and drywall joint compound.[9] Look up Development in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


Approximately 100,000 people in the United States have died, or will die, from asbestos exposure related to ship building. In the Hampton Roads area, a shipbuilding center, mesothelioma occurrence is seven times the national rate.[15] Thousands of metric tons of asbestos were used in World War II ships to wrap the pipes, line the boilers, and cover engine and turbine parts. There were approximately 4.3 million shipyard workers in the United States during WWII; for every thousand workers about 14 died of mesothelioma and an unknown number died from asbestosis.[14] This view from space in July 1996 shows portions of each of the Seven Cities of Hampton Roads which generally surround the harbor area of Hampton Roads, which framed by the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel visible to the east (right), the Virginia Peninsula subregion to the north (top), and the... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. ...


Asbestos fibers were once used in automobile brake pads and shoes. Since the mid-1990s, a majority of brake pads, new or replacement, have been manufactured instead with linings made of ceramic, carbon, metallic and Aramid fiber (Twaron or Kevlar—the same material used in bulletproof vests). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Brake lining. ... Aramid fiber (1961) is a fire-resistant and strong synthetic fiber. ... Chemical structure of Kevlar. ... Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Kent, the first filtered cigarette on the market, used crocidolite asbestos in its "Micronite" filter from 1952 to 1956.[16] Kent is a brand of cigarettes, first to introduce smoke filters in 1952. ... A cigarette filter has the purpose of reducing the amount of smoke, tar, and fine particles as combustion products from a cigarette, being inhaled. ...


The first documented death related to asbestos was in 1906.[8] In the early 1900s researchers began to notice a large number of early deaths and lung problems in asbestos mining towns. The first diagnosis of asbestosis was made in England in 1924.[6] By the 1930s, England regulated ventilation and made asbestosis an excusable work related disease, about ten years sooner than the U.S.[6][17] The term Mesothelioma was not used in medical literature until 1931, and was not associated with asbestos until sometime in the 1940s.[8] Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. ...


The United States government and asbestos industry have been criticized for not acting quickly enough to inform the public of dangers, and to reduce public exposure. In the late 1970s court documents proved that asbestos industry officials knew of asbestos dangers and tried to conceal them.[14]


In Japan, particularly after World War II, asbestos was used in the manufacture of ammonium sulfate for purposes of rice production, sprayed upon the ceilings, iron skeletons, and walls of railroad cars and buildings (during the 1960s), and used for energy efficiency reasons as well. Production of asbestos in Japan peaked in 1974 and went through ups and downs until about 1990, when production began to drop severely.[18] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Ammonium sulphate, [NH4]2[SO4] contains 21% nitrogen as ammonia and 24% sulfur as sulfate. ...


Specific products

Serpentine group

Serpentine minerals have a sheet or layered structure. Chrysolite is the only asbestos mineral in the serpentine group. In the United States, chrysotile has been the most commonly used type of asbestos. According to the U.S. EPA Asbestos Building Inspectors Manual, chrysotile accounts for approximately 95% of asbestos found in buildings in the United States. Chrysotile is often present in a wide variety of materials, including:

  • joint compound
  • mud and texture coats
  • vinyl floor tiles, sheeting, adhesives
  • roofing tars, felts, siding, and shingles
  • "transite" panels, siding, countertops, and pipes
  • fireproofing
  • caulk
  • gaskets
  • brake pads and shoes
  • clutch plates
  • stage curtains
  • fire blankets
  • interior fire doors
  • fireproof clothing for firefighters
  • thermal pipe insulation

In the European Union and Australia it has recently been banned as a potential health hazard[19] and is not used at all. Japan is moving in the same direction, but more slowly. Revelations that hundreds of workers had died in Japan over the previous few decades from diseases related to asbestos sparked a scandal in mid-2005.[20] Tokyo had, in 1971, ordered companies handling asbestos to install ventilators and check health on a regular basis; however, the Japanese government did not ban crocidolite and amosite until 1995, and a full-fledged ban on asbestos was implemented in October 2004.[20] Fireproofing, a passive fire protection measure, subject to bounding, refers to the act of making materials or structures more resistant to fire, or to those materials themselves. ... For a description of caulking in computer game creation, refer to caulking (computer games) Caulking is a process used in the sealing of the seams in wooden boats and making them watertight. ... Some seals and gaskets 1. ... This article is about the vehicle component. ... For other uses, see Clutch (disambiguation). ...


Amphibole group

Five types of asbestos are found in the amphibole group: amosite, crocidolite, anthophyllite, tremolite, and actinolite. Amosite, the second most likely type to be found in buildings, according to the U.S. EPA Asestos Building Inspectors Guide, is the "brown" asbestos.


Amosite and crocidolite were formerly used in many products until the early 1980s. The use of all types of asbestos in the amphibole group was banned (in much of the Western world) by the mid-1980s, and by Japan in 1995. These products were mainly:

  • Low density insulation board and ceiling tiles
  • Asbestos-cement sheets and pipes for construction, casing for water and electrical/telecommunication services
  • Thermal and chemical insulation (i.e., fire rated doors, limpet spray, lagging and gaskets)

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Health issues

Chrysotile asbestos, like all other forms of industrial asbestos, has produced tumors in animals. Mesotheliomas have been observed in people who were occupationally exposed to chrysotile, family members of the occupationally exposed, and residents who lived close to asbestos factories and mines.[21] Brown asbestos, like all asbestos, is hazardous. Blue asbestos is commonly thought of as the most dangerous type of asbestos. Tremolite often contaminates chrysotile asbestos, thus creating an additional hazard.


