FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Arturo Toscanini
Toscanini conducting.
Toscanini conducting.

Arturo Toscanini (pronounced [ɑrˈturɔ ˌtɔskɑˈnini]) (March 25, 1867January 16, 1957) was an Italian musician. He was considered by many critics, fellow musicians, and much of the classical listening audience to have been the greatest conductor of all time. He was renowned for his brilliant intensity, his restless perfectionism, his phenomenal ear for orchestral detail and sonority, and his photographic memory which gave him extraordinary command over a vast repertoire of orchestral and operatic works, and allowed him to correct errors in orchestral parts unnoticed by his colleagues for decades.[1] Image File history File links ToscaniniConducting. ... Image File history File links ToscaniniConducting. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... A conductor conducting at a ceremony A conductors score and batons Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ... Photographic memory or eidetic memory is the ability to recall images, sounds, or objects in memory with great accuracy and in seemingly unlimited volume. ...

Contents

Biography

Caricature of Toscanini by Enrico Caruso
Caricature of Toscanini by Enrico Caruso

Toscanini was born in Parma, Emilia-Romagna, and won a scholarship to the local music conservatory, where he studied the cello. He joined the orchestra of an opera company, with which he toured South America in 1886. While presenting Aida in Rio de Janeiro, the orchestra's conductor was booed by the audience and forced to leave the podium. Although he had no conducting experience, Toscanini was persuaded to take up the baton, and led a magnificent performance completely from memory. Thus began his career as a conductor at age 19. For the song Caruso by Lucio Dalla, see Caruso (song). ... This article is about the Italian city. ... Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... This article is about the stringed musical instrument. ... For other uses, see Orchestra (disambiguation). ... This article is about the opera. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ...


Upon returning to Italy, Toscanini returned to his chair in the cello section, and participated as cellist in the world premiere of Verdi's Otello (La Scala, 1887) under the composer's supervision. (Verdi, who habitually complained that conductors never seemed interested in directing his scores the way he had written them, was impressed by reports from Arrigo Boito about Toscanini's ability to interpret his scores. The composer was also impressed when Toscanini consulted him personally, indicating a ritardando where it was not set out in the score; Verdi said that only a true musician would have felt the need to make that ritardando.) “Verdi” redirects here. ... For the Rossini opera, see Otello (Rossini) or for the eurobeat artist see Gianni Coraini. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, by night. ... Arrigo Boito (February 24, 1842 – June 10, 1918) was an Italian poet, journalist, novelist and composer, best known today for his opera libretti and his own opera, Mefistofele. ... This article is about tempo in music. ...


Gradually the young musician's reputation as an operatic conductor of unusual authority and skill supplanted his cello career. In the following decade he consolidated his career in Italy, entrusted with the world premieres of Puccini's La Bohème and Leoncavallo's Pagliacci. In 1896, Toscanini conducted his first symphonic concert (works by Schubert, Brahms, Tchaikovsky, and Wagner), in Turin. By 1898 he was resident conductor at La Scala, Milan and remained there until 1908, returning during the 1920s. He took the Scala Orchestra to the United States on a concert tour in 1920-21; it was during that tour that Toscanini made his first recordings (for the Victor Talking Machine Company). Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (December 22, 1858 – November 29, 1924) was an Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly, are among the most frequently performed in the standard repertoire. ... For other uses, see La bohème (disambiguation). ... Ruggiero Leoncavallo (March 8, 1857 - August 9, 1919) was an Italian opera composer. ... Pagliacci (Players, or Clowns) is an opera consisting of a prologue and two acts written and composed by Ruggero Leoncavallo. ... Schubert redirects here. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ... “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Torino redirects here. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, by night. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Victor logo with the famous Nipper dog. ...


International recognition

Toscanini in 1908
Toscanini in 1908

Outside of Europe, he conducted at the Metropolitan Opera in New York (1908–1915) as well as the New York Philharmonic Orchestra (1926–1936). He toured Europe with the New York Philharmonic in 1930; he and the musicians were acclaimed by critics and audiences wherever they went. As was also the case with the New York Philharmonic, Toscanini was the first non-German conductor to appear at Bayreuth (1930–1931). In the 1930s he conducted at the Salzburg Festival (1934–1937) and the inaugural concert in 1936 of the Palestine Symphony Orchestra (now the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra) in Tel Aviv, and later performed with them in Jerusalem, Haifa, Cairo and Alexandria. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... This article is about the state. ... The New York Philharmonic is an American orchestra based in New York City. ... The Bayreuth Festspielhaus (Bayreuth Festival Theatre) is an opera house built to the north of the town of Bayreuth in Germany, dedicated to the performance of Richard Wagners operas. ... The Salzburg Festival (Salzburger Festspiele) is a prominent festival of music and drama. ... Fredric R. Mann Auditorum (he:Hichal Hatarbot), home of the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra The Leonard Bernstein Plaza in front of the Mann Auditorum The Israel Philharmonic Orchestra (abbreviation IPO; Hebrew: התזמורת הפילהרמונית הישראלית, ha-Tizmoret ha-Filharmonit ha-Yisreelit) is the leading symphony orchestra in Israel, and one of the top orchestras... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Hebrew Arabic حَيْفَا Government City District Haifa Population 266,300 (city) 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ...


The NBC Symphony Orchestra

Arturo Toscanini ran in 1919 unsuccessfully as a Fascist parliamentary candidate in Milan and had been called "the greatest conductor in the world" by Mussolini; however, he became disillusioned with fascism and notably refused to conduct Giovinezza at a May 1931 concert at La Scala, after which he was roughed up by a group of blackshirts, and thereafter left Italy until 1938.[2] Giovinezza was the fascist hymn of Benito Mussolinis Blackshirts, and was the unofficial anthem of Fascist Italy. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, by night. ... The Blackshirts (Italian: camicie nere) were Fascist paramilitary groups in Italy during the period immediately following World War I and until the end of World War II. Inspired by Garibaldis Redshirts, the Blackshirts were organized by Benito Mussolini due to his disgust with the corruption and apathy of the...


He left for the United States where the NBC Symphony Orchestra was created for him in 1937. He conducted the first broadcast concert on December 25, 1937, in NBC Studio 8-H in New York City's Rockefeller Center. The acoustics were very dry, until some remodeling in 1939 added a bit more reverberation to the studio. (In 1950, the studio was further remodeled for television productions; today it is used by NBC for Saturday Night Live. In 1980, it was used by Zubin Mehta and the New York Philharmonic Orchestra in a special televised NBC concert honoring the legacy of Toscanini.) Toscanini conducting the NBC Symphony Orchestra in Carnegie Hall]] The NBC Symphony Orchestra was an orchestra established by David Sarnoff of the National Broadcasting Company as a vehicle for conductor Arturo Toscanini. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The NBC Radio City Studios was a radio and television studio located at the northeast corner of Sunset Boulevard and Vine Street in Hollywood, California. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Rockefeller Center is a complex of 19 commercial buildings covering 22 acres between 48th and 51st Streets in New York City. ... SNL redirects here. ... Zubin Mehta (b. ...


