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Encyclopedia > Arthur Sullivan
Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan
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Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan

Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan (May 13, 1842November 22, 1900) was an English composer best known for his operatic collaborations with librettist W. S. Gilbert. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (134th in leap years). ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday. ... Comic opera is a subcategory of opera, and denotes a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature. ... A libretto is the complete body of words used in an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, sacred or secular oratorio and cantata, musical, and ballet. ... Sir William Schwenck Gilbert (November 18, 1836 – May 29, 1911) was an English dramatist and librettist best known for his operatic collaborations with the composer Sir Arthur Sullivan. ...

Contents


Life and Career

Memorial To Sir Arthur Sullivan Victoria Embankment Gardens London
Memorial To Sir Arthur Sullivan Victoria Embankment Gardens London

Sullivan was born in Lambeth, now part of London. His father was a military bandmaster, and by the time Arthur had reached the age of 8, he was proficient with all the instruments in the band. Following a stay at private school in Bayswater, he was admitted to the choir of the Chapel Royal, attending its school in Cheyne Walk. While there, he began to compose anthems and songs. In 1856, he received the first Mendelssohn prize and became a student at the Royal Academy of Music until 1858. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (550x640, 326 KB) Summary Photo taken by lonpicman Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (550x640, 326 KB) Summary Photo taken by lonpicman Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Victoria Embankment, London The Victoria Embankment, previously the Thames Embankment is a road and walkway along the north bank of the River Thames in London in the cities of Westminster and London. ... Lambeth is a place in the London Borough of Lambeth. ... This article is about the British city. ... Bayswater is a place in the City of Westminster, in London. ... The Chapel Royal did not originally refer to a building but an establishment in the Royal Household. ... Cheyne Walk (pronounced Chaynee) is the most historic street in Chelsea, a bit of picturesque old London. Most of the houses were built in the early eighteenth century. ... An anthem is a choral composition to an English religious text sung in church services. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Royal Academy of Music is a music school in London, England and one of the leading music institutions in the world. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1858, Sullivan travelled to Leipzig, where he continued his studies and took up conducting. He credited this period with tremendous musical growth, and his return to London in 1862 saw the production of his incidental music to Shakespeare's The Tempest performed at the Crystal Palace. He began building a reputation as Britain's premier composer, and 1866 saw the first performance of his Symphony in E Major (Irish). Other pieces from this period include the overture In Memoriam (1866), the oratorio The Prodigal Son (1869), the well-known tune to the hymn "Onward, Christian Soldiers" (1872, lyrics by Sabine Baring-Gould) and the song "The Lost Chord" (1877, lyrics by Adelaide Anne Procter) , written in sorrow at the death of his brother Fred, who had premiered the role of The Learned Judge in Trial by Jury. 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... (help· info) [] (Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the Federal State (Bundesland) of Saxony in Germany. ... See Conductor for other possible uses of the word. ... This article is about the British city. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Tempest is the title of: A play by William Shakespeare A painting by Giorgione A Star Trek: Deep Space Nine novel It is also the nickname often attached to the Sonata No. ... The Great Exhibition in Hyde Park 1851. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... A symphony is an extended piece of music usually for orchestra and usually comprised of several movements. ... Overture is also a song by the rock band The Who Overture (French ouverture, meaning opening) in music is the instrumental introduction to a dramatic, choral or, occasionally, instrumental composition. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ... 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Reverend Sabine Baring-Gould (28 January 1834 – 2 January 1924) was an English Victorian hagiographer, antiquarian, novelist and eclectic scholar. ... 1877 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Adelaide Anne Procter, (October 30, 1825 _ February 2, 1864), English poet, was the eldest daughter of the poet Bryan Procter. ... Trial by Jury is a comic Gilbert and Sullivan operetta in one act (the only single-act Savoy Opera). ...


In 1866, he wrote his first opera, Cox and Box. Originally written for a private performance, it was later produced at the Gallery of Illustration, where it ran for some 300 performances. This led to his most famous and lucrative works as a composer for the musical theatre. In the spring of 1867, the work was reviewed by W. S. Gilbert on behalf of a humor magazine called Fun, unknowingly taking the first step in their eventual working relationship. 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Cox and Box is a comic opera written by Francis Cowley Burnand in collaboration with Arthur Sullivan, based on the farce Box and Cox, which was written by John Maddison Morton. ... Musical theatre (sometimes spelled theater) is a form of theatre combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


In the autumn of 1867, he travelled with Sir George Grove to Vienna, returning with a treasure-trove of rescued Schubert scores. 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Sir George Grove (August 13, 1820 - May 28, 1900) was an English writer on music, immortalised in the title of Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians. ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian: Beč, Czech: Vídeň, Hungarian: Bécs, Romanian: Viena, Romani: Bech or Vidnya, Russian: Вена, Slovak: Viedeň, Slovenian: Dunaj) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Franz Schubert. ...