Asbestos exposure becomes a health concern when high concentrations of asbestos fibers are inhaled over a long time period.[1] People who become ill from asbestos are almost always those who are exposed on a day-to-day basis in a job where they work directly with the material. As a person's exposure to fibers increases, either by breathing more fibers or by breathing fibers for a longer time, that person's risk of disease also increases. Disease is very unlikely to result from a single, high-level exposure, or from a short period of exposure to lower levels.[2]


Other asbestos-related diseases

  • Asbestos warts – caused when the sharp fibers lodge in the skin and are overgrown causing benign callus-like growths.
  • Pleural plaques – discrete fibrous or partially calcified thickened area which can be seen on X-rays of individuals exposed to asbestos. They do not become malignant or cause other lung impairment.
  • Diffuse pleural thickening – similar to above and can sometimes be associated with asbestosis. Usually no symptoms shown but if extensive can cause lung impairment.

This article is about the organ. ... This article is about calluses and corns of human skin. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. ... For the village in Tibet, see Lung, Tibet. ...

Asbestos as a contaminant

Asbestos fibres (SEM picture)
Asbestos fibres (SEM picture)

Most respirable asbestos fibers are invisible to the unaided human eye because their size is about 3.0-20.0 µm in length and can be as thin as 0.01 µm. Human hair ranges in size from 17 to 181 µm in width.[22] Fibers ultimately form because when these minerals originally cooled and crystallized, they formed by the polymeric molecules lining up parallel with each other and forming oriented crystal lattices. These crystals thus have three cleavage planes, just as other minerals and gemstones have. But in their case, there are two cleavage planes that are much weaker than the third direction. When sufficient force is applied, they tend to break along their weakest directions, resulting in a linear fragmentation pattern and hence a fibrous form. This fracture process can keep occurring and one larger asbestos fiber can ultimately become the source of hundreds of much thinner and smaller fibers. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1024, 421 KB) Anthophyllite asbestos, Scanning electron microscope picture from [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Asbestos Scanning electron microscope ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1024, 421 KB) Anthophyllite asbestos, Scanning electron microscope picture from [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Asbestos Scanning electron microscope ... SEM Cambridge S150 at Geological Institute, University Kiel, 1980 SEM opened sample chamber The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope capable of producing high-resolution images of a sample surface. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... This article is about the body feature. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite planes, creating smooth surfaces, of which there are several named types: Basal cleavage: cleavage parallel to the base of a crystal, or to the plane of the lateral axes. ...


As asbestos fibers get smaller and lighter, the more easily they become airborne and human respiratory exposures can result. Fibers will eventually settle but may be re-suspended by air currents or other movement.


Friability of a product containing asbestos means that it is so soft and weak in structure that it can be broken with simple finger crushing pressure. Friable materials are of the most initial concern due to their ease of damage. The forces or conditions of usage that come into intimate contact with most non-friable materials containing asbestos are substantially higher than finger pressure.


Environmental asbestos

Asbestos can be found naturally in the air outdoors and in some drinkable water, including water from natural sources.[23] Studies have shown that members of general (non-occupationally exposed) population have tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of asbestos fibers in each gram of dry lung tissue, which translates into millions of fibers and tens of thousands of asbestos bodies in every person's lungs.[24] Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... North American redirects here. ...


Asbestos from natural geologic deposits is known as "Naturally Occurring Asbestos" (NOA). Health risks associated with exposure to NOA are not yet fully understood, and current US federal regulations do not address exposure from NOA. Many populated areas are in proximity to shallow, natural deposits which occur in 50 of 58 California counties and in 19 other U.S. states. In one study, data was collected from 3,000 mesothelioma patients in California and 890 men with prostate cancer, a malignancy not known to be related to asbestos. The study found a correlation between the incidence of mesotheliomas and the distance a patient lived from known deposits of rock likely to include asbestos, the correlation was not present when the incidence of prostate cancer was compared with the same distances. According to the study, risk of mesothelioma declined by 6 percent for every 10 kilometers that an individual had lived from a likely asbestos source.[25] This article is about the U.S. state. ... HRPC redirects here. ...


Portions of El Dorado County, California are known to contain natural asbestos formations near the surface.[26][25] The USGS studied amphiboles in rock and soil in the area in response to an EPA sampling study and subsequent criticism of the EPA study. The study found that many amphibole particles in the area meet the counting rule criteria used by the EPA for chemical and morphological limits, but do not meet morphological requirements for commercial-grade-asbestos. The executive summary pointed out that even particles that do not meet requirements for commercial-grade-asbestos may be a health threat and suggested a collaborative research effort to assess health risks associated with "Naturally Occurring Asbestos".[27] El Dorado County is a county located in the Gold Country of the U.S. state of California, in the Sierra Nevada. ... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... For the logical fallacy, see Amphibology. ...


