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Encyclopedia > Aryan

"Aryan" (/eərjən/ or /ɑːrjən/, Sanskrit: आर्यन) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning "noble/spiritual one." It is derived from the Sanskrit and Avestan term ārya-, the extended form aryāna-, ari- and/or arya- which the word Iran is a cognate of. Since, in the 19th century, the Indo-Iranians were the most ancient known speakers of "Indo-European" languages, the word Aryan was adopted to refer not only to the Indo-Iranian people, but also to Indo-European speakers as a whole. In Europe, the concept of an Aryan race became influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as linguists and ethnologists argued that speakers of these Indo-European languages constitute a distinctive race, spoken by an ancient people who must have been the original ancestors of the European, Iranian and Indo-Aryan peoples, now known as -Proto-Indo-Europeans-. In today's English, "Aryan", is merely synonymous to Indo-Iranian, the eastern extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. [1] [2] [3] [4] The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is an old Indo-Aryan language from the Indian Subcontinent, the classical literary language of the Hindus of India[1], a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Yasna 28. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is an old Indo-Aryan language from the Indian Subcontinent, the classical literary language of the Hindus of India[1], a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Yasna 28. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... ... Ethnologyis a genre of cultural anthropology and| anthropological study, involving the systematic comparison of the beliefs and practices of different societies. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... This article is about the continent. ... The Indo-Aryans make up 74% of the population of India and are the creators of the concept of the Aryan race. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek syn συν = plus and onoma όνομα = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Contents

Etymology

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) *ar-yo-, a yo-adjective to a root *ar "to assemble skillfully", present in Greek harma "chariot", Greek aristos, (as in "aristocracy"), Latin ars "art", etc. Proto-Indo-Iranian *ar-ta- was a related concept of "properly joined" expressing a religious concept of cosmic order. The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is hereditary, and split between a small number of families. ... The term Indo-Iranian includes all speakers of Indo-Iranian languages, i. ... Avestan asha (; Old Persian arta, Middle Persian ard) is a central principle of Zoroastrianism, representing truth, justice or order. The opposite of asha is druj (Old Persian drauga), representing untruth, chaos. // Avestan and its Vedic equivalent both derive from Proto-Indo-Iranian *árta truth, which derives from Proto-Indo-European...


The adjective *aryo- was suggested as ascending to Proto-Indo-European times as the self-designation of the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language itself. It was suggested that other words such as Éire, the Irish name of Ireland, and Ehre (German for "honour") were related to it, but these are now widely regarded as untenable,[5] and while *ar-yo- is certainly a well-formed PIE adjective, there is no evidence that it was used as an ethnic self-designation outside the Indo-Iranian branch. In the 1850s Max Müller theorized that the word originated as a denotation of farming populations, since he thought it likely that it was related to the root *arh3, meaning "to plough". Other 19th century writers, such as Charles Morris, repeated this idea, linking the expansion of PIE speakers to the spread of agriculturalists. Most linguists now consider *arh3 to be unrelated. The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ... Map of Éire Éire (pronounced ) is the Irish name for Ireland. ... Max Müller Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German philologist and Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ...


In ancient and medieval India, the Sanskrit term aryaputra, literally, 'son of nobility' was a title conferred to kings and princes. In the epic Mahabharata, king Dhritarashtra’s wife, Gandhari addresses her husband as aryaputra more often than she uses his name, or any other title of respect.


The Old Persian form of *Aryāna- appears as Æryānam Väejāh "Aryan Root-land" in Avestan,[6] in Middle Persian as Ērān, and in Modern Persian as Īrān.[7] Similarly, Northern India was referred to by the tatpurusha Aryavarta "Arya-abode" in ancient times. See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... The Airyanem Vaejah or Airyana Waejah (Aryan Expanse) was the legendary home of the Aryan (Indo-Iranian) people, as described in writings in the Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrians. ... Yasna 28. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... Persian (فارسی), also known as Farsi (local name), Parsi (older local name, but still used by some speakers), Tajik (a Central Asian dialect) or Dari (an Afghan dialect), is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. ... A Tatpurusha is a type of compound in Sanskrit grammar. ... The vedic name for India, meaning Categories: Indo-European language stubs ...


