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Encyclopedia > Artificial script

An artificial or constructed script (also conscript or neography) is a new writing system specifically created by an individual or group, rather than having evolved as part of a language or culture like a natural script. They are often designed for use with conlangs, although several of them are used in linguistic experimentation or for other more practical ends. The most prominent of these is the International Phonetic Alphabet. Some, such as the Shavian alphabet, Alphabet 26, and the Deseret alphabet, were devised as English spelling reforms. Others, including Alexander Melville Bell's Visible Speech and John Malone's Unifon were developed for pedagogical use. Blissymbols were developed as a written international auxiliary language. Shorthand systems may be considered conscripts. Writing Systems of the World today A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... An artificial or constructed language (known colloquially as a conlang among aficionados), is a language whose phonology, grammar and vocabulary are specifically devised by an individual or small group, rather than having naturally evolved as part of a culture the way natural languages do. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of human language, and someone who engages in this study is called a linguist or linguistician. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Alphabet 26 is a neography created by Bradbury Thompson in 1950, and first published in Westvaco Inspirations 180. ... The Deseret alphabet is a phonetic alphabet developed in the mid-19th century by the board of regents of the University of Deseret (later the University of Utah) under the direction of Brigham Young, second president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Visible speech is the name of the system used by Alexander Melville Bell, who was known internationally as a teacher of speech and proper elocution and an author of books on the subject. ... John C. Malone is the current chairman of Liberty Media. ... Blissymbolics or Blissymbols were conceived of as an ideographic writing system consisting of several hundred basic symbols, each representing a concept, which can be composed together to generate new symbols that represent new concepts. ... An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... Shorthand is a term referring to any abbreviated or symbolic writing method that improves speed of writing or brevity as compared to a standard method of writing the language. ...

Contents


Overview of constructed writing systems

Fictional

The best-known conscripts are J. R. R. Tolkien's elaborate Tengwar and Cirth, but many others exist, such as the Klingon script, and D'ni. These were developed for the purpose of fictional worlds, and are often associated with constructed languages, also known as artificial languages. J. R. R. Tolkien in 1972, in his study at Merton Street (from by H. Carpenter) John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (January 3, 1892 – September 2, 1973) is best known as the author of The Hobbit and its sequel The Lord of the Rings. ... First article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (in English) The Tengwar are an artificial script which was invented by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... This chart showing the runes shared by the Angerthas Daeron and Angerthas Moria is presented in Appendix E of The Return of the King. ... The Klingon language or Klingonese (tlhIngan Hol in Klingon) is a constructed language – an artistic language created by Marc Okrand for Paramount Pictures and spoken by Klingons in the fictional Star Trek universe. ... Myst franchise Games and their Ages Novels Book of Atrus Book of Tiana Book of Dni Book of Marrim Comic Books #0   #1 Miscellaneous Dni   Dni Ages   The Art   Timeline   Items   Kings   Language   Numerals   People   Wildlife   Organizations Brøderbund   Cyan   Presto   Ubisoft   DRC Note: Fictional details... An artificial or constructed language (known colloquially as a conlang among aficionados), is a language whose vocabulary and grammar were specifically devised by an individual or small group, rather than having naturally evolved as part of a culture as with natural languages. ...


For previously unwritten languages

Some, like Cherokee, N'Ko, the Fraser alphabet, and the Pollard script, were invented to allow certain spoken natural languages that did not already have writing systems to be written. Original distribution of the Cherokee language Cherokee (Cherokee: ᏣᎳᎩ) is an Iroquoian language spoken by the Cherokee people. ... The word NKo written in the NKo alphabet NKo is a script devised by Solomana Kante in 1949 as a writing system for the Mande languages of West Africa; NKo means I say in all Mande languages. ... The Fraser alphabet is an artificial script invented around 1915 by the missionary James O. Fraser to write the Lisu language. ...