Large portions of Fairfax County, Virginia were also found to be underlain with tremolite. The county monitored air quality at construction sites, controlled soil taken from affected areas, and required freshly developed sites to lay 6 inches (150 mm) of clean, stable material over the ground.[25] Fairfax County is a county in Northern Virginia, in the United States. ... A sample of tremolite Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2. ...


History of health concerns and regulation

Prior to 1900

By the first century AD, Greeks and Romans had already observed, at least in passing, that slaves involved in the weaving of asbestos cloth were afflicted with a sickness of the lungs. [28].


Early concern in the modern era on the health effects of asbestos exposure can be found in several sources. Among the earliest were reports in Britain. The annual reports of the Chief Inspector of Factories reported as early as 1898 that asbestos had 'easily demonstrated' health risks[29]


At about the same time, what was probably the first study of mortality among asbestos workers was reported in France [30]. While the study describes the cause of death as chalicosis, a generalized pneumoconiosis, the circumstances of the employment of the fifty workers whose death prompted the study suggest that the root cause was asbestos or mixed asbestos-cotton dust exposure. Chalicosis (Greek, χαλιξ, gravel) is a disorder of the lungs or bronchioles (chiefly among stonecutters), due to the inhalation of fine particles of stones; a form of pneumoconiosis. ... Pneumoconiosis, also known as coal workers pneumoconiosis, miners asthma, or black lung disease, is a lung condition caused by the inhalation of dust, characterized by formation of nodular fibrotic changes in lungs. ...


1900s - 1910s

Further awareness of asbestos-related diseases can be found in the early 1900s, when London doctor H. Montague Murray conducted a post mortem exam on a young asbestos factory worker who died in 1899. Dr. Murray gave testimony on this death in connection with an industrial disease compensation hearing. The post-mortem confirmed the presence of asbestos in the lung tissue, prompting Dr. Murray to express as an expert opinion his belief that the inhalation of asbestos dust had at least contributed to, if not actually caused, the death of the worker[31].


The record in the United States was similar. Early observations were largely anecdotal in nature and did not definitively link the occupation with the disease, followed by more compelling and larger studies that strengthened the association. One such study, published in 1918, noted:

All of these processes unquestionably involve a considerable dust hazard, but the hygienic aspects of the industry have not been reported upon. It may be said, in conclusion, that in the practice of American and Canadian life insurance companies asbestos workers are generally declined on account of the assumed health-injurious conditions of the industry [32].

1920s and 1930s

Widespread recognition of the occupational risks of asbestos in Britain was reported in 1924 by a Dr. Cooke, a pathologist, who introduced a case description of a 33-year old female asbestos worker with the following: 'Medical men in areas where asbestos is manufactured have long suspected the dust to be the cause of chronic bronchitis and fibrosis...[33]." Dr. Cooke then went on to report on a case in 1927 involving a 33-year old male worker who was the only survivor out of ten workers in an asbestos carding room. In the report he named the disease "asbestosis[34]."


Dr. Cooke's second case report was followed, in the late 1920s, by a large public health investigation (now known as the Merewether report after one of its two authors) that examined some 360 asbestos-textile workers (reported to be about 15% of the total comparable employment in Britain at the time) and found that about a quarter of them suffered from pulmonary fibrosis [35]. This investigation resulted in improved regulation of the manufacturing of asbestos-containing products in the early 1930s. Regulations included industrial hygiene standards, medical examinations, and inclusion of the asbestos industry into the British Workers' Compensation Act [36].


The first known US workers' compensation claim for asbestos disease was in 1927[37]. In 1930, the first reported autopsy of an asbestosis sufferer was conducted in the United states and later presented by a doctor at the Mayo Clinic, although in this case the exposure involved mining activities somewhere in South America[38].


In 1930, the major asbestos company Johns-Manville produced a report, for internal company use only, about medical reports of asbestos worker fatalities.[39] In 1932, A letter from U.S. Bureau of Mines to asbestos manufacturer Eagle-Picher stated, in relevant part, "It is now known that asbestos dust is one of the most dangerous dusts to which man is exposed".[40] In 1933, Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. doctors found that 29% of workers in a Johns-Manville plant had asbestosis.[39] Likewise, in 1933, Johns-Manville officials settle lawsuits by 11 employees with asbestosis on the condition that the employees' lawyer agree to never again "directly or indirectly participate in the bringing of new actions against the Corporation."[40] In 1934, officials of two large asbestos companies, Johns-Manville and Raybestos-Manhattan, edited an article about the diseases of asbestos workers written by a Metropolitan Life Insurance Company doctor. The changes downplayed the danger of asbestos dust.[40] In 1935, officials of Johns-Manville and Raybestos-Manhattan instructed the editor of Asbestos magazine to publish nothing about asbestosis.[40] In 1936, a group of asbestos companies agreed to sponsor research on the health effects of asbestos dust, but required that the companies maintain complete control over the disclosure of the results.[39] Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. ...


1940s

In 1942, an internal Owens-Corning corporate memo refer to "medical literature on asbestosis . . . . scores of publications in which the lung and skin hazards of asbestos are discussed."[39] Either in 1942 or 1943, the president of Johns-Manville, Lewis H. Brown, says that the managers of another asbestos company were "a bunch of fools for notifying employees who had asbestosis." When one of the managers asks, "do you mean to tell me you would let them work until they dropped dead?" The response is reported to have been, "Yes. We save a lot of money that way."[41] In 1944, a Metropolitan Life Insurance Company report found 42 cases of asbestosis among 195 asbestos miners.[39] Born in Creston, Iowa on February 13, 1894, Lewis Harold Brown became a passionate and highly respected industrialist. ...