Armenians call themselves Hay Aryaee or Hay Aryatzi in Armenian.[8] For other uses, see Armenia (disambiguation). ... Ārya is a Sanskrit (आर्य) and Avestan word used by Hindus, Jains, Zoroastrians, and Buddhists. ...


Semantics of Sanskrit arya

Main article: Arya

According to Paul Thieme (1938), the Vedic term arya- in its earliest attestations has a meaning of "stranger", but "stranger" in the sense of "potential guest" as opposed to "barbarian" (mleccha, dasa), taking this to indicate that arya was originally the ethnic self-designation of the Indo-Iranians. Arya directly contrasts with Dasa or Dasyu in the Rigveda (e.g. RV 1.51.8, ví jānīhy âryān yé ca dásyavaḥ "Discern thou well Aryas and Dasyus"). This situation is directly comparable to the term Hellene in Ancient Greece. The Middle Indic interjection arē!, rē! "you there!" is derived from the vocative arí! "stranger!". Ä€rya is a Sanskrit (आर्य) and Avestan word used by Hindus, Jains, Zoroastrians, and Buddhists. ... Paul Thieme (1905-2001) was a scholar of Vedic Sanskrit. ... Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, which are the earliest sacred texts of India,. The Vedas were first passed down orally and therefore have no known date. ... Mleccha (from Vedic Sanskrit म्लेच्छ , meaning non-Aryan, barbarian) is a derogatory term for people who did not conform with conventional Hindu beliefs and practices. ... Luftwaffe Tornado ECR Deutsche Aerospace AG Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG Founded May 19, 1989 as Deutsche Aerospace AG, bundling space and aeronautic elements of Daimler-Benz (including Dornier Luftfahrt), Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB), MTU München, and Telefunken Systemtechnik (TST) In 1992, the helicopter division was... The Rigveda (Sanskrit: , a tatpurusha compound of praise, verse and knowledge) is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns dedicated to the gods. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Middle Indo-Aryan (Middle Indic) languages are the medieval dialects of the Indo-Aryan languages, the descendants of the Iron Age Prakrits, and the predecessors of the contemporary Indo-Aryan languages like Hindustani, Bengali, and Punjabi. ...


The Sanskrit lexicon Amarakosha (c. AD 450) defines Arya as mahākula kulīnārya "being of a noble family", sabhya "having gentle or refined behavior and demeanor", sajjana "being well-born and respectable", and sādhava "being virtuous, honourable, or righteous". In Hinduism, the religiously initiated Brahmin, Kshatriya and Vaishyas were arya, a title of honor and respect given to certain people for noble behaviour. This word is still used by Hindus, Buddhists, Jains and Zoroastrians to mean noble or spiritual.[9] Ranjith ... Ä€rya is a Sanskrit (आर्य) and Avestan word used by Hindus, Jains, Zoroastrians, and Buddhists. ... A Brahmin (anglicised from the Sanskrit adjective belonging to Brahma, also known as Brahman belonging to ; Vipra, Dvija twice-born, Dvijottama best of the twice born or earth-god) is considered to be the highest class (varna) in the Indian caste system of Hindu society [1] [2], although this status... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is the title of the princely military order in the Vedic society. ... In the Hindu varna system, a Vaishya (Sanskrit वैश्य vaiÅ›ya) is a member of the third of the four only varnas of the varna system of traditional Indian society. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahinsa, meaning non-injury and nonviolence. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ...


Indo-European

The 4th edition of Meyers Konversationslexikon (1890) shows "European Aryans" and "Indo-Aryans", together with "Semitic peoples" and "Hamites" making up the "Caucasian race".
The 4th edition of Meyers Konversationslexikon (1890) shows "European Aryans" and "Indo-Aryans", together with "Semitic peoples" and "Hamites" making up the "Caucasian race".

