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Encyclopedia > Artificial heart
An AbioCor artificial heart

An artificial heart is a prosthetic device that is implanted into the body to replace the biological heart. It is distinct from a cardiopulmonary bypass machine (CPB), which is an external device used to provide the functions of both the heart and the lungs. The CPB oxygenates the blood, so does not need to be connected to both blood circuits. Also, a CPB is suitable only for a few hours use, while artificial hearts have been used for periods longer than a year (as of 2007). Image File history File links Dn966-1_200. ... Image File history File links Dn966-1_200. ... AbioCor is an artificial heart developed by the Massachusetts-based company AbioMed. ... Barney Ivan S. Clark (born 25 June 1993 in Hackney, London) is an English actor. ... A United States Army soldier plays table football with two prosthetic arms Jon Comer, professional skateboarder with a prosthetic leg. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... A Heart-Lung Machine (upper right) in a Coronary Artery Bypass surgery (CABG) Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a technique that temporarily takes over the function of the heart and lungs during surgery. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Contents

Artificial Heart Important Distinction

Total Artificial Heart (TAH) implantation involves the removal of the native heart. It is a surgical procedure similar to heart transplantation with a human donor heart.
The cardiac (heart) assist devices differ in that the patient’s heart is not removed during implantation. Assist devices may include either a Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) or a Right Ventricular Assist Device (RVAD) or both. As opposed to TAH implantation, the assist device serves to provide only a part of the total cardiac output of the patient’s heart.


Origins

A synthetic replacement for the heart remains one of the long-sought holy grails of modern medicine. The obvious benefit of a functional artificial heart would be to lower the need for heart transplants, because the demand for donor hearts (as it is for all organs) always greatly exceeds supply. For other uses, see Holy Grail (disambiguation). ...


Although the heart is conceptually simple (basically a muscle that functions as a pump), it embodies subtleties that defy straightforward emulation with synthetic materials and power supplies. Consequences of these issues include severe foreign-body rejection and external batteries that limit patient mobility. These complications limited the lifespan of early human recipients to hours or days. A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... Transplant rejection occurs when the immune system of the recipient of a transplant attacks the transplanted organ or tissue. ...


Early designs

A heart-lung machine was used in 1953 during the first successful open heart surgery. Dr. John Heysham Gibbon performed the operation and developed the heart-lung substitute himself. Whether this device could be considered as an artificial heart is a subject of debate. A heart-lung machine (upper right) in a coronary artery bypass surgery. ... John Heysham Gibbon Jr. ...


The scientific interest for the development of a solution for heart disease developed in different research groups worldwide.


Early designs of total artificial hearts

In Russia in 1937 V.P. Demichov implanted TAH in dogs. Motor roller types TAH (inside the chest) with the driver shaft of which carried through the sternum. In 1957 Tet Akutsu and Willem Kolff initiated their extended TAH research at the Cleveland Clinic.


In 1958 Domingo Liotta started the studies of TAH replacement at Lyon, France and in 1959-60 at the National University of Cordoba, Argentina. He presented his work at the meeting of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs meeting held in Atlantic City in March 1961. On that meeting Dr Liotta described the implantation of three types of orthotopic (inside the pericardial sac) TAH in dogs, each of which used a different source of external energy: an implantable electric motor, an implantable rotating pump with an external electric motor and a pneumatic pump.[1] [2] DOMINGO SANTO LIOTTA, MD HEART SURGEON PIONEER, FATHER OF THE ARTIFICIAL HEART EARLY LIFE Domingo Liotta born in Diamante Entre Rios Argentina, son of an italian immigrant, Nov, 29 1924. ...


Early clinical application of assisted circulation and total artificial heart

The Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) system was created by Domingo Liotta at Baylor University College of Medicine in Houston in 1962. [3] DOMINGO SANTO LIOTTA, MD HEART SURGEON PIONEER, FATHER OF THE ARTIFICIAL HEART EARLY LIFE Domingo Liotta born in Diamante Entre Rios Argentina, son of an italian immigrant, Nov, 29 1924. ...