In 1871, John Hollingshead commissioned Sullivan to work with Gilbert to create the burlesque Thespis for the Gaiety Theatre. The show was successful in the context that it was conceived specifically as a Christmas entertainment and as such ran through to Easter 1872. Plans to revise and revive the piece in 1876 were abandoned when Richard D'Oyly Carte's backers demanded a new show for their money and not a revival. The score was subsequently lost, though one song, Little Maid of Arcadee, was published by Cramer in 1872; a chorus, Climbing over rocky mountain, was later re-used in The Pirates of Penzance; and the second-act ballet was recovered in 1990 by Sullivan scholars Selwyn Tillett and Roderick Spencer. 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Photo of the Burlesque Troupe, Chitty Chitty, Bang Bang Burlesque was originally a form of art that mocked by imitation, referring to everything from comic sketches to dance routines and usually lampooning the social attitudes of the upper classes. ... Thespis, or The Gods Grown Old, was the first collaboration between William S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan. ... 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Richard DOyly Carte (May 3, 1844 – April 3, 1901) was a London theatrical impresario during the latter half of the nineteenth century. ... A revival is a restaging of a former hit play at a later date. ... 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Pirates of Penzance, or The Slave of Duty, is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert. ...


Gilbert and Sullivan's collaboration continued in 1875, when Richard D'Oyly Carte commissioned them to write a one-act piece, Trial by Jury. Its success was so great that the three men formed an often turbulent partnership which lasted for twenty years and thirteen operettas. Trial was followed in 1877 by The Sorcerer, and in 1878 by their greatest success so far, H.M.S. Pinafore. This last was much pirated in America, and in 1879, Gilbert and Sullivan crossed the Atlantic to protect their copyrights, producing The Pirates of Penzance in New York. Playwright/lyricist Sir W. S. Gilbert (1836-1911) and composer Sir Arthur Sullivan (1842-1900) defined operettas or comic operas in Victorian England with a series of their internationally successful and timeless works known as the Savoy Operas. ... 1875 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Richard DOyly Carte (May 3, 1844 – April 3, 1901) was a London theatrical impresario during the latter half of the nineteenth century. ... Trial by Jury is a comic Gilbert and Sullivan operetta in one act (the only single-act Savoy Opera). ... 1877 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Sorcerer The Sorcerer is the earliest surviving two-act Gilbert and Sullivan operetta. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... H.M.S. Pinafore, or The Lass that Loved a Sailor, is a comic Gilbert and Sullivan operetta in two acts, with music by composer Arthur S. Sullivan and libretto by William S. Gilbert. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Pirates of Penzance, or The Slave of Duty, is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert. ... Nickname: The Big Apple, The Capital of the World Official website: City of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area Total 468. ...


The next Gilbert and Sullivan operetta, Patience, opened in the Opera Comique, London, in 1881 and was transferred to the specially built Savoy Theatre later the same year. All the duo's subsequent collaborations, which include Iolanthe (1882), The Mikado (1885) and The Yeomen of the Guard (1888), opened there, and the genre of comic opera that they created is sometimes known as "Savoy Opera" as a result. The final two Savoy Operas were Utopia Limited and The Grand Duke. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Patience (operetta) This article refers to the operetta. ... The Opéra-Comique is an opera house in Paris. ... 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Savoy Theatre London, December 2003 The Savoy Theatre, which opened on 10 October 1881, was built by Richard DOyly Carte (1844 - 1901) on the site of the old Savoy Palace in London as a showcase for the works of Gilbert and Sullivan, which became known as the Savoy Operas... Iolanthe, or The Peer and the Peri, is a comic Gilbert and Sullivan operetta in two acts. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Mikado, or The Town of Titipu, is a comic Gilbert and Sullivan operetta in two acts. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Yeomen of the Guard, or The Merryman and his Maid, is the eleventh of Gilbert and Sullivans operettas. ... 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Savoy Operas are a series of operettas written by Gilbert and Sullivan. ... Utopia, Limited or, The Flowers of Progress, is the second-to-last collaboration between composer Arthur Sullivan and librettist/satirist W.S. Gilbert. ... The Grand Duke, or The Statutory Duel, was the final operetta written by William S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan. ...