1950s

In 1951, asbestos companies removed all references to cancer before allowing publication of research they sponsored.[42] In 1952, Dr. Kenneth Smith, Johns-Manville medical director, recommended (unsuccessfully) that warning labels be attached to products containing asbestos. Later, Smith testified: "It was a business decision as far as I could understand . . . the corporation is in business to provide jobs for people and make money for stockholders and they had to take into consideration the effects of everything they did and if the application of a caution label identifying a product as hazardous would cut into sales, there would be serious financial implications."[43] In 1953, National Gypsum's safety director wrote to the Indiana Division of Industrial Hygiene, recommending that acoustic plaster mixers wear respirators "because of the asbestos used in the product." Another company official noted that the letter is "full of dynamite" and urged that it be retrieved before reaching its destination. A memo in the files noted that the company "succeeded in stopping" the letter, which "will be modified."[44]


1960s-early 80s

Modern regulation

See main article at Asbestos and the law

This article concerns asbestos-related legal and regulatory issues. ...

United States

In 1989 the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued the Asbestos Ban and Phase Out Rule which was subsequently overturned in the case of Corrosion Proof Fittings v. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1991. This ruling leaves many consumer products that can still legally contain trace amounts of asbestos. For a clarification of products which legally contain asbestos read the EPA's clarification statement.[45] Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... EPA redirects here. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...


The EPA has proposed a concentration limit of 7 million fibers per liter of drinking water for long fibers (lengths greater than or equal to 5 µm). The OSHA, (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) has set limits of 100,000 fibers with lengths greater than or equal to 5 µm per cubic meter of workplace air for 8-hour shifts and 40-hour work weeks.[46] OSHA logo The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. ...


New Zealand

In 1984 The import of raw amphibole (blue and brown) asbestos into New Zealand was banned. In 2002 the import of chrysotile (white) asbestos was banned[47].


Contamination of other products

Asbestos and vermiculite

Vermiculite is a hydrated laminar magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate which resembles mica. It can be used for many industrial applications and has been used as a replacement for asbestos. Some ore bodies of vermiculite have been found to contain small amounts of asbestos.[48] One vermiculite mine operated by W. R. Grace and Company in Libby, Montana exposed workers and community residents to danger by mining contaminated vermiculite, in 1999 the EPA began cleanup efforts and now the area is a superfund cleanup area.[49] The EPA has determined that harmful asbestos is released not only from the mine, but also through other activities that disturb soil in the area.[50] Vermiculite is a natural, non toxic mineral that expands with the application of heat. ... W. R. Grace and Company NYSE: GRA is a conglomerate founded in 1854 by William Russell Grace (1832-1904). ... Libby is a city in Lincoln County, Montana, United States. ... Checking the status of a cleanup site Superfund is the common name for the United States environmental law that is officially known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601 to 9675, which was enacted by the United States Congress on December 11...


Asbestos and talc

Talc is sometimes contaminated with asbestos.[51] In 2000, tests in a certified asbestos-testing laboratory found the tremolite form of amphibole asbestos in three out of eight major brands of children's crayons (oil pastels) that are made partly from talc — Crayola, Prang, and Rose Art.[52] In Crayola crayons, the tests found asbestos levels from 0.05% in Carnation Pink to 2.86% in Orchid; in Prang crayons, the range was from 0.3% in Periwinkle to 0.54% in Yellow; in Rose Art crayons, it was from 0.03% in Brown to 1.20% in Orange. Overall, 32 different types of crayons from these brands contained more than trace amounts of asbestos, and eight others contained trace amounts. The Art and Creative Materials Institute, a trade association which tests the safety of crayons on behalf of the makers, initially insisted the test results must be incorrect, although they later said they do not test for asbestos.[52] In May 2000, Crayola said tests by materials analyst, Richard Lee, of two of its crayons were negative for asbestos, although it later emerged that Lee had testified in lawsuits over 250 times on behalf of the asbestos industry, which paid him US$7 million.[53] In June 2000, Binney & Smith, the maker of Crayola, and the other makers agreed to stop using talc in their products, and changed their product formulations in the United States.[53] The mining company, R T Vanderbilt Co of Gouverneur, New York, which supplied the talc to the crayon makers, insists there is no asbestos in its talc "to the best of our knowledge and belief",[54] but tests by the United States Mine Safety and Health Administration found asbestos in all four talc samples that it tested in 2000.[53] Talc (derived from the Persian via Arabic talq) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. ... For other uses, see Crayon (disambiguation). ... Crayola logo 2002-present Crayola past logo, 1996-2002 Crayola® is a brand of marking utensils, such as markers, chalk, and colored pencils manufactured by Crayola LLC (formerly Binney & Smith). ... Gouverneur is a town located in St. ... The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor which administers the provisions of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 (Mine Act) to enforce compliance with mandatory safety and health standards as a means to eliminate fatal accidents, to...