First clinical application of an intrathoracic pump

In the evening of July 19, 1963 E. Stanley Crawford and Domingo Liotta implanted the first clinical LVAD at the Methodist Hospital in Houston, Texas in a patient who had a cardiac arrest after surgery. The patient survived for 4 days under mechanical support but didn't recover from the complications of the cardiac arrest, finally the pump was discontinued and the patient died. is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... DOMINGO SANTO LIOTTA, MD HEART SURGEON PIONEER, FATHER OF THE ARTIFICIAL HEART EARLY LIFE Domingo Liotta born in Diamante Entre Rios Argentina, son of an italian immigrant, Nov, 29 1924. ...


First clinical application of a paracorporeal pump

April 21, 1966 Dr. Michael E. DeBakey and at his right Dr. Domingo Liotta, during the clinical implantation of a Para corporeal Assisted Cardiocirculatory Device, at the Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA

In the afternoon of April 21, 1966 Michael DeBakey and Domingo Liotta implanted the first clinical LVAD in a paracorporeal position (the external pump rests at the side of the patient) at the Methodist Hospital in Houston in a patient with cardiogenic shock after heart surgery. The patient developed neurological and pulmonary complications and died after few days of LVAD mechanical support. In October 1966 Michael E. DeBakey and Domingo Liotta implanted the paracorporeal Liotta-DeBakey LVAD in a new patient who recovered well, and was discharged from hospital after 10 days of mechanical support. thus constituting the first successful use of an LVAD for postcardiotomy shock. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... DOMINGO SANTO LIOTTA, MD HEART SURGEON PIONEER, FATHER OF THE ARTIFICIAL HEART EARLY LIFE Domingo Liotta born in Diamante Entre Rios Argentina, son of an italian immigrant, Nov, 29 1924. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Michael Ellis DeBakey Michael Ellis DeBakey (born September 7, 1908, Born Michel Dabaghi (according to the American Lebanese Medical Association (ALMA). ...


First clinical implantation of a total artificial heart

In the afternoon of April 4, 1969 Denton A. Cooley and Domingo Liotta replaced a dying man’s heart with a mechanical heart inside the chest at the Texas Heart Institute in Houston as a bridge for a transplant. The patient woke up and recovered well. After 64 hours the pneumatic powered artificial heart was removed and replaced by a donor heart. However, thirty-two hours after transplantation the patient died of what was later proved to be an acute pulmonary infection, extended to both lungs, caused by fungi, most likely caused by an immunosuppressive drugs complication. [4] is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Denton Cooley Denton A. Cooley (born August 22, 1920) is a pioneering American heart surgeon. ... DOMINGO SANTO LIOTTA, MD HEART SURGEON PIONEER, FATHER OF THE ARTIFICIAL HEART EARLY LIFE Domingo Liotta born in Diamante Entre Rios Argentina, son of an italian immigrant, Nov, 29 1924. ...

Historical Operation, the first in medical history. Total heart Replacement with an Artificial Heart (orthotopic position, inside the pericardial sac). On the left, Dr. Liotta; in the center of the picture, the empty pericardial sac of the patient, Mr. H. Karp. On the right, the hands of Dr. Cooley holding Mr. Karp’s heart and the artificial heart just before implantation. Texas Heart Institute, Houston (April 4, 1969)Corner picture: Dr. Cooley is holding both the removed artificial heart and the donor heart. (April 7, 1969).
Dr. Liotta is talking to Mr. Karp and Dr. Cooley is observing (April 5, 1969)

The original prototype of Liotta-Cooley artificial heart used in this historic operation is prominently displayed in The Smithsonian Museum Treasures of American Historyin Washington,DC. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...


The first patented artificial heart was invented by Paul Winchell in 1963[dubious ]. Winchell subsequently assigned the patent to the University of Utah, where Robert Jarvik ultimately used it as the model for his Jarvik-7. Jarvik's designs improved the device, but his patients succumbed after brief trials. His first Jarvik-7 patient, 61-year-old retired dentist Barney Clark, survived for 112 days after it was implanted at the University of Utah on December 2, 1982. One of the innovations of the Jarvik-7 was the inner coating of rough material, developed by David Gernes. This coating helped the blood to clot and coat the inside of the device, enabling a more natural blood flow. Paul Winchell (December 21, 1922 – June 24, 2005), born Pinkus Wilchinski (the family later shortened it to Wilchin), was an American ventriloquist and voice actor from New York City whose career flourished in the 1950s and 1960s. ... The University of Utah (also The U or the U of U or the UU), located in Salt Lake City, is the flagship public research university in the state of Utah, and one of 10 institutions that make up the Utah System of Higher Education. ... Robert Koffler Jarvik (born 11 May 1946) is an American scientist and physician known for his role in developing the Jarvik-7 artificial heart. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