Sullivan's orchestra was typical of any other pit orchestra of that era: 2 flutes (+piccolo), oboe, 2 clarinets, bassoon, 2 horns, 2 cornets, 2 trombones, timpani, percussion, and strings. By the time he got to composing Yeomen, Sullivan had argued hard for an increase in the pit orchestra's size. This was successful and Yeomen, Gondoliers, Utopia and Grand Duke all included the usual plus 2nd bassoon + bass trombone. Sullivan used horns crooked in many different pitches, and treated them rather like Brahms, with little chromatic language and economically. Sullivan's orchestration was delicate and concise (though never boring). Iolanthe has some interesting quotes of a Bach fugue (played by clarinets and bassoon) in one of the Lord Chancellor's patter songs. The Flute (Ger. ... A Yamaha piccolo. ... Modern Oboe The oboe is a double reed musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... A Fox Instruments bassoon. ... The horn is a brass instrument consisting of tubing wrapped into a coiled form. ... Bâ™­ cornet The cornet is a brass instrument that closely resembles the trumpet. ... A lip-reed aerophone with a predominantly cylindrical bore, the trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... Percussion instruments are played by being struck, shaken, rubbed or scraped. ... Johannes Brahms. ... Bach redirects here. ... In music, a fugue is a type of piece written for counterpoint for several independent musical voices. ... The patter song is a staple of comic opera: a solo, typically for bass or baritone, typically delivered very quickly to a kind of sing-song tune. ...


In 1883, Sullivan was knighted by Queen Victoria. Contemporary critics felt that this should put an end to his career as an operetta composer, believing that a musical knight should not stoop below the level of oratorio or "grand opera". Sullivan too, despite the financial security the Savoy operettas gave him, increasingly viewed his work with Gilbert as unimportant and beneath his skills. Furthermore, he was unhappy that he was having to tone down his music to ensure that Gilbert's words could be heard. In 1886, Sullivan went some way to appeasing his critics by the production of the cantata The Golden Legend, which he and most of his contemporaries considered his masterpiece. Gilbert wrote the more serious The Yeomen of the Guard to satisfy Sullivan's urge for grand opera, and, while Sullivan was pacified for a time, in 1890, he broke away acrimoniously from Gilbert following the production of The Gondoliers and, with D'Oyly Carte, produced his only grand opera, Ivanhoe, at the new English Opera House. Subsequently however he returned to work with Gilbert on two more operettas and wrote three more with other collaborators. 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals personal bravery, achievement or service to the United Kingdom. ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May, 1819 – 22 January, 1901) was the eminent Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June, 1837, and Empress of India from 1 January, 1877, until her death in 1901. ... An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. ... Grand Opera is a style of opera mainly characterized by many features on a grandiose scale. ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... Cantata (Italian for a song or story set to music), a vocal composition accompanied by instruments and generally containing more than one movement. ... The Yeomen of the Guard, or The Merryman and his Maid, is the eleventh of Gilbert and Sullivans operettas. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... The Gondoliers is a Gilbert and Sullivan operetta written by William S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan. ...


Sullivan, who had suffered from ill health throughout his life, succumbed to pneumonia at the age of 58 at his house in London on November 22, 1900. A monument in his memory was erected in the Victoria Embankment Gardens (London) and is inscribed with W. S. Gilbert's words from The Yeomen of the Guard "Is life a boon? If so, it must befall that Death, whene'er he call, must call too soon". He wished to be buried in Bromley cemetery with his parents and brother, but by order of the Queen was buried in St Paul's Cathedral. Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the microscopic, air-filled sacs (alveoli) responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ... This article is about the British city. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday. ... The Yeomen of the Guard, or The Merryman and his Maid, is the eleventh of Gilbert and Sullivans operettas. ...


Overtures

The overtures from Sullivan's comic operas remain popular, and there are many recordings of them. Most of them are structured as a potpourri of tunes from the operas. They are generally well orchestrated, but not all of them were composed by Sullivan. However, even those delegated to his assistants were probably based on an outline he provided, and in many cases incorporated his suggestions or corrections. One can certainly presume that he approved of them, since he invariably conducted on opening night.


Those Sullivan wrote himself include Cox and Box, Thespis, Iolanthe, Princess Ida, The Yeomen of the Guard, The Gondoliers, and The Grand Duke. Sullivan's authorship of the overture to Utopia Limited cannot be verified with certainty, as his autograph score is now lost, but it is likely attributable to him, as it consists of only a few bars of introduction, followed by a straight copy of music heard elsewhere in the opera (the Drawing Room scene). Thespis is now lost, but there is no doubt that it had an overture, and that Sullivan wrote it. Cox and Box is a comic opera written by Francis Cowley Burnand in collaboration with Arthur Sullivan, based on the farce Box and Cox, which was written by John Maddison Morton. ... Thespis of Icaria (6th century BCE) is claimed to be the first person ever to appear on stage as an actor in a play although the reality is undoubtedly more complex. ... Iolanthe, or The Peer and the Peri, is a comic Gilbert and Sullivan operetta in two acts. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Princess Ida Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Princess (Tennyson) Princess Ida, or Castle Adamant, is the eighth operetta written by Gilbert and Sullivan. ... The Yeomen of the Guard, or The Merryman and his Maid, is the eleventh of Gilbert and Sullivans operettas. ... The Gondoliers is a Gilbert and Sullivan operetta written by William S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan. ... The Grand Duke, or The Statutory Duel, was the final operetta written by William S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan. ... Utopia, Limited or, The Flowers of Progress, is the second-to-last collaboration between composer Arthur Sullivan and librettist/satirist W.S. Gilbert. ... Thespis of Icaria (6th century BCE) is claimed to be the first person ever to appear on stage as an actor in a play although the reality is undoubtedly more complex. ...