Max Müller and other 19th century linguists theorized that the term *arya was used as the self-description of the Proto-Indo-Europeans, who were often referred to at this time as the "primitive Aryans". By extension, the word came to be used in the West for the Indo-European speaking peoples as a whole. Besides Müller for example H. Chavée in 1867 uses the term in this sense (aryaque), but this never saw frequent use in linguistics, precisely for being reserved for "Indo-Iranian" already. G. I. Ascoli in 1854 used arioeuropeo, viz. a compound "Aryo-European" with the same rationale as "Indo-European", the term now current, which has been in frequent use since the 1830s. Nevertheless, the use of Aryan as a synonym for Indo-European became widespread in non-linguistic and popular usage by the end of the nineteenth century. Image File history File linksMetadata Meyers_1890_ethnographic_detail. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Meyers_1890_ethnographic_detail. ... Meyers Konversations-Lexikon was a German encyclopaedia. ... The 4th edition of Meyers Konversationslexikon (1885-1890) shows the Caucasian race (in blue) as comprising Aryans, Semites and Hamites. The Caucasian race (sometimes called the Caucasoid race) is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as, relating to a broad division of humankind covering peoples from Europe, western Asia, Middle... Max Müller Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German philologist and Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics, dealing with the Indo-European languages. ...


Use of "Aryan" for "Indo-European" in academia was obsolete by the 1910s: B. W. Leist in 1888 still titles Alt-Arisches Jus Gentium ("Old Aryan [meaning Indo-European, not Indo-Iranian] Ius Gentium"). P. v. Bradke in 1890 titles Methode und Ergebnisse der arischen (indogermanischen) Altterthumswissenschaft, still using "Aryan", but inserting an explanatory bracket. Otto Schrader in 1918 in his Reallexikon der indogermanischen Altertumskunde under the entry Arier matter-of-factly discusses the Indo-Iranians, without any reference to a possible wider meaning of the term.


According to Michael Witzel in his paper Autochthonous Aryans? The Evidence from Old Indian and Iranian Texts, "the use of the word Arya or Aryan to designate the speakers of all Indo-European (IE) languages or as the designation of a particular race is an aberration of many writers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries and should be avoided."[10] Michael E. J. Witzel (born 1943) is Wales Professor of Sanskrit and Chair of the Committee on South Asian Studies at Harvard University. ...


Indo-Iranian

Main article: Indo-Iranians

The most probable date for Proto-Indo-Iranian unity is roughly around 2500 BC. In this sense of the word Aryan, the Aryans were an ancient culture preceding both the Vedic and Avestan cultures. Candidates for an archeological identification of this Indo-Iranian culture are the Andronovo and/or Srubnaya Archeological Complexes. India and Northern Europe have also been suggested as possible homelands for this culture. Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... (Redirected from 2500 BC) (26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2494 BC -- End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. ... ... The Srubna culture (Зрубнá культ́ура, also Timber-grave culture), was a Late Bronze Age (16th-12th centuries BC) culture. ... A Nazi illustration of the Nordic master race. ... Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ...


In linguistics, the term Aryan currently may be used to refer to the Indo-Iranian language family. To prevent confusion because of its several meanings, the linguistic term is often avoided today. It has been replaced by the unambiguous terms Proto-Indo-European, Proto-Indo-Iranian, Indo-Iranian, Iranian and Indo-Aryan. Indo-Iranian languages (also called Aryan languages) are the eastern-most group of the living Indo-European languages. ...


The Proto-Indo-Iranian language evolved into the family of Indo-Iranian languages, of which the oldest-known members are Vedic Sanskrit, Avestan and another Indo-Iranian language, known only from loan-words found in the Mitanni language. The term Indo-Iranian includes all speakers of Indo-Iranian languages, i. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, which are the earliest sacred texts of India,. The Vedas were first passed down orally and therefore have no known date. ... Yasna 28. ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ...


Indo-Aryan

Main articles: Indo-Aryans and Indo-Aryan languages
See also: Arya#Hinduism
Indus Valley Seals. The first one appears to show a Swastika.
Indus Valley Seals. The first one appears to show a Swastika.