The NBC broadcasts were preserved on large transcription discs, recorded at both 78-rpm and 33-1/3 rpm, until NBC began using magnetic tape in 1947. NBC used special RCA high fidelity microphones both for the broadcasts and for recording them; these microphones can be seen in some photographs of Toscanini and the orchestra. In addition, some of Toscanini's recording sessions for RCA Victor were mastered on magnetic sound film in a process developed about 1941, as detailed by RCA producer Charles O'Connell in his memoirs, On and Off The Record.


Toscanini was often criticized for neglecting American music; however, in 1938, he conducted the world premieres of two orchestral works by Samuel Barber, Adagio for Strings and Essay for Orchestra. In 1945, he led the orchestra in recording sessions of the Grand Canyon Suite by Ferde Grofé in Carnegie Hall (supervised by Grofé) and An American in Paris by George Gershwin in NBC's Studio 8-H. He also conducted broadcast performances of Copland's El Salon Mexico; Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue with soloists Earl Wild and Benny Goodman and Piano Concerto in F with pianist Oscar Levant; and music by other American composers, including two marches of John Philip Sousa. He even wrote his own orchestral arrangement of the National Anthem, which was incorporated into the NBC Symphony's performances of Verdi's Hymn of the Nations. Samuel Barber, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1944 Samuel Osborne Barber II (March 9, 1910 – January 23, 1981) was an American composer of classical music ranging from orchestral, to opera, choral, and piano music. ... Samuel Barber, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1944 Adagio for Strings is a work for string orchestra, arranged by the American composer Samuel Barber from his first string quartet. ... The Grand Canyon Suite is a popular suite by Ferde Grofé. It consists in 5 parts or movements, each an evocation in tone of a particular scene typical of the Grand Canyon. ... Ferde Grofé in 1921 as pianist with Paul Whitemans orchestra. ... Carnegie Hall is a concert venue in Midtown Manhattan in New York City located at 881 Seventh Avenue, occupying the east stretch of Seventh Avenue between West 56th Street and West 57th Street. ... An American in Paris is a symphonic composition by American composer George Gershwin which debuted in 1928. ... Gershwin redirects here. ... Aaron Copland Aaron Copland (November 14, 1900 – December 2, 1990) was an American composer of concert and film music, as well as an accomplished pianist. ... El Salon Mexico is a symphonic composition by Aaron Copland, in which he uses Mexican folk music as his theme. ... Cover of the original sheet music of the two piano version of Rhapsody in Blue. ... Earl Wild (born November 26, 1915) is an American pianist known especially for his transciptions of classical music and jazz. ... Benny Goodman, born Benjamin David Goodman[1] , (May 30, 1909 – June 13, 1986) was an American jazz musician and virtuoso clarinetist, known as King of Swing, Patriarch of the Clarinet, The Professor, and Swings Senior Statesman. // Goodman was born in Chicago, the ninth of twelve children of poor Jewish... Among the piano concertos in the key of F are: The Piano Concerto No. ... Oscar Levant (December 27, 1906 - August 14, 1972) was an American pianist, composer, author, comedian, and an actor, better known for his mordant character and witticisms, on the radio and in movies and television, than his music. ... John Philip Sousa (November 6, 1854 – March 6, 1932) was an American composer and conductor of the late Romantic era known particularly for American military marches. ...


In 1940, Toscanini took the orchestra on a "goodwill" tour of South America. Later that year, Toscanini had a disagreement with NBC management over their use of his musicians in other NBC broadcasts; Toscanini threatened to move to CBS, until the dispute was resolved and he returned as music director. At that time Leopold Stokowski began conducting some of the concerts and continued to appear periodically as a guest conductor of the orchestra. Leopold Stokowski (born Antoni Stanisław Bolesławowicz April 18, 1882 in London, England, died September 13, 1977 in Nether Wallop, England) was the conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the NBC Symphony Orchestra, Hollywood Bowl Orchestra and the Symphony of the Air. ...


One of the more remarkable broadcasts was in July 1942, when Toscanini conducted the American premiere of Dmitri Shostakovich's Symphony No. 7. Due to World War II, the score was microfilmed in the Soviet Union and brought by courier to the United States. Stokowski wanted to conduct the premiere and there were a number of remarkable letters between the two conductors (reproduced by Harvey Sachs in his biography) before Stokowski agreed to let Toscanini have the privilege of conducting the first performance. Unfortunately for New York listeners, a major thunderstorm virtually obliterated the NBC radio signals there, but the performance was heard elsewhere and preserved on transcription discs. It was later issued by RCA Victor in the 1967 centennial boxed set tribute to Toscanini, which included a number of NBC broadcasts never released on discs.[3] Shostakovich himself reportedly expressed a dislike for the performance, after he heard a recording of the broadcast, as is his documented in his alleged memoirs, Testament. Dmitri Shostakovich in 1942 Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich   (Russian: , Dmitrij Dmitrievič Å ostakovič) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906 – August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... It has been suggested that Childrens gramophone records be merged into this article or section. ...


In 1943, he appeared in a documentary film for the Office of War Information (OWI) directed by Alexander Hammid, Hymn of the Nations, which featured Toscanini conducting the NBC Symphony Orchestra in music of Verdi. Filmed in NBC Studio 8-H, the orchestra performed the overture to La Forza del Destino and Hymn of the Nations, the latter featuring tenor Jan Peerce and the Westminster Choir. The United States Office of War Information (OWI) was a government agency created during World War II to consolidate government information services. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Originally titled Arturo Toscanini, Hymn of the Nations (1944), a film directed by Alexander Hammid, features a curious, patriotic work for tenor soloist, chorus, and orchestra, composed by Italian opera composer Giuseppe Verdi in the early-1860s. ... La forza del destino (The Force of Destiny) is an Italian opera by Giuseppe Verdi. ... Jan Peerce (June 3, 1904 – December 15, 1984) was an American tenor. ...


In the summer of 1950, Toscanini led the orchestra on an extensive transcontinental tour. It was during that tour that the famous photograph of Toscanini riding the ski lift at Sun Valley, Idaho was taken. Toscanini and the musicians traveled on a special train chartered by NBC. Some have had said that, because of his broadcasts, tours, and recordings, Toscanini became the first conducting "superstar" of modern mass media. Sun Valley, Idaho - Bald Mountain - View from Sun Valley Lake Sun Valley is a city and affluent resort community in the central part of the U.S. state of Idaho, adjacent to the city of Ketchum in Blaine County. ...


The NBC concerts continued in Studio 8-H until the fall of 1950, when they were moved to Carnegie Hall, where many of the orchestra's recording sessions had been held, due to the dry acoustics of Studio 8-H. The final broadcast performance, an all-Wagner program, took place on April 4, 1954, in Carnegie Hall. During this concert Toscanini suffered a memory lapse caused by a transient ischemic attack. He never conducted live in public again. That June, he participated in his final recording sessions, remaking portions of two Verdi operas so they could be commercially released. Toscanini was 87 years old when he retired. After his retirement, the NBC Symphony was reorganized as the Symphony of the Air, making regular performances and recordings, until it was disbanded in 1963. is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A transient ischemic attack (TIA, often colloquially referred to as mini stroke) is caused by the temporary disturbance of blood supply to a restricted area of the brain, resulting in brief neurologic dysfunction that usually persists for less than 24 hours. ... Toscanini conducting the NBC Symphony Orchestra in Carnegie Hall The NBC Symphony Orchestra was an orchestra established in 1937 by General David Sarnoff of NBC as a vehicle for conductor Arturo Toscanini. ...