Of the remaining overtures, H.M.S. Pinafore and The Pirates of Penzance are by Alfred Cellier; The Sorcerer, The Mikado and Ruddigore are by Hamilton Clarke; and Patience is by Eugene D'Albert. H.M.S. Pinafore, or The Lass that Loved a Sailor, is a comic Gilbert and Sullivan operetta in two acts, with music by composer Arthur S. Sullivan and libretto by William S. Gilbert. ... The Pirates of Penzance, or The Slave of Duty, is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Sorcerer The Sorcerer is the earliest surviving two-act Gilbert and Sullivan operetta. ... The Mikado, or The Town of Titipu, is a comic Gilbert and Sullivan operetta in two acts. ... Ruddigore, or The Witchs Curse, is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Patience Patience is the capacity to endure hardship, difficulty, or inconvenience without complaint. ...


Most of the overtures are in three sections: a lively introduction, a slow middle section, and a concluding allegro in sonata form, with two subjects, a brief development, a recapitulation and a coda. However, Sullivan himself didn't always follow this pattern. The overtures to Princess Ida and The Gondoliers, for instance, have only an opening fast section and a concluding slow section. The overture to Utopia Limited is dominated by a slow section, with only a very brief original passage introducing it. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Princess Ida Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Princess (Tennyson) Princess Ida, or Castle Adamant, is the eighth operetta written by Gilbert and Sullivan. ... The Gondoliers is a Gilbert and Sullivan operetta written by William S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan. ... Utopia, Limited or, The Flowers of Progress, is the second-to-last collaboration between composer Arthur Sullivan and librettist/satirist W.S. Gilbert. ...


In the 1920s, the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company commissioned its musical director at the time, Geoffrey Toye, to write new overtures for Ruddigore and The Pirates of Penzance. Toye's Ruddigore overture entered the general repertory, and today is more often heard than the original overture by Sullivan assistant Hamilton Clarke. (Toye's Pirates overture did not last long, and is now lost.) The DOyly Carte Opera Company staged performances of Gilbert and Sullivans Savoy operas in the UK, Europe, America, South Africa and elsewhere from the nineteenth century to the twenty first. ... Ruddigore, or The Witchs Curse, is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert. ... The Pirates of Penzance, or The Slave of Duty, is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert. ... Ruddigore, or The Witchs Curse, is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert. ...


Sir Malcolm Sargent devised a new ending for the overture to The Gondoliers, adding the "cachucha" from the second act of the opera. This gave the Gondoliers overture the familiar fast-slow-fast pattern of most of the rest of the Savoy Opera overtures, and this version has competed for popularity with Sullivan's original version. Sir (Harold) Malcolm (Watts) Sargent (April 29, 1895 – October 3, 1967) was a British conductor, organist and composer. ... The Gondoliers is a Gilbert and Sullivan operetta written by William S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan. ... The Savoy Operas are a series of operettas written by Gilbert and Sullivan. ...


Gilbert and Sullivan inspired Ballet

Pineapple Poll is a comic ballet, with a scenario and choreography by John Cranko, and a score by Charles Mackerras arranged from the music of Sullivan. Cranko based the scenario on one of Gilbert's Bab Ballads. Mackerras used music from most of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas, from Sullivan's overture "Di Ballo", and from the comic opera Cox and Box (which Sullivan wrote with librettist F. C. Burnand). Gervase Hughes said of it, in his 1959 book The Music of Arthur Sullivan, "Although the orchestration is disfigured by over-reliance on glissando harps and succulent counter-subjects for the horns, much of the music comes over well in its new guise, and the combination of a melody from the opening chorus of Patience with the second act quintet from The Gondoliers is quite brilliant" (Hughes 1959, p. 161). Pineapple Poll is a Gilbert and Sullivan inspired comic ballet, which was created by John Cranko in collaboration with Sir Charles Mackerras. ... Comic ballet is a subcategory of ballet, and denotes a dramatic work of a light or comic nature. ... John Cyril Cranko, (August 15, 1927 – June 26, 1973), was a choreographer with the Sadlers Wells Ballet (which later became the Royal Ballet). ... Sir Alan Charles Maclaurin Mackerras, AC, CH, CBE (born November 17, 1925) is an Australian conductor. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Comic opera is a subcategory of opera, and denotes a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature. ... Cox and Box is a comic opera written by Francis Cowley Burnand in collaboration with Arthur Sullivan, based on the farce Box and Cox, which was written by John Maddison Morton. ... From The History of Punch Sir Francis Cowley Burnand (November 29, 1836 - April 21, 1917) was an editor of Punch, taking over from Tom Taylor in 1880, until 1906, when he was succeeded by Sir Owen Seaman. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Patience Patience is the capacity to endure hardship, difficulty, or inconvenience without complaint. ... The Gondoliers is a Gilbert and Sullivan operetta written by William S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan. ...