There is evidence of speakers of Indo-Aryan in Mesopotamia around 1500 BC in the form of loanwords in the Mitanni dialect of Hurrian, the speakers of which, it is speculated, may have once had an Indo-Aryan ruling class. At around the same time, the Indo-Aryans associated with the Vedic civilization, which dates back to the same period. They are sometimes called Vedic Aryans because it is believed that they brought Vedas to the Indian Subcontinent after the Aryans migrated into that region. In ancient India, the term Aryavarta, meaning "abode of the Aryans", was used to refer to the northern Indian subcontinent. The Indo-Aryans make up 74% of the population of India and are the creators of the concept of the Aryan race. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Ārya is a Sanskrit (आर्य) and Avestan word used by Hindus, Jains, Zoroastrians, and Buddhists. ... Image File history File links Triseal. ... Image File history File links Triseal. ... A right-facing Swastika in a decorative Hindu form The swastika (from Sanskrit ) is an equilateral cross with its arms bent at right angles, in either right-facing () or left-facing () forms. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC - 1500s BC - 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC The element Mercury has been discovered in Egyptian tombs dating from this decade. ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Veda redirects here. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Ancient India may refer to: the ancient History of India, which generally includes the ancient history of the whole Indian subcontinent the legendary Kingdoms of Ancient India in Sanskrit literature the Iron Age Mahajanapadas the Middle kingdoms of India of Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages Category: ... The vedic name for India, meaning Categories: Indo-European language stubs ...


Contemporary speakers of Indo-Aryan languages are spread over most of the northern Indian Subcontinent. Indo-Aryan speakers exist outside the Indian Subcontinent including Romani, the language of the Roma people, often known as "Gypsies". In addition to Romani, Parya is spoken in Tajikistan, Jataki in Ukraine, and Domari throughout the Middle East. Romani (or Romany) relates to: The Roma people, sometimes referred to as Gypsies. Romani language, the language of the Roma. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Domari is an Indo-Aryan language closely related to Romani, Rajasthani and eastern Punjabi. ...


Iranian

Since ancient times, Persians have used the term Aryan as a racial designation in an ethnic sense to describe their lineage and their language, and this tradition has continued into the present day amongst modern Iranians (Encyclopedia Iranica, p. 681, Arya). In fact, the name Iran is a cognate of Aryan and means "Land of the Aryans." [11] [12] [13] This article is about the group of peoples who speak Iranian languages. ... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family with an estimated 150-200 million native speakers today. ... For information about all peoples of Iran, see Demographics of Iran; for Central Asian Persians, see Tajiks. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... The word tradition comes from the Latin word traditio which means to hand down or to hand over. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian Studies to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history and culture of Iran and Persia. ...

Darius the Great
Darius the Great

Darius the Great, King of Persia (521486 BC), in an inscription in Naqsh-e Rustam (near Shiraz in present-day Iran), proclaims: "I am Darius the great King… A Persian, son of a Persian, an Aryan, having Aryan lineage...". He also calls his language the "Aryan language," commonly known today as Old Persian. According to the Encyclopedia Iranica, "the same ethnic concept was held in the later centuries" and was associated with "nobility and lordship." (p. 681) Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Centuries: 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - 4th century BCE Decades: 530s BCE 520s BCE 510s BCE 500s BCE 490s BCE - 480s BCE - 470s BCE 460s BCE 450s BCE 420s BCE 430s BCE Years: 491 BCE 490 BCE 489 BCE 488 BCE 487 BCE - 486 BCE - 485 BCE 484 BCE... NæqÅ¡-e Rostæm, near Shiraz A rock relief at Naqsh-e Rostam, depicting the triumph of Shapur I over three Roman Emperors Valerian, Gordian III and Philip the Arab. ... Eram Garden, Shiraz most popular garden. ... Darius (in Persian داريوش (Dah-rii-yoosh)) is a common Persian male name. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Sketch of the first column of the Behistun Inscription Old Persian is the oldest attested Persid language. ...