On radio, he conducted seven complete operas, including La Bohème and Otello, all of which were eventually released on records and CD, thus finally enabling the modern listening public to hear what an opera conducted by Toscanini sounded like. For other uses, see La bohème (disambiguation). ... For the Rossini opera, see Otello (Rossini) or for the eurobeat artist see Gianni Coraini. ...


Personal life

Toscanini married Carla De Martini on June 21, 1897, when she was not yet 20 years old. Their first child, Walter, was born on March 19, 1898. A daughter, Wally, was born on January 16, 1900. Carla gave birth to another boy, Giorgio, in September 1901, but he died of diphtheria on June 10, 1906. Then, that same year, Carla gave birth to their second daughter, Wanda. Wanda Giorgina Toscanini (December 7, 1907 – August 21, 1998) was the daughter of the famous Italian conductor Arturo Toscanini and the wife of Russian pianist Vladimir Horowitz, whom she married in 1933. ...


Toscanini worked with many great singers and musicians throughout his career, but few impressed him as much as the Ukrainian-American pianist Vladimir Horowitz. They worked together a number of times and even recorded Brahms' second piano concerto and Tchaikovsky's first piano concerto with the NBC Symphony for RCA. Horowitz also became close to Toscanini and his family. In 1933, Wanda Toscanini married Horowitz, with the conductor's blessings and warnings. It was Wanda's daughter, Sonia, who was once photographed by Life playing with the conductor. Vladimir Samoylovich Horowitz (Russian: ; Ukrainian: ) (1 October 1903 – 5 November 1989) was a Russian-American[1][2] pianist. ... Philippe Halsmans famous portrait of Marilyn Monroe Life generally refers to two American magazines: A humor and general interest magazine published from 1883 to 1936; A publication created by Time founder Henry Luce in 1936, with a strong emphasis on photojournalism. ...


Despite the reported infidelities revealed in Toscanini's letters documented by Harvey Sachs, he remained married to Carla until she died on June 23, 1951.[4][5]


Final years

With the help of his son Walter, Toscanini spent his remaining years editing tapes and transcriptions of his performances with the NBC Symphony. The "approved" recordings were issued by RCA Victor, which also has issued his recordings with the Scala Orchestra, the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, and the Philadelphia Orchestra. His recordings with the BBC Symphony Orchestra were issued by EMI. Various companies have issued recordings of a number of broadcasts and concerts, that he did not officially approve, on compact discs. Among these are stereophonic recordings of his last two NBC broadcast concerts. CD redirects here. ... Stereophonic means having two channels of audio. ...


Sachs and other biographers have documented the numerous conductors, singers, and musicians who visited Toscanini during his retirement. He was a big fan of early television, especially boxing and wrestling telecasts, as well as comedy programs.


When he died of stroke in New York at the age of 89, his body was returned to Italy and was interred in the Cimitero Monumentale in Milan. For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ... The Cimitero Monumentale in Milan, Italy is a very large cemetery located on the square given its name, Piazzale del Cimitero Monumentale. ...


In his will, he left his bâton to his protégée Herva Nelli. Herva Nelli, was an Italian opera singer. ...


Toscanini was posthumously awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1987. The Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award is awarded by the Recording Academy to performers who, during their lifetimes, have made creative contributions of outstanding artistic significance to the field of recording [1]. This award is distinct from the Grammy Hall of Fame Award, which honors specific recordings rather than individuals, and...


Innovations

At La Scala, which had what was then the most modern stage lighting system installed in 1901 and an orchestral pit installed in 1907, Toscanini pushed through reforms in the performance of opera. He insisted on darkening the lights during performances. As his biographer Harvey Sachs wrote: "He believed that a performance could not be artistically successful unless unity of intention was first established among all the components: singers, orchestra, chorus, staging, sets, and costumes." The American conductor and writer Harvey Sachs (born 1946) has written a number of books on musical subjects, most notably the standard biography of and a book of essays on the Italian conductor Arturo Toscanini. ...


Toscanini favored the traditional orchestral seating plan with the first violins and cellos on the left, the violas on the near right, and the second violins on the far right.


Premieres

Toscanini
Toscanini

Toscanini conducted the world premieres of many operas, four of which have become part of the standard operatic repertoire: Pagliacci, La Bohème, La Fanciulla del West and Turandot; he took an active role in Alfano's completion of Turandot. He also conducted the first Italian performances of Siegfried, Götterdämmerung, Salome, Pelléas et Mélisande, as well as the South American premieres of Tristan und Isolde and Madama Butterfly and the North American premiere of Boris Godunov. Pagliacci (Players, or Clowns) is an opera consisting of a prologue and two acts written and composed by Ruggero Leoncavallo. ... For other uses, see La bohème (disambiguation). ... La Fanciulla del West (The Girl of the Golden West) is an opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini to an Italian libretto by Guelfo Civinini and Carlo Zangarini, based on the play The Girl of the Golden West by David Belasco. ... For the opera by Ferruccio Busoni, see Turandot (Busoni). ... Franco Alfano (March 8, 1875 – October 27, 1954) was an Italian composer and pianist best known for completing Puccinis unfinished opera Turandot in 1926. ... Siegfried is the third of the four operas that comprise Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), by Richard Wagner. ... Götterdämmerung (Twilight of the Gods1) is the last of the four operas that comprise Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), by Richard Wagner. ... This article is about the opera by Richard Strauss . ... Pelléas et Mélisande (Pelléas and Mélisande) is an opera in five acts by Claude Debussy to a French libretto by Maurice Maeterlinck that almost exactly follows his famous symbolist play Pelléas et Mélisande. ... Tristan und Isolde (Tristan and Isolde) is an opera in three acts by Richard Wagner to a German libretto by the composer, based largely on the romance by Gottfried von Straßburg. ... Madama Butterfly (Madame Butterfly) is an opera in three acts (originally two acts) by Giacomo Puccini, with an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa. ... I regard the people as a great being, inspired by a single idea. ...