Reputation and criticism

Early career

When the young Arthur Sullivan returned to England after his studies in Leipzig, critics were struck by his potential. His incidental music to The Tempest received an acclaimed premiere at the Crystal Palace on April 5, 1862. The Athenaeum wrote: The Great Exhibition in Hyde Park 1851. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

It was one of those events which mark an epoch in a man's life; and, what is of more universal consequence, it may mark an epoch in English music, or we shall be greatly disappointed. Years on years have elapsed since we have heard a work by so young an artist so full of promise, so full of fancy, showing so much conscientiousness, so much skill, and so few references to any model elect. (Quoted in Jacobs 1992, p. 28).

His Symphony in E of 1866 won similarly fulsome praise:

The symphony...is not only by far the most noticeable composition that has proceeded from Mr. Sullivan's pen, but the best musical work, if judged only by the largeness of its form and the number of beautiful thoughts it contains, for a long time produced by any English composer.... (The Times, quoted in Jacobs, p. 42).

But as Jacobs notes, "The first rapturous outburst of enthusiasm for Sullivan as an orchestral composer did not last." A comment that may be taken as typical of those that would follow the composer throughout his career was that "Sullivan's unquestionable talent should make him doubly careful not to mistake popular applause for artistic appreciation" (Jacobs, p. 49).


Sullivan was also occasionally cited for a lack of diligence. For instance, of his early oratorio, The Prodigal Son, his teacher, John Goss, wrote:

All you have done is most masterly – Your orchestration superb, & your effects many of them original & first-rate.... Some day you will I hope try another oratorio, putting out all your strength, but not the strength of a few weeks or months, whatever your immediate friends may say...only don't do anything so pretentious as an oratorio or even a Symphony without all your power, which seldom comes in one fit. (Letter of December 22, 1869, quoted in Allen 1975a, p. 32).

December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...

The transition to opera

By the mid-1870s, Sullivan had turned his attention mainly to works for the theatre, for which he was generally admired. For instance, after the first performance of Trial by Jury (1875), the Times said that "It seems, as in the great Wagnerian operas, as though poem and music had proceeded simultaneously from one and the same brain" (quoted in Allen 1975b, p. 30). But by the time The Sorcerer appeared, there were charges that Sullivan was wasting his talents in comic opera:

There is nothing whatever in Mr. Sullivan's score which any theatrical conductor engaged at a few pounds a week could not have written equally well.... We trust Mr. Sullivan is more proud of it than we can pretend to be. But we must confess to a sense of disappointment at the downard art course Mr. Sullivan appears to be now drifting into.... [He] has all the ability to make him a great composer, but he wilfully throws his opportunity away. A giant may play at times, but Mr. Sullivan is always playing.... He possesses all the natural ability to have given us an English opera, and, instead, he affords us a little more-or-less excellent fooling. (Figaro, quoted in Allen 1975b, pp. 49–50).

Implicit in these comments was the view that comic opera, no matter how carefully crafted, was an intrinsically lower form of art. The Athenaeum's review of The Martyr of Antioch expressed a similar complaint:

It might be wished that in some portions Mr Sullivan had taken a loftier view of his theme, but at any rate he has written some most charming music, and orchestration equal, if not superior, to any that has ever proceeded from the pen of an English musician. And, further, it is an advantage to have the composer of HMS Pinafore occupying himself with a worthier form of art. (October 25, 1880, quoted in Jacobs, p. 149).

The operas with Gilbert continued to garner high praise. For instance, the Daily Telegraph wrote, "The composer has risen to his opportunity, and we are disposed to account Iolanthe his best effort in all the Gilbertian series" (quoted in Allen 1975b, p. 176). Similarly, the Theatre would say that "the music of Iolanthe is Dr Sullivan's chef d'oeuvre. The quality throughout is more even, and maintained at a higher standard, than in any of his earlier works.... In every respect Iolanthe sustains Dr Sullivan's reputation as the most spontaneous, fertile, and scholarly composer of comic opera this country has ever produced." (William Beatty-Kingston, Theatre, January 1, 1883, quoted in Baily 1966, p. 246). October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 67 days remaining. ... 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Knighthood and maturity

Sullivan was knighted in 1883, and serious music critics renewed the charge that the composer was squandering his talent. The Musical Review of that year wrote:

Some things that Mr Arthur Sullivan may do, Sir Arthur ought not to do. In other words, it will look rather more than odd to see announced in the papers that a new comic opera is in preparation, the book by Mr W. S. Gilbert and the music by Sir Arthur Sullivan. A musical knight can hardly write shop ballads either; he must not dare to soil his hands with anything less than an anthem or a madrigal; oratorio, in which he has so conspicuously shone, and symphony, must now be his line. Here is not only an opportunity, but a positive obligation for him to return to the sphere from which he has too long descended. (Quoted in Baily, p. 250).

In Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Sir George Grove, who was an old friend of Sullivan's, recognised the artistry in the Savoy Operas while urging the composer to bigger and better things: "Surely the time has come when so able and experienced a master of voice, orchestra, and stage effect—master, too, of so much genuine sentiment—may apply his gifts to a serious opera on some subject of abiding human or natural interest" (quoted in Baily, p. 250).


The premiere of The Golden Legend at the Leeds Festival in 1886 finally brought Sullivan the acclaim for a serious work that he had previously lacked. For instance, the critic of the Daily Telegraph wrote that "a greater, more legitimate and more undoubted triumph than that of the new cantata has not been achieved within my experience" (quoted in Jacobs, p. 247). Similarly, Louis Engel in The World wrote that it was:

one of the greatest creations we have had for many years. Original, bold, inspired, grand in conception, in execution, in treatment, it is a composition which will make an "epoch" and which will carry the name of its composer higher on the wings of fame and glory. The effect it produced at rehearsal was enormous. The effect of the public performance was unprecedented. (Quoted in Harris, p. IV).

Hopes for a new departure were evident in the Daily Telegraph's review of The Yeomen of the Guard, Sullivan's most serious opera to that point:

The accompaniments...are delightful to hear, and especially does the treatment of the woodwind compel admiring attention. Schubert himself could hardly have handled those instruments more deftly, written for them more lovingly.... We place the songs and choruses in The Yeomen of the Guard before all his previous efforts of this particular kind. Thus the music follows the book to a higher plane, and we have a genuine English opera, forerunner of many others, let us hope, and possibly significant of an advance towards a national lyric stage. (Quoted in Allen 1975b, p. 312).

The 1890s

The advance the Daily Telegraph was looking for would come with Ivanhoe (1891), which opened to largely favourable reviews, but attracted some significant negative ones. For instance, J. A. Fuller-Maitland wrote in The Times that the opera's "best portions rise so far above anything else that Sir Arthur Sullivan has given to the world, and have such force and dignity, that it is not difficult to forget the drawbacks which may be found in the want of interest in much of the choral writing, and the brevity of the concerted solo parts." (Quoted in Jacobs, p. 331).


In the 1890s, Sullivan's successes were fewer and far between. The ballet Victoria and Merrie England (1898) won praise from most critics:

Sir Arthur Sullivan's music is music for the people. There is no attempt made to force on the public the dullness of academic experience. The melodies are all as fresh as last year's wine, and as exhilirating as sparkling champagne. There is not one tune which tires the hearing, and in the matter of orchestration our only humorous has let himself run riot, not being handicapped with libretto, and the gain is enormous.... All through we have orchestration of infinite delicacy, tunes of alarming simplicity, but never a tinge of vulgarity, and a total absence of the cymbal-brassy combination which some ballets never do without. (Quoted in Tillett 1998, p. 26).

After The Rose of Persia (1899), the Daily Telegraph said that "The musician is once again absolutely himself," while the Musical Times opined that "it is music that to hear once is to want to hear again and again" (quoted in Jacobs, p. 397).


In 1899, Sullivan composed a popular song, "The Absent-Minded Beggar," to a text by Rudyard Kipling, donating the proceeds of the sale to "the wives and children of soldiers and sailors" on active service in the Boer War. Writing for The Times, Fuller-Maitland wondered, "......how can the composer of Onward, Christian Soldiers and The Absent-Minded Beggar claim a place in the hierarchy of music among the men who would face death rather than smirch their singing-robes for the sake of fleeting popularity?" [1] But Sullivan himself asked a friend, "Did the idiot expect the words to be set in cantata form, or as a developed composition with symphonic introduction, contrapuntal treatment, etc.?" (quoted in Jacobs, p. 396).


Death and posthumous reputation

If the musical establishment never quite forgave Sullivan for condescending to write music that was both comic and popular, he was nevertheless the nation's de facto composer laureate. Gian Andrea Mazzucato would write this glowing summary of his career in The Musical Standard of December 16, 1899: December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...

As regards music, the English history of the 19th century could not record the name of a man whose 'life work' is more worthy of honour, study and admiration than the name of Sir Arthur Sullivan, whose useful activity, it may be expected, will extend considedrably into the 20th century; and it is a debatable point whether the universal history of music can point to any musical personality since the days of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven, whose influence is likely to be more lasting than the influence the great Englishman is slowly, but surely, exerting, and whose results shall be clearly seen perhaps only by our posterity. I make no doubt that when in proper course of time Sir Arthur Sullivan's life and works have become known on the continent, he will by unanimous consent be classed among the epoch-making composers, the select few whose genius and strength of will empowered them to find and found a national school of music, that is, to endow their countrymen with the undefinable yet positive means of evoking in a man's soul by the magic of sound those delicate nuances of feeling which are characteristic of the emotional power of each different race. (Quoted in the Sir Arthur Sullivan Society Journal, No. 34, Spring 1992, pp. 11-12).