Asbestos in construction

Asbestos construction in developed countries

The use of asbestos in new construction projects has been banned for health and safety reasons in many developed countries, including all 27 member states of the European Union, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand. A notable exception is the United States, where asbestos continues to be used in construction.


Prior to the ban, asbestos was widely used in the construction industry. Many older buildings contain asbestos. In the United States, there is a minimum standard for asbestos surveys as described by ASTM Standard E 2356-04. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes some but not all asbestos-contaminated facilities on the Superfund National Priorities list (NPL). Renovation and demolition of asbestos contaminated buildings is subject to EPA NESHAP and OSHA Regulations. Asbestos is not a material covered under CERCLA's innocent purchaser defense. ASTM International is an international voluntary standards organization that develops and produces technical standards for materials, products, systems and services. ... Checking the status of a cleanup site Superfund is the common name for the United States environmental law that is officially known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601 to 9675, which was enacted by the United States Congress on December 11... The National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) are emissions standards set by the United States EPA for an air pollutant not covered by NAAQS that may cause an increase in fatalities or in serious, irreversible, or incapacitating illness. ... Checking the status of a cleanup site CERCLA is an acronym for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601 to 9675 (commonly known as the Superfund), which was enacted by the United States Congress on December 11, 1980 in response to the Love Canal...


Asbestos construction in developing countries

Some developing countries, such as India and China, have continued widespread use of asbestos. The most common is corrugated asbestos-cement sheets or "A/C Sheets" for roofing and for side walls. Millions of homes, factories, schools or sheds and shelters continue to use asbestos. Cutting these sheets to size and drilling holes to receive 'J' bolts to help secure the sheets to roof framing is done on site. There has been no significant change in production and use of A/C Sheets in developing countries following the widespread restrictions in developed nations.  Newly industrialized countries  Other emerging markets  Other developing economies  High income  Upper-middle income  Lower-middle income  Low income A developing country is that country which has a relatively low standard of living, an undeveloped industrial base, and a moderate to low Human Development Index (HDI) score and per capita...


Litigation

Main article: Asbestos and the law

Asbestos litigation is the longest, most expensive mass tort in U.S. history, involving more than 8,400 defendants and 730,000 claimants as of 2002 according to the RAND Corporation[55], and at least one defendant reported claim counts in excess of 800,000 in 2006[56]. This article concerns asbestos-related legal and regulatory issues. ... This article is about legal torts. ... American history redirects here. ... Alternate meanings: See RAND (disambiguation) The RAND Corporation is an American think tank first formed to offer research and analysis to the U.S. military. ...


Current trends indicate that the worldwide rate at which people are diagnosed with the disease will likely increase through the next decade[57]. Analysts have estimated that the total costs of asbestos litigation in the USA alone is over $250 billion.[58]


The Federal legal system in the United States has been faced with numerous counts of asbestos related suits, which often included multiple plaintiffs with similar symptoms. The concern with these court cases are the staggering numbers, which in 1999 recorded a whopping 200,000 cases pending in the Federal court system of the United States [59]. Further, it is estimated that within the next 40 years, cases may balloon to seven hundred thousand cases. These numbers help explain how there are thousands of current pending cases.


Litigation of asbestos materials has been a difficult entity to muster due to the multiple factors which play a role in every case. The company that oftentimes is being exposed for their negligence of working conditions and the worker or in many cases, workers who were exposed to asbestos and did not know that they were, or knew and now fear future medical problems, have current symptoms or were upset for the negligence of the company. Companies sometimes counter saying that health issues do not currently appear in their worker or workers, or sometimes are settled out of court[60]. The Research and Development (RAND) think-tank has appropriated certain legal information which is readily available for proclaimed victims of natural resource accidents. This information, although sometimes deemed radical, has helped many workers, regardless of health condition, earn compensation through companies. RAND, along with the Institute for Civil Justice (ICJ) have been proponents of the organization of past cases in order to determine one aspect of fair compensation for workers. The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit global policy think tank first formed to offer research and analysis to the United States armed forces. ...


1999 saw the introduction of the Fairness in Asbestos Compensation Act[61]. This Act was used as a tool in order to determine which of the numerous federal cases were true, and if the plaintiff’s were actually suffering from asbestos related illness. This process was necessary as thousands of false insurance claims were costing companies billions and ultimately many companies were forced to file for bankruptcy. While companies filed for bankruptcy, this limited payouts to those who were actually affected by the material. What the 1999 Act ultimately determined was “a judgment that those resources should be spent on delivering full and prompt compensation to those who are, and will become, impaired by asbestos disease, and not dissipated on payments to those who are not sick and may never become sick, on punitive damages that seek retribution for the decisions of long-dead executives for conduct that took place decades ago and on the extraordinary transaction costs (Professor Christopher Edley, Jr.).” [62] With this litigation, it was recommended by many that the framework of the Act was set in a fair manor to for most parties.


There is no effective way to allocate funding to every claimant with the fair treatment of companies in question. Although a majority of companies involved with numerous asbestos cases are household names, they are also at the highest risk while faced with workers health concerns. The 1999 Act has effectively helped save time, money and aggravation for both sides of every asbestos case. There are fewer cases of bankruptcy and fewer cases of fraudulent medical concerns. Notable concerns with bankruptcy include the fact that once a company is forced to divide funding amongst its workers, it has a limited budget which lags on the economy and ultimately cannon contribute back the way it once was.[63] This was a main reason for the hesitation of any strict enforcement policy. However, the Act of 1999 helps to alleviate exuberant payouts to unqualified claimants, all while safely and legally protecting those who were, are and will be affected by asbestos related illnesses.