Ruggiero Leoncavallo (March 8, 1857 - August 9, 1919) was an Italian opera composer. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (December 22, 1858 – November 29, 1924) was an Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly, are among the most frequently performed in the standard repertoire. ... Torino redirects here. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ğ: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Pietro Mascagni (Livorno December 7, 1863 – Rome August 2, 1945) is one of the most important Italian opera composers of the turn of the 20th century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Alberto Franchetti (18 September 1860 – 4 August 1942) was an Italian opera composer. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Francesco Cilea, (Palmi, near Reggio Calabria, July 26, 1866 - Varazze, near Savona, November 20, 1950) was an Italian opera composer, whose early success was not sustained, as taste in music changed. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Umberto Giordano Umberto Giordano (August 28, 1867 - November 12, 1948) was an Italian composer, mainly of opera. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Ildebrando Pizzetti (1880–1968) was an Italian composer of classical music. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arrigo Boito (February 24, 1842 – June 10, 1918) was an Italian poet, journalist, novelist and composer, best known today for his opera libretti and his own opera, Mefistofele. ... Vincenzo Tommasini (17 September 1878–23 December 1950) was an Italian composer. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Riccardo Zandonai (30 May 1883 – 5 June 1944) was an Italian opera composer. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the opera by Ferruccio Busoni, see Turandot (Busoni). ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Samuel Barber, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1944 Adagio for Strings is a work for string orchestra, arranged by the American composer Samuel Barber from his first string quartet. ... Samuel Barber, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1944 Samuel Osborne Barber II (March 9, 1910 – January 23, 1981) was an American composer of classical music ranging from orchestral, to opera, choral, and piano music. ... Toscanini conducting the NBC Symphony Orchestra in Carnegie Hall]] The NBC Symphony Orchestra was an orchestra established by David Sarnoff of the National Broadcasting Company as a vehicle for conductor Arturo Toscanini. ... This article is about the state. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Recorded legacy

Overview

Toscanini made his first recordings in 1920 with the Scala Orchestra in Victor's Trinity Church studio and his last with the NBC Symphony Orchestra in June 1954 in Carnegie Hall. His entire catalog of commercial recordings was issued by RCA Victor, save for two single-sided recordings for Brunswick in 1926 with the New York Philharmonic Orchestra and a series of excellent recordings with the BBC Symphony Orchestra from 1937 to 1939 for EMI's HMV label (some issued in the USA by RCA, others released only recently by EMI and Testament). Besides the 1926 recordings with the Philharmonic (his first with the electrical process), Toscanini made a series of recordings with them for Victor, in Carnegie Hall, in 1929 and 1936. He also recorded with the Philadelphia Orchestra for Victor in Philadelphia's Academy of Music in 1941 and 1942. All of the RCA recordings have been digitally re-mastered (some quite poorly by RCA/BMG) and released on CD. There are also recorded concerts with various European orchestras, especially with La Scala Orchestra and the Philharmonia Orchestra. Sony BMG Music Entertainment is the result of a 50/50 joint venture between Sony Music Entertainment (part of Sony) and BMG Entertainment (part of Bertelsmann AG) completed in August 2004. ... The New York Philharmonic is an American orchestra based in New York City. ... The BBC Symphony Orchestra is the principal orchestra of the British Broadcasting Corporation and one of the leading orchestras in Britain. ... For other uses, see EMI (disambiguation). ... The Philadelphia Orchestra, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is one of the Big Five symphony orchestras in the United States and usually considered among the finest in the world. ...


Hearing Toscanini

In some of his recordings, Toscanini can be heard singing or humming. This is especially true in RCA's recording of La Boheme by Puccini, recorded during broadcast concerts in NBC Studio 8-H in 1946. Tenor Jan Peerce later said that Toscanini's deep involvement in the performances helped him to achieve the necessary emotions, especially in the final moments of the opera when the beloved Mimi (played by Licia Albanese) is dying. During the "Tuba mirum" section of the January 1951 live recording of Verdi's Requiem Mass, Toscanini can be heard shouting as the brass blares during that terrifying music. La Bohème, French for The Bohemian Life, is an opera in four acts by Giacomo Puccini to an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa, based on La Vie de Bohème by Henri Murger. ... Giacomo Puccini Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (December 22, 1858 – November 29, 1924) is regarded as one of the great operatic composers of the late 19th and early 20th century. ... Jan Peerce (June 3, 1904 – December 15, 1984) was an American tenor. ... Licia Albanese, born July 22, 1913, in Bari, Italy, is a distinguished Italian soprano and chairman of The Licia Albanese-Puccini Foundation, founded in 1974 and dedicated to assisting young artists and singers. ... VERDI is an acronym for the Italian unification movement, named after the composer Giuseppe Verdi (ardent supporter of the movement) VERDI stands for Vittorio Emmanuelle, Re D Italia (Victor Emmanuel, King of Italy) Categories: Historical stubs ... The Requiem by Giuseppe Verdi is a musical setting of the Roman Catholic funeral Mass (called the Requiem for the first word of the text, which begins Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine, meaning, Grant them eternal rest, O Lord — see the entry at Dies Irae) that was completed to mark...


Specialties

He was especially famous for his magnificent performances of Beethoven, Brahms, Wagner, Richard Strauss, Debussy and his own compatriots Rossini, Verdi, Boito and Puccini. He made many recordings, especially towards the end of his career, many of which are still in print. In addition, there are many recordings available of his broadcast performances, as well as his remarkable rehearsals with the NBC Symphony. “Beethoven” redirects here. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Claude Debussy, photo by Félix Nadar, 1908. ... Portrait Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (February 29, 1792 – November 13, 1868)[1] was an Italian musical composer who wrote more than 30 operas as well as sacred music and chamber music. ... “Verdi” redirects here. ... Arrigo Boito (February 24, 1842 – June 10, 1918) was an Italian poet, journalist, novelist and composer, best known today for his opera libretti and his own opera, Mefistofele. ... Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (December 22, 1858 – November 29, 1924) was an Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly, are among the most frequently performed in the standard repertoire. ...


Charles O'Connell on Toscanini

Charles O'Connell, who produced many of Toscanini's RCA Victor recordings in the 1930s and 1940s, said that RCA quickly decided to record the NBC Symphony Orchestra in Carnegie Hall, whenever possible, after being disappointed with the dull-sounding early recordings in Studio 8-H in 1938 and 1939. (Nevertheless, there were a few recording sessions in Studio 8-H as late as June 1950, probably because of improvements to the acoustics in 1939.) O'Connell, and others, often complained that Toscanini was little interested in recording and, as Harvey Sachs wrote, he was frequently disappointed that the microphones failed to pick up everything he heard during the recording sessions. O'Connell even complained of Toscanini's failure to cooperate with RCA during the sessions. Toscanini himself was often disappointed that the 78-rpm discs failed to fully capture all of the instruments in the orchestra; those fortunate to attend Toscanini's concerts later said the NBC string section was especially outstanding.[6]


Philadelphia Orchestra recordings

O'Connell also extensively documented RCA's technical problems with the Philadelphia Orchestra recordings of 1941-42, which required extensive electronic editing before they could be released (well after Toscanini's death, beginning in 1963, with the rest following in the 1970's). Harvey Sachs also recounts that the masters were damaged, possibly due to somewhat inferior materials imposed by wartime restrictions. Unfortunately, a Musicians Union recording ban from 1942 to 1944 prevented immediate retakes; by the time the ban ended, the Philadelphia Orchestra had left RCA Victor for Columbia Records and RCA apparently was hesitant to promote the orchestra any further. Eventually, Toscanini recorded all of the same music with the NBC Symphony. In 1968, the Philadelphia Orchestra returned to RCA and the company was more favorable toward issuing all of the discs. As for the historic recordings, even on the CD versions, first released in 1991, some of the sides have considerable surface noise and some distortion, especially during the louder passages. The best sound of the recordings is the Schubert ninth symphony, which had been restored by RCA first (in 1963) and released on LP. The rest of the recordings were not issued until 1977 and, as Sachs noted, by that time some of the masters may have deteriorated further. Nevertheless, despite the occasional problems, the entire set is an impressive document of Toscanini's collaboration with the Philadelphia musicians and can be best heard in the 2006 RCA/BMG reissue, which benefit from recent advances in digital restoration. The listener can hear the rich sound of the orchestra, developed by Leopold Stokowski and Eugene Ormandy, enhanced by the more dynamic and aggressive conducting of the Italian maestro. Ormandy especially expressed his appreciation for what Toscanini achieved with the orchestra. Columbia Records is the oldest brand name in recorded sound, dating back to 1888, and was the first record company to produce pre-recorded records as opposed to blank cylinders. ... For the crater on the moon, see Schubert (crater) Franz Schubert Franz Peter Schubert (January 31, 1797 – November 19, 1828), was an Austrian composer. ...