After about 90 people received the Jarvik device, the implantation of artificial hearts was banned for permanent use in patients with heart failure, because most of the recipients could not live more than half a year. However, it is used temporarily for some heart transplantation candidates who cannot find a natural heart immediately but urgently need an efficiently working heart.


Hiroaki Harasaki of the Cleveland Clinic developed two important improvements for the artificial heart and projected future artificial organs. The two patented inventions solved major obstacles for any fully implanted artificial organs and materials. The first was a non-clotting surface material which significantly reduces the risk of rejection of the organ by the patient's immune system. The second development, which required the collaboration of many disciplines, was an implantable power source which does not create tissue-damaging heat. Cleveland Clinic is a multispecialty academic medical center located in Cleveland, Ohio. ...


Recent developments

On July 2, 2001, Robert Tools received the AbioCor Implantable Replacement Heart produced by the AbioMed company of Danvers, Massachusetts. It was the first completely self-contained artificial heart transplant. The surgery was done by University of Louisville doctors at Jewish Hospital in Louisville, Kentucky. Tom Christerson survived for 17 months after another AbioCor transplant. On September 6, 2006 the AbioCor device became the first fully implantable artificial heart to be approved under 'Humanitarian Use Device' rules.[5] is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Robert Tools (July 31, 1942 - November 30, 2001), was the worlds first recipient of a self contained artificial heart Categories: Medicine stubs ... AbioCor is an artificial heart developed by the Massachusetts-based company AbioMed. ... AbioMed is a Danvers, Massachusetts-based company that builds the AbioCor Artificial Heart, the first fully implanted device of its kind. ... Seal of Danvers, MA Danvers, a town located in Essex County, Massachusetts was formerly named Salem Village. ... The University of Louisville (also known as U of L) is a public, state-supported university located in Louisville, Kentucky, United States. ... Louisville redirects here. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The 'CardioWest' temporary Total Artificial Heart (TAH‑t) was developed from the Jarvik-7 by University of Arizona researchers and approved for use in 2004.[6] It is the first implantable artificial heart to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and has also been approved by the CE. The TAH-t is used only in patients with end stage biventricular failure as a way to improve life expectancy while they are waiting for a heart transplant. In a pivotal clinical study, these patients were successfully transplanted 79% of the time;[7], One-year and five-year survival rates after heart transplant among these patients were 86 and 64 percent. The longest TAH‑t implantation so far went 620 days (20.4 months).[8] There are several medical centers where this device can be implanted: The University of Arizona (UA or U of A) is a land-grant and space-grant public institution of higher education and research located in Tucson, Arizona, United States. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... The constructional details of CE mark The CE mark (officially CE marking) is a mandatory conformity mark on many products placed on the single market in the European Economic Area (EEA). ...


United States: [9]


- University Medical Center (Tucson, AZ) [1]


- Cleveland Clinic (Cleveland, OH) [2]


- Virginia Commonwealth University Health System (Richmond, VA) [3]


- Aurora St. Luke's (Milwaukee, WI) [4]


- University of Michigan Health System (Ann Arbor, MI) [5]


- Penn State Hershey Medical Center (Hershey, PA) [6]


- Ohio State University Medical Center (Columbus, OH) [7]


- Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, PA) [8]


- Barnes Jewish Hospital (St. Louis, MO) [9]


- University of Rochester Medical Center (Rochester, NY) [10]


Canada:


- Montreal Heart Institute (Quebec, Canada) [11]


Europe:


- Groupe Hospitalier La Pitié-Salpêtrière (Paris, France) [12]


- Hôpital Guillaume et René Laennec (Nantes, France) [13]


- Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin / German Heart Institute Berlin (Berlin, Germany) [14]


- Herz-und Diabeteszentrum Nordrhein Westfalen / Heart and Diabetes Center (Bad Oeynhausen, Germany) [15]