Traditional "natural" writing systems

While traditional scripts, such as the Chinese, runes, the Arabic script, are not commonly labeled as conscripts or constructed writing systems, they too have had one or more creators. However, due to their age, most of these have changed considerably since their creation, and their creation may have been more an adaptation of previous writing systems than a total reinvention.


However, the fact that traditional writing systems have "evolved" should not lead one to think of them as natural in the same sense as natural language, since they are not inherent to human beings, nor governed by the same set of rules. For example, the Korean Hangul writing system is a traditional writing system that is also clearly constructed, since the time, place, sponsor, and general conditions of its invention are well-known, even though the exact names of the people who developed it are not known. Not much is known about the inventors of other scripts, though Cyrillic was (according to myth) created by St. Cyril. The term natural language is used to distinguish languages spoken and signed (by hand signals and facial expressions) by humans for general-purpose communication from constructs such as writing, computer-programming languages or the languages used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic. ... Hangul (Korean: 한글, hangeul) is the native alphabet of the Korean language, as opposed to the non-alphabetic hanja system borrowed from China. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ...


For technical purposes

Several writing systems have been devised for technical purposes by specialists in various fields. One of the most prominent of these is the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), used by linguists to describe the sounds of human language in exhaustive detail. While based on the latin alphabet, IPA also contains invented letters, Greek letters, and numerous diacritics. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ...


Conscripts and Unicode

Some neographies have been encoded in Unicode, in particular the Shavian alphabet and the Deseret alphabet. A proposal for Klingon pIqaD was turned down due to the fact that most users of the Klingon language wrote it using the Latin alphabet, but both Tengwar and Cirth are still under consideration. An unofficial project exists to coordinate the encoding of many conscripts in specific places in the Unicode Private Use Areas (E000-F8FF and 000F0000-0010FFFF), known as the ConScript Unicode Registry. Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... The Klingon language or Klingonese (tlhIngan Hol in Klingon) is a constructed language – an artistic language created by Marc Okrand for Paramount Pictures and spoken by Klingons in the fictional Star Trek universe. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... First article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (in English) The Tengwar are an artificial script which was invented by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... This chart showing the runes shared by the Angerthas Daeron and Angerthas Moria is presented in Appendix E of The Return of the King. ... Unicode reserves 1,114,112 (= 220 + 216) code points, and currently assigns characters to more than 96,000 of those code points. ... The ConScript Unicode Registry is a volunteer project to coordinate the assignment of code points in the Unicode Private Use Area for the encoding of artificial scripts. ...


See also

An artificial or constructed language (known colloquially as a conlang among aficionados), is a language whose phonology, grammar and vocabulary are specifically devised by an individual or small group, rather than having naturally evolved as part of a culture the way natural languages do. ... Some authors use fictional languages as a device to underline differences in culture, by having their characters communicate in a fashion which is both alien and dislocated. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... This list of constructed languages is in alphabetical order, and divided into auxiliary, engineered, and artistic languages, and their respective subgenres. ... The Voynich manuscript is written in an unknown script. ... Writing Systems of the World today A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ...

External links and references


  Results from FactBites:
 
Artificial script - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (515 words)
An artificial or constructed script (also conscript or neography) is a new writing system specifically created by an individual or group, rather than having evolved as part of a language or culture like a natural script.
Some, like Cherokee, N'Ko, the Fraser alphabet, and the Pollard script, were invented to allow certain spoken natural languages that did not already have writing systems to be written.
While traditional scripts, such as the Chinese, runes, the Arabic script, are not commonly labeled as conscripts or constructed writing systems, they too have had one or more creators.
Tengwar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1630 words)
The Tengwar are an artificial script which was invented by J.
In his works, the Tengwar script, supposedly invented by FĂ«anor, was used to write a number of the languages of Middle-earth, including Quenya and Sindarin.
The sarati, described in Parma Eldalamberon 13, a script developed by J. Tolkien in the late 1910s, anticipates many features of the tengwar, especially the vowel representation by diacritics (which is found in many tengwar varieties), different tengwar shapes and a few correspondences between sound features and letter shape features (though inconsistent).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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