Litigation exists outside the United States in England, Scotland, Ireland, the Netherlands, France, Australia, and Japan among other nations. See the companion article for further information. This article concerns asbestos-related legal and regulatory issues. ...


The volume of the asbestos liability has concerned manufacturers and insurers and reinsurers[64]. The amounts and method of allocating compensation have been the source of many court cases, and government attempts at resolution of existing and future cases. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


One notable asbestos lawyer, Peter Angelos, used the vast fortune he gained from asbestos lawsuits to buy the Baltimore Orioles. [65] Peter Angelos (born July 4, 1929) is a trial lawyer and the current owner of the Baltimore Orioles, a baseball team in the American League East Division. ... This article is about the contemporary American major league baseball team. ...


Critics of safety regulations

According to Natural Resources Canada, chrysotile asbestos is not as dangerous as once thought. According to their fact sheet, "...current knowledge and modern technology can successfully control the potential for health and environmental harm posed by chrysotile".[66] In May of 1998, Canada requested consultations with the European Commission concerning France's 1996 prohibition of the importation and sale of asbestos.[67] Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ...


Canada claimed that the French measures contravened provisions of the Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and on Technical Barriers to Trade, and the GATT 1994.[67]


The EC said that substitute materials had been developed in place of asbestos, which are safer to human health. It stressed that the French measures were not discriminatory, and were fully justified for public health reasons. The EC said that in the July consultations, it had tried to convince Canada that the measures were justified, and that just as Canada broke off consultations, it was in the process of submitting substantial scientific data in favour of the asbestos ban.[67]


Critics of Canada's support of the use of chrysotile asbestos argue that Canada is ignoring the risks associated with the material. The CFMEU pointed out that selling asbestos is illegal in Canada, but it is exported and most exports go to developing countries. Canada has pressured countries, including Chile, and the UN to avoid asbestos bans.[68] The Construction, Forestry, Mining and Energy Union (CFMEU) is Australias main trade union in construction, forestry and furnishing products, mining and energy production. ...


Asbestos regulation critics include Junkscience.com author and Fox News columnist Steven Milloy and the asbestos industry.[69] Critics sometimes argue that increased regulation does more harm than good and that replacements to asbestos are inferior. An example is the suggestion by Dixy Lee Ray and others that the shuttle Challenger exploded because the maker of O-ring putty was pressured by the EPA into ceasing production of asbestos-laden putty.[70][71] However, scientists point out that the putty used in Challenger's final flight did contain asbestos, and failures in the putty were not responsible for the failure of the O-ring that led to loss of the shuttle.[72][71] Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... Steven Milloy is a columnist for Fox News and a paid advocate for Phillip Morris, ExxonMobil and other corporations. ... Dixy Lee Ray Dixy Lee Ray (September 3, 1914- January 2, 1994) was the seventeenth governor of Washington State, U.S.A. and the first woman to hold that position (for one term, from 1977 until 1981). ... karl heinze ... Typical O-ring and application An O-ring is a loop of elastomer with a round (o-shaped) cross-section used as a mechanical seal. ...


Asbestos was used in the first 40 floors of the World Trade Center towers causing an airborne contamination among lower Manhattan after the towers collapsed in the attacks on September 11th, 2001.[73] Steven Milloy suggests that the World Trade Center towers could still be standing or at least would have stood longer had a 1971 ban not stopped the completion of the asbestos coating above the 64th floor [74]. This was not mentioned in the National Institute of Standards and Technology's report on the towers' collapse. Insulation that replaced asbestos is believed to have equivalent fire resistance, and any sort of sprayed-on insulation, including asbestos-based material, would have been removed in large areas by the impact of the planes.[75][76][77] For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Steven Milloy is a columnist for Fox News and a paid advocate for Phillip Morris, ExxonMobil and other corporations. ... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ... NIST logo The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly known as The National Bureau of Standards) is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration. ...


Substitutes for asbestos in construction

Fiberglass insulation was invented in 1938 and is now the most commonly used type of insulation material. In Europe stone- and glasswool are the main insulators in houses. Bundle of fiberglass Fiberglass (also called fibreglass and glass fibre) is material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. ... Common insulation applications inside an apartment building in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. ... A selection of insulation materials can aid in building insulation. ... Mineral wool, means fibres made from minerals or metal oxides, be they synthetic or natural. ...


Many companies that produced asbestos-cement products that were reinforced with asbestos fibres have developed products incorporating organic fibres. One such product was known as Eternit and another "Everite" now use "Nutec" fibres which consist of organic fibres, portland cement and silica. In gaskets and friction materials also stonefibres are used. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sampling fast set Portland cement Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general usage, as it is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar and plaster. ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ...