The word has become a technical term in the theologies of Zoroastrianism, but has always been used by Iranians in the ethnic sense as well. In 1967, Iran's Pahlavi dynasty (overthrown in the 1979 Iranian revolution) added the title Āryāmehr "Light of the Aryans" to those of the monarch, known at the time as the Shahanshah (King of Kings). Afghanistan's national airline is Ariana Airlines in reference to Airyanem Vaejah, the land of the original Iranian peoples. Jargon redirects here. ... At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Theology at: The School of Theology Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Zoroastrianism (Avestan DaÄ“nā Vañuhi the good religion)[1][2] is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Aryamehr (Persian: آریامهر) was the title used in the Pahlavi dynasty by Shahanshah Mohammad Reza Shah of Iran. ... A monarch (see sovereignty) is a type of ruler or head of state. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Ariana Afghan Airlines is the national airline of Afghanistan. ... The Airyanem Vaejah or Airyana Waejah (Aryan Expanse) was the legendary home of the Aryan (Indo-Iranian) people, as described in writings in the Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrians. ...


The term "Airya-shayana" (abode of the Aryans) has also been used in the Avesta referring to all the lands where the Aryans dwell.


"Iranian Glory" (Airyana Khvarenah) occurs in the Avesta 23 times.


The term also remains a frequent element in modern Persian personal names, including Arya and Aryan (boy's and girl's name), Aryana (a common surname), Dokhtareh-Ironi (Aryan daughter, a girl's name), "Aryanzai" (son of an Aryan - in Pashto), Aryanpour (or Aryanpur, a surname), Aryamane, Ary among many others. The terms "Aryan" and "Iranian" are sometimes used interchangeably, as in the Iranian bank chain, Aryan Bank.


Racial connotations

Movie poster from 1916 portraying William S. Hart as an "Aryan" (here meaning "Anglo-Saxon") whose instinct for racial solidarity leads him to protect a threatened woman "of my people".
Main article: Aryan race

Because of ethnolinguistic arguments about connections between peoples and cultural values, "Aryan" peoples were often considered to be distinct from Semitic peoples. By the end of the nineteenth century this usage was so common that "Aryan" was often used as a synonym for "gentile", and this popular usage persisted even after academic authors had ceased to use the term in any other meaning than "Indo-Iranian". Among White supremacists the term still sometimes functions as a synonym for non-Jewish "white person." Image File history File links Hart_aryan. ... Image File history File links Hart_aryan. ... Wiliam Surrey Hart Movie poster for Harts 1916 western The Aryan in which he played a white (Anglo-Saxon) member of a Mexican gang, having turned against his own people. ... The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... Ethnolinguistics is a field of linguistic anthropology which studies the language of a particular ethnic group. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Synonyms can be nouns, adverbs or adjectives, as long as both members of the pair are the same part of speech. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... White supremacy is the variety of white nationalism that believes the white race should rule over other races. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Aryan race was a term used in the early 20th century by European racial theorists who believed strongly in the division of humanity into biologically distinct races with differing characteristics. Such writers believed that the Proto-Indo-Europeans constituted a specific race that had expanded across Europe, Iran and India. This meaning was, and still is, common in theories of racial superiority which were embraced by Nazi Germany. This usage tends to merge the Sanskrit meaning of "noble" or "elevated" with the idea of distinctive behavioral and ancestral ethnicity marked by language distribution. In this interpretation, the Aryan Race is both the highest representative of mankind and the purest descendent of the Proto-Indo-European population. National Socialism redirects here. ...


