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Encyclopedia > Artificial insemination
AIH redirects here. For the indie rock band abbreviated AIH, see Architecture in Helsinki

Artificial insemination (AI) is when sperm is placed into a female's uterus (intrauterine), or cervix (intracervical) using artificial means rather than by natural copulation. Modern techniques for artificial insemination were first developed for the dairy cattle industry to allow many cows to be impregnated with the sperm of a bull with traits for improved milk production. For architectural structures in Helsinki, Finland, see Helsinki#Architecture. ... A spermatozoon or spermatozoan ( spermatozoa), from the ancient Greek σπέρμα (seed) and (living being) and more commonly known as a sperm cell, is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... The cervix (from Latin neck) is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. ... Insemination is the introduction of semen into the genital tract of a female. ...

Contents

Human artificial insemination

In humans artificial insemination is used as assisted reproductive technology primarily to treat infertility but is increasingly used to enable women without a male partner to produce children. The aim is to impregnate the woman by non-sexual insertion of sperm into the vagina or uterus. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is a general term referring to methods used to achieve pregnancy by artificial or partially artificial means. ... Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. ...


Preparations

The male partner of the woman undergoing artifical insemination produces a sperm sample usually by means of masturbation, although a special collection condom may also be used during intercourse. Alternatively, sperm provided by a sperm donor may be used if the woman's partner produces too few motile sperm, if he carries a genetic disorder, or if the woman has no male partner.


The man providing the sperm is usually advised not to ejaculate for two to three days before providing the sample in order to increase the sperm count.


A woman's menstrual cycle is closely observed, by tracking basal body temperature and changes in vaginal mucous, or using ovulation kits, ultrasounds or blood tests.


When using intra-uterine insemination (IUI), the sperm must immediately be “washed” in a laboratory and a chemical is added to the sample. The process of “washing” the sperm increases the chances of fertilization and removes any chemicals in the semen that may cause discomfort for the woman.


If sperm is provided by a sperm donor through a sperm bank, it will be frozen and quarantined for a particular period and the donor will be tested before and after production of the sample to ensure that he does not carry a transmissable disease. A chemical known as a cryoprotectant is added to the sperm to aid the freezing and thawing process. Further chemicals may be added which separate the most active sperm in the sample as well as extending or diluting the sample so that vials for a number of inseminations are produced.


Procedure

When an ovum is released, semen provided by the woman's partner or by a donor is inserted into the female's vagina or uterus. Semen is occasionally inserted twice within a 'treatment cycle'. If the procedure is successful, the woman conceives and carries to term a baby as normal, making her both the genetic and gestational mother.


Variations

Artificial insemination has several variations both regarding the donor of the sperm and the techniques used.


Donor variations

Either sperm provided by the woman's husband (artificial insemination by husband, AIH) or sperm provided by a known or anonymous sperm donor (artificial insemination by donor, AID or DI) can be used. A sperm donor is a person who gives or more usually sells his sperm, to a sperm bank, primarily for the purpose of assisting a woman anonymous to him to conceive via artificial insemination. ...


Earlier, a popular form of artificial insemination was AIC, in which the sperm of the husband and a donor were mixed. The advantage of this procedure was that it could not be conclusively stated that the husband was not the biological father of the child.[citation needed] This was important in an age where artificial insemination was considered to be immoral and tantamount to adultery, with the resulting child being considered as illegitimate and having no inheritance rights.[citation needed] The popularity of AIC has reduced to almost nil for a number of reasons, including advances in genetic testing which make it fairly easy to identify the genetic father with a blood test, the advance of medical treatments for male infertility (such as ICSI), and the declining stigma of assisted reproductive technologies in general. Oocyte is injected during ICSI Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is an in vitro fertilization procedure in which a single sperm is injected directly into an egg; this procedure is most commonly used to overcome male infertility problems. ...