Later recordings

Later, when high fidelity and long playing records were introduced, the conductor said he was much happier making recordings. Sachs wrote that an Italian journalist, Raffaele Calzini, said Toscanini told him, "My son Walter sent me the test pressing of the [Beethoven] Ninth from America; I want to hear and check how it came out, and possibly to correct it. These long-playing records often make me happy."


Greatest recordings

By most accounts, among his greatest recordings are the following (with the NBC Symphony unless otherwise shown): Toscanini conducting the NBC Symphony Orchestra in Carnegie Hall]] The NBC Symphony Orchestra was an orchestra established by David Sarnoff of the National Broadcasting Company as a vehicle for conductor Arturo Toscanini. ...

  • Beethoven, Symphony No. 3 "Eroica" (1953; although some prefer the 1939 NBC performance, others the 1949 recording)
  • Beethoven, Symphony No. 6 "Pastoral" (1952)
  • Beethoven, Symphony No. 7 (1936, Philharmonic-Symphony of New York)
  • Beethoven, Symphony No. 9 (1952 and 1938)
  • Beethoven, Missa Solemnis, 1940 NBC broadcast.
  • Berlioz, Roméo et Juliette (symphony) (1947)
  • Brahms, Symphony No. 1 (1940)
  • Brahms, Symphony No. 2 (1952 and February, 1948 broadcast)
  • Brahms, Symphony No. 4 (1951 and 1948 broadcast)
  • Brahms, Four Symphonies, Tragic Overture and Haydn Variations, 1952, Philharmonia Orchestra, London (his only appearances with that orchestra, produced by Walter Legge).
  • Debussy, La Mer (1950 and 1940 broadcast)
  • Dvořák, Symphony No. 9 (From the New World) (1953)
  • Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 4 "Italian", (1954, although there are two versions, one as approved by the Maestro with excerpts from the rehearsals, and the actual and more relaxed broadcast concert) and No. 5 "Reformation", (1953), Midsummer Night's Dream Excerpts (1947, as well as the more relaxed and better played broadcast concert that preceded the recording session), Midsummer Night's Dream Scherzo; New York Philharmonic, (1929).
  • Puccini, La bohème (1946)
  • Mozart, Die Zauberflöte (1937, Salzburg Festival; poor sound which needs to be retransferred in the manner of the Andante "Falstaff" and "Meistersinger".)
  • Schubert, Symphony No. 9 (Philadelphia, 1941; although some prefer the 1953 NBC recording, others the 1947 recording)
  • Tchaikovsky, Piano concerto no 1 in B flat minor op 23, with Vladimir Horowitz and NBC Symphony Orchestra, live Carnegie Hall recording of War Bonds concert 25 April 1943, first issued 1959 as LP RCA Red Seal RB-16190.
  • Verdi, Requiem (1940; the sound is much better in the 1951 NBC performance, but some argue the 1940 broadcast version is far superior)
  • Verdi, Falstaff (1937, Salzburg Festival on Andante; avoid other editions; the sound of the 1950 NBC performance is much better, but the 1937 performance is often seen as slightly better in artistic terms)
  • Verdi, Rigoletto (Act IV only, 1944; from Red Cross concert held in Madison Square Garden to raise World War II funds, with the combined forces of the New York Philharmonic and the NBC Symphony)
  • Verdi, Otello (1947; considered by many, including conductor James Levine, to be the most perfect opera recording ever made)
  • Wagner, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (1937, Salzburg Festival; now available in good sound from the Selenophone sound-on-film recordings from Andante.)

“Beethoven” redirects here. ... Eroica Symphony Title Page The Symphony No. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Symphony No. ... Ludwig van Beethoven began concentrated work on his Symphony No. ... The New York Philharmonic is the oldest active symphony orchestra in the United States, organized during 1842. ... This article is about the composition. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Missa Solemnis in D Major, Op. ... Painting of Berlioz by Gustave Courbet, 1850. ... Roméo et Juliette is a symphonie dramatique, a large scale work in French for mixed voices and orchestra, by French composer Hector Berlioz. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ... The in C minor, Op. ... The Symphony No. ... The Symphony No. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ... The Philharmonia is an orchestra based in London. ... Walter Legge (June 1, 1906 - March 22, 1979) was an influential British classical record producer, most notably for EMI. Legge first joined HMV in 1927 mainly to work for the editorial of the companys retailing magazine, but he caught the eye of another famous record producer, Fred Gaisberg, and... Claude Debussy, photo by Félix Nadar, 1908. ... Antonín Dvořák Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( , often anglicized DVOR-zhak; September 8, 1841 – May 1, 1904) was a Czech composer of romantic music, who employed the idioms and melodies of the folk music of his native Bohemia and Moravia in symphonic, oratorial, chamber and operatic works. ... New World Symphony redirects here; for the Miami-based orchestra, see New World Symphony Orchestra. ... Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) is a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (December 22, 1858 – November 29, 1924) was an Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly, are among the most frequently performed in the standard repertoire. ... For other uses, see La bohème (disambiguation). ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Die Zauberflöte (en: The Magic Flute) is an opera in two acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. ... The Salzburg Festival (Salzburger Festspiele) is a prominent festival of music and drama. ... Schubert redirects here. ... In 1838 Robert Schumann, on a visit to Vienna, found the dusty manuscript of Franz Schuberts C major symphony (the Great, D.944) and took it back to Leipzig, where it was performed by Felix Mendelssohn and celebrated in the Neue Zeitschrift. ... Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский, sometimes transliterated as Piotr, Anglicised as Peter Ilich), (May 7, 1840 – November 6, 1893 (N.S.); April 25, 1840 – October 25, 1893 (O.S.)) was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. ... Categories: Stub ... “Verdi” redirects here. ... The Requiem by Giuseppe Verdi is a musical setting of the Roman Catholic funeral Mass (called the Requiem for the first word of the text, which begins Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine, meaning, Grant them eternal rest, O Lord — see the entry at Dies Irae) that was completed to mark... For other uses, see Falstaff (disambiguation). ... The Salzburg Festival (Salzburger Festspiele) is a prominent festival of music and drama. ... Giuseppe Verdi, by Giovanni Boldini, 1886 (National Gallery of Modern Art, Rome) Rigoletto is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi. ... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Madison Square Garden, often abbreviated as MSG, and known colloquially simply as The Garden, has been the name of four arenas in New York City. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For the Rossini opera, see Otello (Rossini) or for the eurobeat artist see Gianni Coraini. ... James Levine (born June 23, 1943 in Cincinnati, Ohio) is an American orchestral pianist and conductor and most well known as the music director of the Metropolitan Opera in New York. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (The Master Singers of Nuremberg) is an opera in three acts, written and composed by Richard Wagner. ... The Salzburg Festival (Salzburger Festspiele) is a prominent festival of music and drama. ...