- Herzzentrum Leipzig GmbH Universitaetsklinik (Leipzig, Germany) [16]


- Universitäts Klinikum Freiburg (Freiburg, Germany) [17]


- Universitätsklinikum Münster (Munster, Germany) [18]


- Herzzentrum Köln (Cologne, Germany) [19]


- University Hospital Munich (Munich, Germany) [20]


- Friedrich-Alexander University Hospital (Nuremberg, Germany) [21] htpp://artificial hert


In August 2006, an artificial heart was implanted into a 15-year old girl at the Stollery Children's Hospital in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It was intended to act as a temporary fixture until a donor heart could be found. Instead, the artificial heart (called a Berlin Heart) allowed for natural processes to occur and her heart healed on its own. After 146 days the Berlin Heart was removed and the girl's heart was able to function properly on its own.[10]. August 2006 is the eighth month of that year, and has yet to occur. ... For other places with the same name, see Edmonton (disambiguation). ... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [Province]) Area Ranked...


With increased understanding of the heart and continuing improvements in prosthetics engineering, computer science, electronics, battery technology, and fuel cells, a practical artificial heart may be a reality in the 21st century. A United States soldier demonstrates Foosball with two prosthetic limbs In medicine, a prosthesis is an artificial extension that replaces a missing part of the body. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... Symbols representing a single Cell (top) and Battery (bottom), used in circuit diagrams. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... 20XX redirects here. ...


Heart assist devices

Patients who have some remaining heart function but who can no longer live normally may be candidates for ventricular assist devices which do not replace the heart, but boost its output. The first heart assist device was FDA approved in 1994, and two more received approval in 1998.[11] While the original assist devices emulated the pulsating heart newer versions, such as the Heartmate II,[12] developed by the Texas Heart Institute of Houston, Texas, provide continuous flow. These pumps (which may be cetrifugal or axial flow) are smaller and potentially more durable and long-lasting than the current generation of total heart replacement pumps. Several continuous flow ventricular assist devices have been approved for use in the European Union and as at August 2007 were undergoing clinical trials for FDA approval. A Ventricular assist device, or VAD, is mechanical device that is used to partially or completely replace the function of a failing heart. ... Houston redirects here. ...


In fiction

The earliest example of a fictional artificial heart is the French pulp hero the Nyctalope. Pulp magazines, often called simply the pulps, were inexpensive text fiction magazines widely published in the 1920s through the 1950s. ... Le Nyctalope is the name of a lesser known fictional superhero who appears in a book series of novels written by French writer Jean de La Hire, a prolific author of popular adventure series, many of which include science fiction elements. ...


In the fictional Star Trek universe, Captain Jean-Luc Picard had an artificial heart implanted in 2327, which was later replaced. A power surge from it almost killed him in 2369. Joseph Sisko, father of Benjamin Sisko, had several artificial organs, including a new aorta he received in 2372. The current Star Trek franchise logo Star Trek is an American science fiction entertainment series and media franchise. ... Jean-Luc Picard is a fictional human Star Trek character portrayed by actor Patrick Stewart. ... Benjamin Lafayette Sisko, played by Avery Brooks, is the main character of the television series Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. ... The aorta (generally pronounced [eɪˈɔːtə] or ay-orta) is the largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... (Redirected from 2372) (23rd century - 24th century - 25th century - more centuries) The 24th century (Gregorian Calendar) comprises the years 2301-2400. ...


The British science fiction series Space: 1999 had a character, Victor Bergman (portrayed by Barry Morse), with an artificial heart. He was able to modify its rate of operation with a wrist-worn device. Left to right: Barbara Bain, Catherine Schell and Martin Landau from Space:1999s second season. ... Barry Morse as Victor Bergman Space: 1999 Doctor Victor Bergman is the name of a recurring character on the UK science fiction television series Space: 1999. ... Barry Morse in Space: 1999, 1975 Barry Morse (born June 10, 1918, Shoreditch) is an English actor best known for a number of his television roles. ...


The novels of Philip K. Dick feature the use of 'artiforgs' or artificial organs. Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982) was an American writer, mostly known for his works of science fiction. ...