Techniques

The easiest way to inseminate is by intracervical insemination (ICI), where semen is injected high into the cervix with a needle-less syringe. This process most closely replicates the way in which semen is depositied during normal copulation. However, more technical procedures may be used which increase the chances of conception. For example, 'washed semen', that is, semen from which certain chemicals have been removed, can be injected directly into a woman's uterus in a process called intrauterine insemination (IUI). IUI can furthermore be combined with intratubal insemination (ITI), into the Fallopian tube. This last procedure is generally regarded as having no beneficial effect compared with IUI[1] ITI however, should not be confused with gamete intrafallopian transfer, where both eggs and sperm are mixed outside the woman's body and then inserted into the Fallopian tube where fertilization takes place. See also in vitro fertilisation (IVF) techniques which may involve the use of partner or donor sperm. The cervix (from Latin neck) is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... The Fallopian tubes, also known as oviducts, uterine tubes, and salpinges (singular salpinx) are two very fine tubes leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus. ... Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) is an infertility treatment in which eggs are removed from a womans ovaries, and placed in one of the fallopian tubes, along with the mans sperm. ...


Controversy

Artificial insemination has become a significant issue in recent years, particularly in debates revolving around same sex parenting, single mother parenting and surrogate parenting. Legal issues have arisen in cases where the gestational (and possibly genetic) mother decides to keep the child. Likewise, there have been debates over the rights of sperm donors. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into surrogacy. ...


Artificial insemination in livestock and pets

An artificial vagina used to collect semen from horses for use in artificial insemination
An artificial vagina used to collect semen from horses for use in artificial insemination

Artificial insemination is used in animals to propagate desirable characteristics of one male to many females or overcome breeding problems, particularly in the cases of horses, cattle, pigs, pedigree dogs, and honeybees. Semen is collected, extended, then cooled or frozen. It can be used on site or shipped to the female's location. The small plastic tube holding the frozen semen is referred to as a "straw". To allow the sperm to remain viable during the time before and after it is frozen, the semen is mixed with a solution containing glycerol or other cryoprotectants. An "extender" is a solution that allows the semen from a donor to impregnate more females by making insemination possible with fewer sperm. Antibiotics, such as streptomycin, are sometimes added to the sperm to control some venereal diseases. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 576 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,929 × 3,048 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 576 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,929 × 3,048 pixels, file size: 2. ... An artificial vagina is a device designed to simulate the female sex organ. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... A pedigreed animal is one that has its ancestry recorded. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies North-west of Europe South-west of Europe Middle East Africa Synonyms Apis mellifica Linnaeus, 1761 The Western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honey bee. ...


Artificial insemination of farm animals is very common in today's agriculture industry in the developed world, especially for breeding dairy cattle (75% of all inseminations) and swine (up to 85% of all inseminations). It provides an economical means for a livestock grower to breed their herds with males having very desirable traits.


See also

For the Inter-Varsity Fellowship, see Universities and Colleges Christian Fellowship. ... Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of in vitro fertilization (IVF) whereby one or several embryos are placed into the uterus of the female with the intent to establish a pregnancy. ... Ex-situ conservation means literally, off-site conservation. It is the process of protecting an endangered species of plant or animal by removing it from an unsafe or threatened habitat and placing it or part of it under the care of humans. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Oocyte is injected during ICSI Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is an in vitro fertilization procedure in which a single sperm is injected directly into an egg; this procedure is most commonly used to overcome male infertility problems. ... A sperm bank or cryobank is a facility that collects and stores human sperm from sperm donors, primarily for the purposes of artificial insemination. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

References

  1. ^ Comparison of intracervical, intrauterine, and intratubal techniques for donor insemination. Hurd WW, Randolph JF Jr, Ansbacher R, Menge AC, Ohl DA, Brown AN.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Artificial insemination - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (894 words)
Artificial insemination is used in animals to propagate desirable characteristics of one male to many females or overcome breeding problems, particularly in the cases of horses, cattle, pigs, pedigreed dogs, and honeybees.
Artificial insemination of farm animals is very common in today's agriculture industry, especially for breeding dairy cattle (75% of all inseminations) and swine (up to 85% of all inseminations).
Thus, apparently artificial insemination was attempted on Juana, wife of King Henry IV of Castile.
Equine Artificial Insemination (582 words)
Insemination per vagina does mean that probably the most important part of the process is the preparation, during which the perineal area is cleansed as for surgery, most commonly using an iodine preparation such as "Betadine".
The mare is preferably secured in breeding stocks, and her tail is wrapped and deflected to one side where it should remain throughout the whole insemination process to avoid contamination of the scrubbed area.
Using a sterile lubricated gloved arm (the glove having been reversed to ensure maximum cleanliness), the inseminator will introduce his arm into the mare's vagina, palpate the cervix, which should be found on the bottom (ventral) surface of the head-ward (cranial) portion of the vagina.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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