Another potential fiber is Polybenzimidazole or PBI fiber. Polybenzimidazole fiber is a synthetic fiber with high melting point of 760 °C that also does not ignite. Due to its exceptional thermal and chemical stability, it is often used by fire departments and space agencies. PolyBenzImidazole or PBI fiber (1983) is a synthetic fiber with no melting point that also does not ignite. ... PolyBenzImidazole or PBI fiber (1983) is a synthetic fiber with an extremely high melting point that also does not ignite. ... Synthetic fibres are the result of extensive research by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibres that have been used in making cloth and rope. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Fire station in Kostroma, Russia (1823-26). ... // This is a list of government agencies engaged in activities related to outer space and space exploration. ...


Recycling and disposal

In most developed countries, asbestos is typically disposed of as hazardous waste in landfill sites. This article describes hazardous waste as a substance; for the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal see Basel Convention Put simply, a Hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment and generally exhibits one... Look up landfill in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Asbestos can also be recycled by transforming it into harmless silicate glass. A process of thermal decomposition at 1000-1250 °C produces a mixture of non-hazardous silicate phases, and at temperatures above 1250 °C it produces silicate glass.[78] Microwave thermal treatment can be used in an industrial manufacturing process to transform asbestos and asbestos-containing waste into porcelain stoneware tiles, porous single-fired wall tiles, and ceramic bricks.[79] Silicate glasses have been commonly used in the field of semiconductor device fabrication as an insulator between active layers of the semiconductor device. ... In chemistry, a silicate is a compound containing an anion in which one or more central silicon atoms are surrounded by electronegative ligands. ...


See also

Mineralogy

Asbestine is a mineral compound composed of nearly pure fibrous magnesium silicate. ... Gem animals. ...

Other internal links

The phrase adequately wet is an environmental term referring to asbestos containing material that is sufficiently mixed or penetrated with liquid to prevent the release of particulates. ... Part of Cheadle Hulmes Seven Arches Railway Viaduct Adswood tip and the Adswood Eco Centre is a civic amenity centre and closed landfill located between Adswood and Cheadle Hulme. ... Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England which has a population of 2. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... , United States Pennsylvania Montgomery 0. ... This article concerns asbestos-related legal and regulatory issues. ... Asbestos fibers are released from asbestos containing materials (ACMs). ... Asbestos-Ceramic (ca 3900-1800 BP) refers to two (or three) types of pottery manufactured with asbestos and clay with adiabatic behaviour in Northern Scandinavia and Finland. ... Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. ... Asbestos is a town in southeastern Quebec, Canada on the Nicolet River and is the seat of the MRC dAsbestos. ... The Avondale Landfill is a major Scottish landfill located in Falkirk, off junction 4 of the M9 motorway. ... , Polmont is a village in the Falkirk council area of Central Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ... Brominated flame-retardants are produced synthetically in 70 variants with very varying chemical properties. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Fibromyalgia is a debilitating chronic syndrome (constellation of signs and symptoms) characterized by diffuse pain, fatigue, and a wide range of other symptoms. ... Fireproofing, a passive fire protection measure, subject to bounding, refers to the act of making materials or structures more resistant to fire, or to those materials themselves. ... Wittenoom () is a town in the Pilbara region of Western Australia about 1,106 km north north east of Perth. ... Medical geology consists of those aspects of geology as they relate to health and medicine. ...

References

  1. ^ American Cancer Society
  2. ^ a b Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
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  4. ^ World Mineral Production 2001-2005. British Geological Survey. Retrieved on 2007-08-03.
  5. ^ History of Asbestos
  6. ^ a b c Asbestos Resource Center
  7. ^ Time Magazine
  8. ^ a b c Mesothelioma Center
  9. ^ a b c Understanding Asbestos Mesothelioma Applied Research Center
  10. ^ Dehkhoda Persian Dictionary
  11. ^ a b University of Calgary
  12. ^ A Brief History of Asbestos Use and Associated Health Risks EnvironmentalChemistry.com website
  13. ^ a b History of science This article incorporates content from the 1728 Cyclopaedia, a publication in the public domain.
  14. ^ a b c Shipyards, a Crucible for Tragedy
  15. ^ Horrible Toll Could Have Been Avoided
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  18. ^ Asbestos in Japan
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  22. ^ Ley, Brian (1999). Diameter of a Human Hair. The Physics Factbook.
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  24. ^ Medscape article on asbestos
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  26. ^ "Not in Their Back Yard", Mother Jones, May/June 2007.
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  47. ^ Journal of the New Zealand Medical Association, 05-November-2004, Vol 117 No 1205
  48. ^ EPA Asbestos Contamination In Vermiculite
  49. ^ Libby Asbestos - US EPA Region 8
  50. ^ Risk Assessment - US EPA
  51. ^ A USGS Study of Talc Deposits and Associated Amphibole Asbestos Within Mined Deposits of the Southern Death Valley Region, California
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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dehkhoda Dictionary is the largest ever lexical compilation of the Persian language. ... Cancer research is research into cancer in order to identify causes and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatments and cure. ... For other uses, see New Yorker. ... The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ... The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ... The daily Seattle Post-Intelligencer is the second leading newspaper in Seattle, Washington, United States. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The daily Seattle Post-Intelligencer is the second leading newspaper in Seattle, Washington, United States. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The daily Seattle Post-Intelligencer is the second leading newspaper in Seattle, Washington, United States. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sporting News (TSN) is an American-based sports newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Additional reading

  • George B. Guthrie and Brooke T. Mossman, editors, Health Effects of Mineral Dusts, Mineralogical Society of America Reviews in Mineralogy v. 28, 584 pages (1993) ISBN 0-939950-33-2

The Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) is a scientific membership organization. ...