From the late 19th century, a number of writers had argued that the Proto-Indo-Europeans had originated in Europe. Their opinion was received critically at first, but was widely accepted by the end of the nineteenth century. By 1905 Hermann Hirt in his Die Indogermanen (incidentally consistently using Indogermanen, not Arier to refer to the Indo-Europeans) claimed that the scales had tilted in favour of the hypothesis, in particular claiming the plains of northern Germany as the Urheimat (p. 197) and connecting the "blond type" (p. 192) with the core population of the early, "pure" Indo-Europeans. This argument developed in tandem with Nordicism, the theory that the "Nordic race" of fair-haired north Europeans were innately superior to other peoples. The identification of the Proto-Indo-Europeans with the north German Corded Ware culture bolstered this position. This was first proposed by Gustaf Kossinna in 1902, and gained in currency over the following two decades, until V. Gordon Childe who in his 1926 The Aryans: a study of Indo-European origins concluded that "the Nordics' superiority in physique fitted them to be the vehicles of a superior language" (a belief which he later regretted having expressed). Hermann Hirt (born 1865 in Magdeburg, died 1936 in Giessen) was an Indo-Europeanist. ... Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... Nordic supremacy theory (or Nordicism) was a theory of race prevalent in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. ... Corded ware is pottery having an ornamental pattern created by a cord impressed in the unfired clay. ... Portrait of Kossinna with an example of excavated pottery Gustaf Kossinna (28 September 1858 in Tilsit - 20 December 1931 in Berlin) was a linguist and professor of German archaeology at the University of Berlin. ... Vere Gordon Childe (April 14, 1892 - October 19, 1957) was an Australian archaeologist, perhaps best known for his excavation of the unique Neolithic site of Skara Brae in Orkney and for his Marxist views which informed his thinking about prehistory. ...


The idea became a matter of national pride in learned circles of Germany, and was taken up by the Nazis. According to Alfred Rosenberg's ideology the "Aryan-Nordic" (arisch-nordisch) or "Nordic-Atlantean" (nordisch-atlantisch) race was thus a master race, at the top of a racial hierarchy, pitted against a "Jewish-Semitic" (jüdisch-semitisch) race, deemed to be a racial threat to Germany's homogeneous Aryan civilization, thus rationalizing Nazi anti-Semitism. Nazism portrayed their interpretation of an "Aryan race" as the only race capable of, or with an interest in, creating and maintaining culture and civilizations, while other races are merely capable of conversion, or destruction of culture. These arguments derived from late nineteenth century racial hierarchies. Some Nazis were also influenced by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky's The Secret Doctrine (1888) where she postulates "Aryans" as the fifth of her "Root Races", dating them to about a million years ago, tracing them to Atlantis, an idea also repeated by Rosenberg, and held as doctrine by the Thule Society. Such theories were used to justify the introduction of the so-called "Aryan laws" by the Nazis, depriving "non-Aryans" of citizenship and employment rights, and prohibiting marriage between Aryans and non-Aryans. Though Mussolini's fascism was not originally characterised by explicit anti-Semitism, he too eventually introduced laws pressed upon him by Hitler, prohibiting mixed-race marriages between "Aryans" and Jews. Alfred Rosenberg Alfred Rosenberg (January 12, 1893, Reval (Tallinn) Estonia, then part of the Russian Empire–October 16, 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi party, who later held several important posts in the Nazi government. ... The master race (German: die Herrenrasse,  ) is a concept in Nazi ideology, which holds that the Germanic and Nordic people represent an ideal and pure race. It derives from nineteenth century racial theory, which posited a hierarchy of races placing African Bushmen and Indigenous Australians at the bottom of the... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights LGBT rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights · Masculinism Children... Helena Blavatsky Helena Petrovna Hahn (also Hélène) (July 31, 1831 (O.S.) (August 12, 1831 (N.S.)) - May 8, 1891 London), better known as Helena Blavatsky (Russian: ) or Madame Blavatsky, born Helena von Hahn, was a founder of the Theosophical Society. ... The Secret Doctrine, the Synthesis of Science, Religion and Philosophy, a book originally published as two volumes in 1888, is Helena P. Blavatskys magnum opus. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Root Race is a term first used by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky in her book The Secret Doctrine. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Germanic mysticism. ... The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed by the government of Nazi Germany. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests inferior to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on ethnic, religious, cultural, or racial attributes. ...