In the 1981 movie Threshold, it is stated from IMDB, that "The celebrated heart surgeon Dr. Vrain supports the research of the offbeat scientist Aldo Gehring, who is inventing an artificial heart. Dr. Vrain performs the first artificial human heart transplant against the advice of the Ethics Committee." This movie, which stars Donald Sutherland and Mare Winningham, is a study in artificial heart transplant, though it is fictional. The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) [1] is an online database of information about actors, movies, television shows, television stars and video games. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mary Megan Winningham (born May 16, 1959) is an American film and television actress. ...


The German heavy metal band Accept wrote about artificial hearts in their album "Metal Heart" (1985). Accept was a German heavy metal band from the town of Solingen, originally assembled in the early 1970s by Udo Dirkschneider. ... For the song Metal Heart by Cat Power, see Moon Pix Metal Heart is an 1985 release by German Heavy Metal band Accept. ...


In the 1987 movie Robocop, there is a commercial for an artificial heart clinic called "The Family Heart Center" where surgeons operate on persons and implant artificial hearts from "the complete line of hearts by Jensen and Yamaha," encouraging its customers "You pick the heart!" These hearts come with extended warranties, financing, and qualify for "health tax credit." RoboCop is a 1987 science-fiction, action movie and satire of business-driven capitalism, directed by Paul Verhoeven. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ...


The computer game Syndicate (by Bullfrog) features humans agents the player can modify bionically, including replacing the heart with more and more advanced technology. Syndicate is a real-time strategy gaame from Bullfrog Productions created in 1993 by famous game designer, Peter Molyneux. ...


References

  1. ^ Artificial Heart in the chest: Preliminary report. Trans.Amer. Soc. Inter. Organs, 1961,7:318
  2. ^ Ablation experimentale et replacement du coeur par un coer artificial intra-thoracique. Lyon Cirurgical,1961, 57:704
  3. ^ Prolonged Assisted circulation after cardiac or aortic surgery. Prolonged partial left ventricular bypass by means of intracorporeal circulation. This paper was finalist in: The Young Investigators Award Contest of the American College of Cardiology. Denver, May 1962 Am.J. Cardiol. 1963,12:399-404
  4. ^ Orthotopic cardiac prosthesis for two-staged cardiac replacement. Am J Cardio 1969;24:723-30.
  5. ^ FDA Approves First Totally Implanted Permanent Artificial Heart for Humanitarian Uses at FDA.gov
  6. ^ Home Page at CardioWest
  7. ^ Cardiac replacement with a total artificial heart as a bridge to transplantation at the National Institutes of Health
  8. ^ Current status of the total artificial heart at Elsevier.com
  9. ^ SynCardia Systems, Inc. (2007-01-18). CardioWest temporary Total Artificial Heart. Press release. Retrieved on 2007-04-26.
  10. ^ Capital Health: One year later: Berlin Heart bridges patient back to health
  11. ^ FDA APPROVES TWO PORTABLE HEART-ASSIST DEVICES at FDA.gov
  12. ^ An Artificial Heart That Doesn't Beat at TechnologyReview.com

George B. Griffenhagen and Calvin H. Hughes. The History of the Mechanical Heart. Smithsonian Report for 1955, (Pub. 4241): 339-356, 1956. Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Artificial heart - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (591 words)
An artificial heart is a prosthetic device that is implanted into the body to replace the original biological heart.
Although the heart is conceptually a simple organ (basically a muscle that functions as a pump), it embodies complex subtleties that defy straightforward emulation using synthetic materials and power supplies.
The obvious benefit of a functional artificial heart would be to lower the need for heart transplants, because the demand for donor hearts (as it is for all organs) always greatly exceeds supply.
Artificial Heart (583 words)
When designing an artificial heart, many things need to be taken into consideration, both before and after the implantation to keep the heart functioning at optimal level without hurting the body.
A good size (close to the size of a normal heart; the abiocor artificial heart has a weight of 2 pounds) and the way it is positioned into the chest will promote comfort for the patient and also decrease the risk for infections.
There are many materials artificial hearts are made of that are non-hazardous to the rest of the body (plyurethanes, polycarbonate, polypropylene, Dacron, silastic, titanium, stainless steel, marine aluminum, satellite and pyrolytic carbon).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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