External links

Regulatory and government links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • U.S. EPA Asbestos Home Page
  • ATSDR Case Studies in Environmental Medicine: Asbestos Toxicity
  • Directory of Accredited Laboratories - Asbestos Fiber Analysis (TEM Test Method)
  • Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding asbestos
  • Health History Source: Article by the SafetyLine Institute - WorkSafe - Western Australian state government
  • Asbestos and Occupational Health in the World
  • British Government Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health - Asbestos Page
  • Control of Asbestos in Singapore

Mineral and mining links

  • Parachrysotile (asbestos) at the webmineral.com Mineral Database
  • Univ. of Minn.: Asbestos
  • Asbestos Newspaper Articles Archive
  • Asbestos in the World
  • White Gold Pioneers: Asbestos Mining—The origins of asbestos mining, illustrated with many early photographs

Health and the environment

  • About Your House — General Series — Asbestos
  • Hazards magazine's comprehensive asbestos resource pages
  • The Miracle Mineral Fiber - Asbestos
  • CBC Digital Archives - Asbestos: Magic mineral or deadly dust?
  • An article on the health impact of asbestos from Liverpool's 'Nerve' magazine
  • The Wittenoom Tragedy, Asbestos Diseases Society of Australia.
  • Health and Safety - Asbestosis (TUC Resources, UK)
  • International Asbestos Victims Memorial
  • About Asbestos European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (OSHA)
  • Asbestos contamination near abandoned mine
  • Asbestos Health Risk Assessment
  • Asbestos Removal Procedures
  • A USGS map of "Naturally Occurring Asbestos" in Eastern America
  • Shipbuilding's Deadly Legacy(series of articles from a Newspaper local to Hampton Roads, VA)
  • EPA refused to warn of asbestos dangers
  • Asbestos Danger: Do You Have Zonolite In Your Attic?
  • A guide to asbestos in the home (From The Wrekin Housing Trust)
The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) aims to make Europe’s workplaces safer, healthier and more productive. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fiber. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Angora wool or Angora fiber refers to the downy coat produced by the Angora rabbit. ... Camel hair is, variously, the hair of a camel; a type of cloth made from camel hair; or a substitute for authentic camel hair. ... Kashmere redirects here. ... Catgut is the name applied to cord of great toughness and tenacity prepared from the intestines of sheep/goat, or occasionally from those of the hog, horse, mule, pig, and donkey. ... Chiengora is a yarn or wool spun from dog hair. ... For other uses, see Llama (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Mohair (band). ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue, attached on one end to a muscle and on the other to a bone. ... Spider silk is a fibre secreted by spiders. ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... Fiber crops are field crops grown for their fibers, which are used to make paper, cloth, or rope. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... Coir (from Malayalam kayar, cord) is a coarse fibre extracted from the fibrous outer shell of a coconut. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... This article is about vegetable fibre. ... Binomial name L. Kenaf [Etymology: Persian [1] ]. (Hibiscus cannabinus) is a species of Hibiscus, probably native to southern Asia, though its exact natural origin is unknown. ... Manila hemp, also known as manilla, is a type of fiber obtained from the leaves of the abaca (Musa textilis), a relative of the banana. ... Piña is a fiber derived from the leaves of a pineapple. ... Species About 25-30 species, including: Raphia australis Raphia farinifera Raphia hookeri Raphia regalis Raphia taedigera Raphia vinifera The Raffia palm (Raphia) is a genus of tropical palms, native to tropical regions of Africa, Madagascar, Central America and South America. ... Binomial name Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaudich. ... Binomial name Agave sisalana Perrine Sisal or sisal hemp is an agave Agave sisalana that yields a stiff fiber used in making rope. ... Synthetic fibres are the result of extensive research by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibres that have been used in making cloth and rope. ... Acrylic fibers are synthetic fibers made from a polymer (Polyacrylonitrile) with an average molecular weight of ~100,000. ... Aramid fiber (1961) is a fire-resistant and strong synthetic fiber. ... Chemical structure of Kevlar. ... Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ... Technora is the brandname of Teijin Twaron for a aromatic copolyamid. ... NOMEX® is the brand name of a flame retardant meta-aramid material marketed and first discovered by DuPont in the 1970s. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ... Microfiber (British spelling: Microfibre) is fiber with strands less than one denier. ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... This article needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester (aka Terylene) is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), also known as high modulus polyethylene (HMPE) or high performance polyethylene (HPPE), is a thermoplastic. ... Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), also known as high modulus polyethylene (HMPE) or high performance polyethylene (HPPE), is a thermoplastic. ... Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic fiber. ... Example of spandex Spandex or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity. ... poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole) Zylon is a trademarked name for a range of thermoset polyurethane materials manufactured by the Toyobo Corporation. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Asbestos (1331 words)
Asbestos is the name given to a group of six different fibrous minerals (amosite, chrysotile, crocidolite, and the fibrous varieties of tremolite, actinolite, and anthophyllite) that occur naturally in the environment.
Asbestos minerals have separable long fibers that are strong and flexible enough to be spun and woven and are heat resistant.
Asbestos mainly affects the lungs and the membrane that surrounds the lungs.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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