Nazi use of the term "Aryan" was wildly inconsistent with the claimed meaning. Roma, of Indian descent and language, were classified non-Aryan, while the Japanese were made honorary Aryans during World War II. In effect, "non-Aryan" ended up very nearly meaning, "insufficiently nationalistic". Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Honorary Aryan (German: Ehrenarier) is a term from Nazi Germany; it was a status granted by the Nazi Bureau of Race Research to people who were not considered to be biologically part of the Aryan race as conceived by the Nazis (or enemy nationals who joined Hitler or the Nazis... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Because of historical racist use of Aryan, and especially use of Aryan race in connection with the propaganda of Nazism, the word is sometimes avoided in the West as being tainted, in the same manner as the swastika symbol. In the English language, the word "Aryan" is no longer in technical use to refer to an ethnic group or race, and the popular use of the term to mean "white person" fell out of favour during the 1930s when the obvious obsession of the Nazis with the word became a matter of ridicule in Britain and North America. In the USA, the established and less contentious term "Caucasian" became dominant in official usage. Currently, India and Iran are the only countries to use the word Aryan in a demographic denomination. This usage, however, carries no racist connotations. Aryan is also a common male name in India, Afghanistan, and Iran. Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights Gays/Transsexes/Intersexes rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One U.S. propaganda poster, which warns against civilians sharing information on troop movements (National Archives) The much-imitated 1914 Lord Kitchener Wants You! poster Swedish Anti-Euro propaganda for the referendum of 2003. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... A right-facing Swastika in a decorative Hindu form The swastika (from Sanskrit ) is an equilateral cross with its arms bent at right angles, in either right-facing () or left-facing () forms. ... The 4th edition of Meyers Konversationslexikon (1885-1890) shows the Caucasian race (in blue) as comprising Aryans, Semites and Hamites. The Caucasian race (sometimes called the Caucasoid race) is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as, relating to a broad division of humankind covering peoples from Europe, western Asia, Middle...


The word Aryan is still used to refer to race within white power and white nationalist circles. White Power is an ideology and a political slogan describing the views of white supremacists. ... White nationalism is the attempt to create racial identity groups which advance the social and economic interests of White or Caucasian people. ...


See also

The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... Aryianization (German Arisierung) is a euphemistic term used for the expropriation of Jews in Nazi Germany, Austria and the territories it controlled. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Aryans make up 74% of the population of India and are the creators of the concept of the Aryan race. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Vedic period (or Vedic Age) is the period in the history of India when the sacred Vedic Sanskrit texts such as the Vedas were composed. ... The vedic name for India, meaning Categories: Indo-European language stubs ... This article is about the group of peoples who speak Iranian languages. ... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family with an estimated 150-200 million native speakers today. ... The Airyanem Vaejah or Airyana Waejah (Aryan Expanse) was the legendary home of the Aryan (Indo-Iranian) people, as described in writings in the Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrians. ... The notion of Indigenous (viz. ... The archaeological record in India (encompassing the territory of the modern nations of the Republic of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) shows first traces of Homo sapiens from ca. ... A relief map of Pakistan showing historic sites. ... Iran is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ... Excavation of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree, the University of Pennsylvania, the Smithsonian Institute and others suggests that early humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, and that farming communities in Afghanistan were among the earliest in the world. ... Japhetic is a term that refers to the supposed descendents of Japheth, one of the three sons of Noah in the Bible. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Sarmatian Kurgan 4th c. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Turan (in Persian: ) is the ancient Iranian name for the Northeastern nomads. ... Jacquetta Hawkes, née Hopkins, (August 5, 1910 – March 18, 1996) was a British archaeologist. ... Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich Ivanov is a prominent Soviet/Russian philologist and Indo-Europeanist probably best known for his glottalic theory of Indo-European consonantism and for placing the Indo-European urheimat in the area of the Lake Urmia. ... Tamaz (Thomas) V. Gamkrelidze (born October 23, 1929) is a distinguished Georgian linguist, orientalist and public benefactor, Academician (since 1974) and President (since February, 2005) of the Georgian Academy of Sciences (GAS), Director of the Tsereteli Institute of Oriental Studies of GAS (since 1973), Dr.Sci. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.geocities.com/Paris/LeftBank/6507/chronicle120.html
  2. ^ http://www.bookrags.com/Indo-European_languages
  3. ^ http://wapedia.mobi/en/Indo-Iranian_languages http://kpearson.faculty.tcnj.edu/Dictionary/aryan.htm
  4. ^ http://www.nvtc.gov/lotw/months/february/IranianBranch.html
  5. ^ Encyclopaedia Iranica - Aryans
  6. ^ ""Āryā (Aryan); Philology of Ethnic Epithet of Iranian Peoples"". Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  7. ^ ""Êrān & Êrānšahr; Iran the Land of Aryans"". Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  8. ^ [1];f>Vahan Kurkjian "History of Armenia", Michigan, 1968 [2]; Martiros Kavoukjian, "The Genesis of Armenian People", Montreal, 1982; T. V. Gamkrelidze and V. V. Ivanov, The Early History of Indo-European(aka Aryan) Languages, Scientific American, March 1990
  9. ^ [3]
  10. ^ Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies
  11. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000
  12. ^ http://www.nvtc.gov/lotw/months/february/indoIranianBranch.html
  13. ^ http://imp.lss.wisc.edu/~aoliai/languagepage/iranianlanguages.htm

