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Encyclopedia > Arvid Carlsson

Arvid Carlsson (b. January 25, 1923) is a Swedish scientist who is best known for his work with the neurotransmitter dopamine and its effects in Parkinson's disease. Carlsson won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2000 along with co-recipients Eric Kandel and Paul Greengard. January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... A scientist is an expert in at least one area of science and who uses the scientific method to do research. ... Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a neuron and another cell. ... Dopamine is a chemical naturally produced in the body. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... Eric Richard Kandel (born November 7, 1929) is a neuroscientist who won a Nobel Prize in the year 2000 for his research on the physiological basis of memory storage in neurons. ... Paul Greengard (b. ...


Carlsson was born in Uppsala, Sweden, son of Gottfrid Carlsson, historian and later professor of history at the University of Lund, where he began his medical education in 1941. Although Sweden was neutral during World War II, Carlsson's education was interrupted by several years of service in the Swedish Armed Forces. In 1951, he received his M.L. degree (the equivalent of the American M.D.) and his M.D. (the equivalent of the American Ph.D.). He then became a professor at the University of Lund. In 1959 he became a professor at the University of Gothenburg. Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) 59°51′ N 17°38′ E is a Swedish City in central Sweden, located about 70 km north of Stockholm. ... Lund University Lund University (Swedish: Lunds universitet) is a university in Lund in southernmost Sweden. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the globe and is accepted as the largest and deadliest... The Swedish Armed Forces, or Försvarsmakten, is a Government agency responsible for the peacetime operation of the armed forces of Sweden. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gothenburg University Gothenburg University, or Göteborgs universitet, is a university in Gothenburg, Sweden. ...


In the 1950s, Carlsson demonstrated that dopamine was a neurotransmitter in the brain and not just a precursor for norepinephrine, as had been previously believed. He developed a method for measuring the amount of dopamine in brain tissues and found that dopamine levels in the basal ganglia, a brain area important for movement, were particularly high. Carlsson then showed that giving animals the drug reserpine caused a decrease in dopamine levels and a loss of movement control. These effects were similar to the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. By administering to these animals L-Dopa, a precursor to dopamine, he could alleviate the symptoms. These findings led other doctors try L-Dopa with human Parkinson's patients and found it to alleviate some of the symptoms in the early stages of Parkinson's. // Events and trends This map shows two essential global spheres during the Cold War in 1959. ... Comparative brain sizes In the anatomy of animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the higher, supervisory center of the nervous system. ... Norepinephrine or noradrenaline is a catecholamine and a phenethylamine with chemical formula C8H11NO3. ... The basal ganglia are a group of nuclei in the brain associated with motor and learning functions. ... Reserpine is a drug known to indirectly stimulate dopamine release in the brain. ... // Therapeutic use L-DOPA is used to replace dopamine lost in Parkinsons disease because dopamine itself cannot cross the blood-brain barrierwhere its precursor can. ...


External link

  • Nobel Prize Biography

  Results from FactBites:
 
Arvid Carlsson Biography | World of Genetics (816 words)
Arvid Carlsson received the Nobel Prize for his discovery that dopamine is a neurotransmitter.
Arvid Carlsson's groundbreaking research in the 1950's established the relationship between neurotransmitters and diseases of the central nervous system when he discovered that a depleted neurotransmitter causes Parkinson's disease, a debilitating brain condition named after the English doctor who first described it in 1817.
Carlsson also discovered that the dysregulation of another neurotransmitter, serotonin, causes clinical depression and several other behavioral disorders, including OCD (Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder), obesity, violent and aggressive behaviors, and suicide, one of the ten leading causes of death in the United States.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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