Sullivan was considered the natural candidate to compose a Te Deum for the end of the Boer War, which he duly completed, but did not live to see performed. On his death, Queen Victoria insisted upon his burial in St. Paul's Cathedral, overriding his wishes to be buried with his family in Brompton Cemetery.


Over the next decade, Sullivan's reputation would sink considerably. Shortly after the composer's death, J. A. Fuller-Maitland took issue with the generally praiseworthy tone of most of the obituaries, citing the composer's failure to live up to the early praise of his Tempest music:

Among the lesser men who are still ranked with the great composers there are many who may only have reached the highest level now and then, but within whose capacity it lies to attain great heights; some may have produced work on a dead-level of mediocrity but may have risen on some special occasion to a pitch of beauty or power which would establish their claim to be numbered among the great. Is there anywhere a case quite parallel to that of Sir Arthur Sullivan, who began his career with a work which at once stamped him as a genius, and to the height of which he only rarely attained throughout life?...
Though the illustrious masters of the past never did write music as vulgar, it would have been forgiven them if they had, in virtue of the beauty and value of the great bulk of their productions. It is because such great natural gifts – gifts greater, perhaps, than fell to any English musician since the time of Purcell – were so very seldom employed in work worthy of them.... If the author of The Golden Legend, the music to The Tempest, Henry VIII and Macbeth cannot be classed with these, how can the composer of Onward Christian Soldiers and The Absent-Minded Beggar claim a place in the hierarchy of music among the men who would face death rather than smirch their singing robes for the sake of a fleeting popularity? (Eden 1992, quoting Cornhill March 1901, pp. 301, 309).

Edward Elgar, to whom Sullivan had been particularly kind, branded Fuller-Maitland's obituary "the shady side of musical criticism...that foul unforgettable episode" (quoted in Young 1971, p. 264). Sir Edward Elgar Sir Edward Elgar, 1st Baronet, OM, GCVO (2 June 1857 â€“ 23 February 1934) was an English composer. ...


In his History of Music in England (1907), Ernest Walker was even more damning of Sullivan:

After all, Sullivan is merely the idle singer of an empty evening; with all his gift for tunefulness he could never raise it to the height of a real strong melody of the kind that appeals to cultured and relatively uncultured alike as a good folk-song does – often and often on the other hand (but chiefly outside the operas) it sunk to mere vulgar catchiness. He laid the original foundations of his success on work that as a matter of fact he did extremely well; and it would have been incalculably better for the permanence of his reputation if he had realised this and set himself, with sincerity and self-criticism, to the task of becoming – as he might easily have become – a really great composer of musicianly light music. But anything like steadiness of artistic purpose was never one of his endowments, and without that a composer, whatever his technical ability may be, is easily liable, to degenerate into a mere popularity-hunting trifler. (Walker 1907, quoted in Eden 1992).

Fuller-Maitland would incorporate similar views in the second edition of Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, which he edited, while Walker's History would be re-issued in 1923 and 1956 with his earlier verdict intact. As late as 1966, Frank Howes wrote:

Outside the Savoy operas little enough of Sullivan has survived... Yet a post-mortem is a valuable form of inquest not only to ascertain the cause of death but to discover why Sullivan's music as a whole had not in it the seeds of the revival that was on the verge of taking place. The lack of sustained effort, that is artistic effort proved by vigorous self-criticism, is responsible for the impression of weakness, the streaks of poor stuff among the better metal, and the consequent general ambiguity that is left by his music. His contemporaries deprecated his addiction to high life, the turf, and an outward lack of seriousness. Without adopting the simplified morality of the women's magazines it is possible to urge that his contemporaries were really right, in that such addiction implied a fundamental lack of seriousness towards his art. (Howes 1966, quoted in Eden 1992).

Yet, there were other writers who came to Sullivan's defence. Indeed, in an entire chapter of his 1928 book Sullivan's Comic Operas titled "Mainly in Defence," Thomas F. Dunhill wrote:

It should not be necessary to defend a writer who is so firmly established in popular esteem that his best works are more widely known and more keenly appreciated over a quarter of a century after his death than they were at any period during his lifetime.
But no critical appreciation of Sullivan can be attempted to-day which does not, from the first, adopt a defensive attitude, for his music has suffered in an extraordinary degree from the vigorous attacks which have been made upon it in professional circles. These attacks have succeeded in surrouinding the composer with a kind of barricade of prejudice which must be sweat away before justice can be ddone to his genius. (Dunhill 1928, p. 13).