Rarities

There are many pieces which Toscanini never recorded in the studio; among these, some of the most interesting surviving recordings (off-the-air) include:

Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) is a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Schubert redirects here. ... For other persons named Robert Schumann, see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... Dmitri Shostakovich in 1942 Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich   (Russian: , Dmitrij Dmitrievič Å ostakovič) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906 – August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Russian: , Modest Petrovič Musorgskij, French: ) (March 9/21, 1839 – March 16/28, 1881), one of the Russian composers known as the Five, was an innovator of Russian music. ... Khovanshchina (Russian: , Hovánščina, sometimes rendered The Khovansky Affair) is an opera (subtitled a national music drama) in five acts by Modest Mussorgsky. ... Arrigo Boito (February 24, 1842 – June 10, 1918) was an Italian poet, journalist, novelist and composer, best known today for his opera libretti and his own opera, Mefistofele. ... Mefistofele is the only completed opera by the Italian composer Arrigo Boito. ... Arrigo Boito (February 24, 1842 – June 10, 1918) was an Italian poet, journalist, novelist and composer, best known today for his opera libretti and his own opera, Mefistofele. ... Igor Stravinsky. ... Pétrouchka (English: Petrushka; Russian: петрушка) is a ballet with music by the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky. ...

Rehearsals and broadcasts

Many hundreds of hours of rehearsal recordings exist; some of these have circulated in limited edition recordings. Broadcast recordings with other orchestras have also survived, including New York Philharmonic broadcasts from 1933-36, 1942, and 1945; Numerous BBC Symphony Orchestra performances from 1935-1939, Pre-war Lucerne Festival Orchestra concerts, and multiple concerts from appearances with La Scala orchestra from 1946-1952, including Verdi's Requiem with a young Renata Tebaldi! Moreover, his ten NBC Symphony telecasts 1948-1952 survive, including that of Aïda (with Herva Nelli in the title role). They were issued on home video in the 1990s and have been reissued on DVD.[7] They further establish the passionate yet restrained podium manner for which he was acclaimed. The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, by night. ... Renata Tebaldi (Pesaro, February 1, 1922 – San Marino, December 19, 2004) was an Italian lyric soprano, popular in the post-war period. ... Herva Nelli, was an Italian opera singer. ...


Recording guide

A guide to Toscanini's recording career can be found in Mortimer H. Frank's "From the Pit to the Podium: Toscanini in America" in International Classical Record Collector (1998, 15 8-21) and Christopher Dyment's "Toscanini's European Inheritance" in International Classical Record Collector (1998, 15 22-8). Frank and Dyment also discuss Maestro Toscanini's performance history in the 50th anniversary issue of Classic Record Collector (2006, 47) Frank with 'Toscanini - Myth and Reality' (10-14) and Dyment 'A Whirlwind in London' (15-21) This issue also contains interviews with people who performed with Toscanini - Jon Tolansky 'Licia Albanese - Maestro and Me' (22-6) and 'A Mesmerising Beat: John Tolansky talks to some of those who worked with Arturo Toscanini, to discover some of the secrets of his hold over singers, orchestras and audiences.' (34-7). There is also a feature article on Toscanini's interpretation of Brahms's First Symphony - Norman C. Nelson, 'First Among Equals [...] Toscanini's interpretation of Brahms's First Symphony in the context of others' (28-33)


The Arturo Toscanini Society

In 1969, Clyde J. Key acted on a dream he had of meeting Toscanini by starting the Arturo Toscanini Society to release a number of "unapproved" live performances by Toscanini. As Time Magazine reported, Key scoured the U.S. and Europe for off-the-air transcriptions of Toscanini broadcasts, acquiring almost 5,000 transcriptions (all transferred to tape) of previously unreleased material--a complete catalogue of broadcasts by the Maestro between 1933 and 1954. It included about 50 concerts that were never broadcast, but which were recorded surreptitiously by engineers supposedly testing their equipment.


A private, nonprofit club based in Dumas, Texas, it offered members five or six LP's annually for a $25-a-year membership fee. Key's first package offering included Brahms' German Requiem, Haydn's Symphonies Nos. 88 and 104, and Richard Strauss' Ein Heldenleben, all NBC Symphony broadcasts dating from the late 1930s or early 1940s. In 1970, the Society releases included Sibelius' Symphony No. 4, Mendelssohn's "Scotish" Symphony, dating from the same NBC period; and a Rossini-Verdi-Puccini LP emanating from the post-War reopening of La Scala on May 11, 1946 with the Maestro conducting. That same year it released a Beethoven bicentennial set that included the 1935 Missa Solemnis with the Philharmonic and LP's of the 1948 televised concert of the ninth symphony taken from an FM radio transcription, complete with Ben Grauer's comments. (In the early 1990's, the kinescopes of these and the other televised concerts were released by RCA with soundtracks dubbed in from the NBC radio transcriptions; in 2006, they were rereleased by Testament on DVD.) Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of classical music. ... (Franz) Joseph Haydn (in German, Josef; he never used the Franz) (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was a leading composer of the classical period. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Ein Heldenleben (literally A Heroic Life, but usually more loosely translated as A Heros Life), op. ... Contrary to what Rachel Lewis believes. ... Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) is a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. ...


Additional releases included a number of Beethoven symphonies recorded with the New York Philharmonic during the 1930s, a performance of Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 27 on Feb. 20, 1936, at which Rudolf Serkin made his New York debut, and one of the most celebrated underground Toscanini recordings of all, the legendary 1940 version of Beethoven's Missa Solemnis, which has better soloists (Zinka Milanov, Jussi Bjoerling, both in their prime) and a more powerful style than the 1953 recording now available on RCA/BMG, although the microphone placement was kinder to the soloists in 1940. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was one of the most significant and influential of all composers of Western classical music. ... Rudolf Serkin (March 28, 1903 – May 8, 1991) was an Austrian pianist. ... Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770 – March 26, 1827) was a German composer of Classical music, the predominant musical figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Missa Solemnis in D Major, Op. ...