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tamaz (Thomas) V. Gamkrelidze (born October 23, 1929) is a distinguished Georgian linguist, orientalist and public benefactor, Academician (since 1974) and President (since February, 2005) of the Georgian Academy of Sciences (GAS), Director of the Tsereteli Institute of Oriental Studies of GAS (since 1973), Dr.Sci. ... Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich Ivanov is a prominent Soviet/Russian philologist and Indo-Europeanist probably best known for his glottalic theory of Indo-European consonantism and for placing the Indo-European urheimat in the area of the Lake Urmia. ...

References

  • Paul Thieme, Der Fremdling im Rigveda. Eine Studie über die Bedeutung der Worte ari, arya, aryaman und aarya, Leipzig (1938).
  • Vyacheslav V. Ivanov and Thomas Gamkrelidze, The Early History of Indo-­European Languages, Scientific American, vol. 262, N3, 110­116, March, 1990
  • A. Kammenhuber, "Aryans in the Near East," Haidelberg, 1968

Paul Thieme (1905-2001) was a scholar of Vedic Sanskrit. ...

Further reading

  • Vyacheslav V. Ivanov and Thomas Gamkrelidze, The Early History of Indo-­European Languages, Scientific American, vol. 262, N3, 110­116, March, 1990
  • A. Kammenhuber, "Aryans in the Near East," Haidelberg, 1968
  • Arvidsson, Stefan (2006), Aryan Idols: Indo-European Mythology as Ideology and Science, translated by Sonia Wichmann, Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Poliakov, Leon (1974). The Aryan Myth: A History of Racist and Nationalistic Ideas In Europe. Translation of Le mythe aryen, 1971.

External links

Look up Aryan in
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Aryan race - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2105 words)
The "Aryan race" is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
This styling of an "Aryan invasion" by British colonial fantasies of racial supremacy lies at the origin of the fact that all discussion of historical Indo-Aryan migrations or Aryan and Dravidian "races" remains highly controversial in India to this day, and does continue to affect political and religious debate.
She regularly contrasts "Aryan" with "Semitic" culture, to the detriment of the latter, asserting that Semitic peoples are an offshoot of Aryans who have become "degenerate in spirituality".
NodeWorks - Encyclopedia: Aryan (1111 words)
The Aryan (Indo-Iranian) proto-language evolved into the family of Indo-Iranian languages and European languages, of which the oldest known members are Sanskrit and Avestan (and the fragmentary Mitanni language).
Another meaning refers to the Aryan race in the radical and distinctive usage of the term "race", according to which humanity as a whole is divided into distinct races with separate characteristics.
Because of historical racist use of Aryan, and especially use of Aryan race in connection with the myths and propaganda of Nazism, the word is sometimes avoided as being tainted.
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