Because the Arturo Toscanini Society was nonprofit, Key said he believed he had successfully bypassed both copyright restrictions and the maze of contractual ties between RCA and the Maestro's family. However, RCA's attorneys were soon looking into the matter to see if they agreed. As long as it stayed small, the Society appeared to offer little real competition to RCA. But classical-LP profits were low enough even in 1970, and piracy by fly-by-night firms so prevalent within the industry (an estimated $100 million in tape sales for 1969 alone), that even a benevolent buccaneer outfit like the Arturo Toscanini Society had to be looked at twice before it could be tolerated.[8]


Magazine and newspaper reports subsequently detailed legal action taken against Key and the Society, presumably after some of the LPs began to appear in retail stores. Toscanini fans and record collectors were dismayed because, although Toscanini had not approved the release of these performances in every case, many of them were found to be further proof of the greatness of the Maestro's musical talents. One outstanding example of a remarkable performance not approved by the Maestro was his December 1948 NBC broadcast of Dvorak's Symphonic Variations, released on an LP by the Society. (A 1951 performance of the same music has been released on VHS and laser disc by RCA/BMG and on DVD by Testament.) There was speculation that, the Toscanini family itself, prodded by his daughter Wanda, sought to defend the Maestro's original decisions, made mostly during his last years, on what should be released. Whatever the real reasons, the Arturo Toscanini Society was forced to disband and cease releasing any further recordings. Antonín Dvořák Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( , often anglicized DVOR-zhak; September 8, 1841 – May 1, 1904) was a Czech composer of romantic music, who employed the idioms and melodies of the folk music of his native Bohemia and Moravia in symphonic, oratorial, chamber and operatic works. ...


The Television Concerts

Arturo Toscanini was very likely the first conductor to make extended appearances on live television, beginning with an all-Wagner concert in March 1948 in Studio 8-H. Between 1948 and 1952, he conducted ten concerts telecast on NBC, including a two-part concert performance of Verdi's complete opera Aida starring Herva Nelli and Richard Tucker, and the first complete telecast of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. All of these were simulcast on radio. These concerts were all shown only once during that four-year span, but they were preserved on kinescope, though they remained unseen for many years. Herva Nelli, was an Italian opera singer. ... Richard Tucker (August 28, 1913 – January 8, 1975) was an American tenor. ... The Symphony No. ... Kinescope (IPA: ) originally referred to the cathode ray tube used in television monitors. ...


The NBC cameras were often left on Toscanini for extended periods, documenting not only his baton techniques but his deep involvement in the music. When a piece ended, Toscanini generally nodded rather than bowed, prefering to give more recognition to the soloists and the orchestra. At the end of the April 1948 telecast of the Beethoven ninth symphony, Toscanini acknowledged the vocal quartet, the orchestra, and even choral director Robert Shaw, who was asked to come forward for the audience's applause, as announcer Ben Grauer noted in the original broadcast. The Symphony No. ... Robert Shaw may mean: Robert Shaw (footballer) Robert Shaw (actor) This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Ben Grauer (born Staten Island, New York, June 2, 1908, died New York City, May 31, 1977) was an American radio and TV personality, following a career as a child actor in the 1920s, both in film and on Broadway. ...


As part of a huge restoration project initiated by the Toscanini family in the late 1980s, the kinescopes were fully restored and issued on VHS and laser disc beginning in 1989. However, the audio portion of the sound was taken, not from the old kinescopes, which had a sub-par sound quality, but from then state-of-the-art high fidelity 33-1/3 rpm 16-inch transcriptions (1948) and audio tape recordings (1949-52) that had been made by the NBC technicians of these same concerts as they were actually taking place. The hi-fi audio was then perfectly and exactingly synchronized to the picture so that it now appeared as if these programs had originally been made with hi-fi sound. The original audio commentary, by NBC's longtime announcer Ben Grauer, was also replaced by Martin Bookspan's more sonically modern announcements. Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard. ... High Fidelity is also the title of a book by Nick Hornby and a film directed by Stephen Frears, based upon Hornbys book. ... Ben Grauer (born Staten Island, New York, June 2, 1908, died New York City, May 31, 1977) was an American radio and TV personality, following a career as a child actor in the 1920s, both in film and on Broadway. ... Martin Bookspan is an announcer, commentator and author. ...


Although NBC continued to broadcast the orchestra on radio until April 1954, telecasts were abandoned after March 1952. The kinescope of the last telecast, however, shows that the special lights required for the telecasts were particularly hard on the Maestro, who was then 85 years old. Possibly Toscanini himself decided not to appear on television any further.


The entire group of Toscanini videos has since been issued by Testament on DVD, both in England and in the U.S. with much improved sound and pictures. The Hymn of the Nations film has also been issued on VHS, laser disc and DVD. Toscanini's arrangement of the Socialist Internationale (then the Soviet Union's national anthem) was cut from the video, jumping from the Italian anthem to The Star-Spangled Banner, but it remains on the CD version. DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ...


Toscanini and the critics

Throughout his career, Toscanini was virtually idolized by the critics, as well as by fellow musicians -with the exception of a few, such as Virgil Thomson- and by the public alike. He enjoyed the kind of critical acclaim that few musicians have consistently had. In November of 1947, one reader of Time Magazine went so far as to nominate him for Man of the Year [1], a title that has never gone to a classical musician. Virgil Thomson, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1947 Virgil Thomson (November 25, 1896 - September 30, 1989) was an American composer from Missouri, whose rural background gave a sense of place in his compositions. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... Person of the Year is an annual issue of United States (U.S.) newsmagazine Time that features a profile on the man, woman, couple, group, idea, place, or machine that [1] // The tradition of selecting a Man of the Year began in 1927, when Time editors contemplated what they could...


Over the past twenty-five years or so, however, as a new generation has appeared, there has been an increasing amount of revisionist criticism directed at him. These critics contend that Toscanini was a detriment to American music rather than an asset because he neglected to perform modern classical music, placing an emphasis mostly on older European music. According to Harvey Sachs, Mortimer Frank, and B.H. Haggin, this criticism can be traced to the lack of focus on Toscanini as a conductor rather than his legacy. Frank, in his recent book Toscanini: The NBC Years, rejects this revisionism quite strongly [2], and cites the author Joseph Horowitz (author of Understanding Toscanini) as perhaps the worst offender in this case. Frank states that the revisionism has grown to the point that younger listeners and critics, who have not heard as many of Toscanini's performances as the older generation, are easily influenced by it, and as a result, his reputation, extraordinarily high in the years that he was active, has suffered a decline. Conversely, Joseph Horowitz contends that those who keep the Toscanini legend alive are members of a "Toscanini cult", an idea not altogether refuted by Frank, but not embraced by him, either. In Parson Weems Fable (1939) Grant Wood takes a sly poke at a traditional hagiographical account of George Washington Historical revisionism has both a legitimate academic use and a pejorative meaning. ... The American conductor and writer Harvey Sachs (born 1946) has written a number of books on musical subjects, most notably the standard biography of and a book of essays on the Italian conductor Arturo Toscanini. ... The career of music critic Bernard H. Haggin (December 29, 1900 - May 28, 1987), better known as B.H. Haggin, spanned nearly the entire 20th century. ...


Several critics, such as Virgil Thomson, have taken Toscanini to task for not paying enough attention to the "modern repertoire" (i.e., twentieth-century composers), forgetting that during Toscanini's middle years, such luminaries as Claude Debussy, whose music the conductor held in very high regard, were considered extremely modern. The aforementioned Joseph Horowitz is another writer who feels that Toscanini should have paid more attention to modern-day composers. Claude Debussy, photo by Félix Nadar, 1908. ...


The Toscanini Legacy

Toscanini on the cover of Time magazine, 1948

In 1986, The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts purchased the bulk of Toscanini's papers, scores and sound recordings from his heirs. Named The Toscanini Legacy, this vast collection contains thousands of letters, programs and various documents, over 1,800 scores and more than 400 hours of sound recordings. A finding aid for the scores is available on the library's website. In house finding aids are available for other parts of the collection. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


The Library also has many other collections that have Toscanini materials in them, such as the Bruno Walter papers, the Fiorello H. La Guardia papers, and a collection of material from Rose Bampton.


Toscanini was featured three times on the cover of Time magazine, in 1926, 1934, and again in 1948.


Quotations

  • Of Richard Strauss, whose political behavior during World War II was arguably very questionable: "To Strauss the composer I take off my hat; to Strauss the man I put it back on again."
  • "The conduct of my life has been, is, and will always be the echo and reflection of my conscience."
  • "Gentlemen, be democrats in life but aristocrats in art."
  • Referring to the first movement of the Eroica: "To some it is Napoleon, to some it is a philosophical struggle. To me it is allegro con brio."
  • At the point where Puccini left off writing the finale of his unfinished opera, Turandot: "Here Death triumphed over art". (Toscanini then left the opera pit, the lights went up and the audience left in silence.).[9]
  • Toscanini was kindly asked in the year 1940 to visit the set of Metro Goldwyn Mayer Studios where he said with tears in his eyes, "I will remember three things in my life, The sunset, The Grand Canyon and Eleanor Powell's dancing,".

This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Eroica Symphony Title Page The Symphony No. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...

Toscanini in film

  • Toscanini is the subject of the fictionalized biography Young Toscanini, starring C. Thomas Howell, and directed by Franco Zeffirelli. [10] It received scathing reviews and was never officially released in the United States. The film is a fictional recounting of the events that led up to Toscanini making his conducting debut in Rio de Janeiro in 1886. Although nearly all of the plot is embellished, the events surrounding the sudden and unexpected conducting debut are based on fact.

Christopher Thomas Howell (born December 7, 1966 in Los Angeles, California, USA) is an American actor. ... Franco Zeffirelli (born Gianfranco Corsi on February 12, 1923), is an Italian film director. ...

References

  1. ^ Sachs, Harvey (1978). Toscanini. Da Capo Press. ISBN 030680137X. 
  2. ^ Farrell, Nicholas (2005). Mussolini: a New Life. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., p. 238. ISBN 1842121235. 
  3. ^ RCA Victor liner notes
  4. ^ Michael Kennedy (12 May 2002). Conductor con brio. Telegraph. Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
  5. ^ Catherine Milner (20 Apr 2002). Letters detail Toscanini's affairs. Telegraph. Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
  6. ^ Eyewitness accounts by William Knorp and others
  7. ^ Testament Classic Recordings web site
  8. ^ Time, March 2, 1970
  9. ^ Mosco Carner, Puccini, 1974; Howard Taubman, Toscanini, 1951; quoted in Norman Lebrecht, The Book of Musical Anecdotes
  10. ^ Il Giovane Toscanini - Trailer - Cast - Showtimes - New York Times
  • Seraphim recordings/liner notes
  • Arturo Toscanini Society recordings
  • RCA home videos

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Antek, Samuel (author) and Hupka, Robert (photographs), This Was Toscanini, New York: Vanguard Press, 1963 (consists of a series of essays by one of the NBC Symphony musicians who played under Toscanini, combined with remarkable performance photographs from the latter part of Toscanini's career).
  • Frank, Mortimer H., Arturo Toscanini: The NBC Years, New York: Amadeus Press, 2002. (Re-evaluates favorably several of Toscanini's most strongly criticized performances. Complete list and analysis of NBC symphony performances under Toscanini as well as other conductors.)
  • Haggin, B. H., Arturo Toscanini: Contemporary Recollections of the Maestro, New York: Da Capo Press, 1989 (reprint of Conversations with Toscanini and The Toscanini Musicians Knew).
  • Horowitz, Joseph, Understanding Toscanini, New York: Knopf, 1987 (a revisionist treatment, attacking Toscanini's legacy).
  • Marek, George R., Toscanini, New York: Atheneum, 1975. ISBN 0-689-10655-6 (Contains some factual errors corrected by Sachs.)
  • Marsh, R.C. Toscanini on Records-Part I: High Fidelity Magazine vol 4,1954, pp 55-58
  • Marsh Part II: vol 4,1955, pp 75-81
  • Marsh Part III: vol 4,1955, pp 83-91
  • Matthews, Denis, Arturo Toscanini. New York: Hippocrene, 1982. ISBN 0-88254-657-0 (includes discography)
  • O'Connell, Charles, The Other Side of the Record. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1947. (Inside view of Toscanini's recordings)
  • Sachs, Harvey, Reflections on Toscanini, New York: Prima Publishing, 1993. (Series of essays on various aspects of Toscanini's life and impact.)
  • Sachs, Harvey, ed., The Letters of Arturo Toscanini, New York: Knopf, 2003.
  • Taubman, Howard, The Maestro: The Life of Arturo Toscanini, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1951 (contains factual errors corrected by Haggin and Sachs).
  • Teachout, Terry, Toscanini Lives, Commentary Magazine, July/August 2002

Samuel Antek (died 1958) was a violinist in the NBC Symphony Orchestra under conductor Arturo Toscanini. ... Robert Hupka (August 26, 1919 – July 3, 2001) was a recording engineer for RCA and later for Columbia Records. ... The career of music critic Bernard H. Haggin (December 29, 1900 - May 28, 1987), better known as B.H. Haggin, spanned nearly the entire 20th century. ... The American conductor and writer Harvey Sachs (born 1946) has written a number of books on musical subjects, most notably the standard biography of and a book of essays on the Italian conductor Arturo Toscanini. ... The American conductor and writer Harvey Sachs (born 1946) has written a number of books on musical subjects, most notably the standard biography of and a book of essays on the Italian conductor Arturo Toscanini. ... Howard Taubmans Memoir Howard Taubman (July 4, 1907 – January 8, 1996) was an American music critic, theater critic, and author. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Arturo Toscanini
Preceded by
unknown
Music Director, La Scala
1898–1908
Succeeded by
Tullio Serafin
Preceded by
Tullio Serafin
Music Director, La Scala
1921–1929
Succeeded by
Victor de Sabata


  Results from FactBites:
 
Arturo Toscanini - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1208 words)
Arturo Toscanini (March 25, 1867, Parma, Emilia-Romagna – January 16, 1957, New York City) was an Italian musician.
Toscanini was born in Parma, Italy and won a scholarship to the local music conservatory, where he studied cello.
Toscanini was especially famous for his magnificent performances of Beethoven, Brahms, Wagner, Strauss, Debussy and his compatriots Rossini, Verdi, Boito and Puccini.
Arturo Toscanini - definition of Arturo Toscanini in Encyclopedia (696 words)
Arturo Toscanini (March 25, 1867 - January 16, 1957) was considered by many of his contemporaries — critics, fellow musicians, and the public alike — as the greatest conductor of his era.
Toscanini successfully took up the baton at the suggestion of other players, and thus began his career as a conductor at age 19.
Toscanini was famous for his performances of Beethoven and Verdi.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m