Gervase Hughes (1959) would pick up the trail where Dunhill left off:

Dunhill's achievement was that of a pioneer, a preliminary skirmish in a campaign whose advance has yet to be implemented. Today there may be few musicians for whom — as for Ernest Walker — Sullivan is merely 'the idle singer of an empty evening'; there are many who, while acknowledging his great gifts, tend to take them for granted.... The time is surely ripe for a comprehensive study of his music as a whole which, while recognising that the operettas 'for his chief title to fame' will not leave the rest out of account, and while taking note of his weaknesses (which are many) and not hesitating to castigate his lapses from good taste (which were comparatively rare) will attempt to view them in perspective against the wider background of his sound musicianship. (Hughes 1959, p. 6).

Recent views

In recent years, Sullivan's work outside of the Savoy Operas has begun to be re-assessed. It has only been since the late 1960s that a quantity of his non-Savoy music has been professionally recorded. The Symphony in E had its first professional recording in 1968; his solo piano and chamber music in 1974; the cello concerto in 1986; Kenilworth in 1999; The Martyr of Antioch in 2000; The Golden Legend in 2001. In 1992 and 1993, Naxos released four discs featuring performances of Sullivan's ballet music and his incidental music to plays. Of his operas apart from Gilbert, Cox and Box (1961 and several later recordings), The Zoo (1978), The Rose of Persia (1999), and The Contrabandista (2004) have had professional recordings.


Several publishers have issued scholarly critical editions of Sullivan's works, including Ernst Eulenberg (The Gondoliers), Broude Brothers (Trial by Jury, H.M.S. Pinafore), Oxford University Press (Ruddigore), and R. Clyde (Cox and Box, Overture "In Memoriam", "Overture di Ballo", The Golden Legend).


In a 2000 article for the Musical Times, Nigel Burton wrote:

We must assert that Sullivan has no need to be 'earnest' (though he could be), for he spoke naturally to all people, for all time, of the passions, sorrows and joys which are forever rooted in the human consciousness. He believed, deeply, in the moral expressed at the close of Cherubini's Les deux journees: that the human being's prime duty in life is to serve humanity. It is his artistic consistency in this respect which obliges us to pronounce him our greatest Victorian composer. Time has now sufficiently dispersed the mists of criticism for us to be able to see the truth, to enjoy all his music, and to rejoice in the rich diversity of its panoply. Now, therefore, one hundred years after his death, let us resolve to set aside the `One-and-a-half-hurrahs' syndrome once and for all, and, in its place, raise THREE LOUD CHEERS. [2]

Works

Operas

1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... Cox and Box is a comic opera written by Francis Cowley Burnand in collaboration with Arthur Sullivan, based on the farce Box and Cox, which was written by John Maddison Morton. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Contrabandista, or The Law of the Ladrones, is a two-act comic opera by Arthur Sullivan and F. C. Burnand. ... 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Thespis of Icaria (6th century BCE) is claimed to be the first person ever to appear on stage as an actor in a play although the reality is undoubtedly more complex. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Trial by Jury is a comic Gilbert and Sullivan operetta in one act (the only single-act Savoy Opera). ... 1875 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Zoo is a Hard Rock band formed in 2002 in Louisville, Kentucky. ... 1875 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Sorcerer The Sorcerer is the earliest surviving two-act Gilbert and Sullivan operetta. ... 1877 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... H.M.S. Pinafore, or The Lass that Loved a Sailor, is a comic Gilbert and Sullivan operetta in two acts, with music by composer Arthur S. Sullivan and libretto by William S. Gilbert. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Pirates of Penzance, or The Slave of Duty, is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert. ... 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Patience (operetta) This article refers to the operetta. ... 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Iolanthe, or The Peer and the Peri, is a comic Gilbert and Sullivan operetta in two acts. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Princess Ida Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Princess (Tennyson) Princess Ida, or Castle Adamant, is the eighth operetta written by Gilbert and Sullivan. ... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Mikado, or The Town of Titipu, is a comic Gilbert and Sullivan operetta in two acts. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Ruddigore, or The Witchs Curse, is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar). ... The Yeomen of the Guard, or The Merryman and his Maid, is the eleventh of Gilbert and Sullivans operettas. ... 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Gondoliers is a Gilbert and Sullivan operetta written by William S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan. ... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Ivanhoe is a romantic opera in three acts based on the novel by Sir Walter Scott, with music by Arthur Sullivan and a libretto by Julian Sturgis. ... 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Haddon Hall is an English light opera with music by Arthur Sullivan and a libretto by Sydney Grundy (1848–1914). ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Utopia, Limited or, The Flowers of Progress, is the second-to-last collaboration between composer Arthur Sullivan and librettist/satirist W.S. Gilbert. ... 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Chieftain is a two-act comic opera by Arthur Sullivan and F. C. Burnand based on their 1867 opera, The Contrabandista. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Grand Duke, or The Statutory Duel, was the final operetta written by William S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan. ... 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Beauty Stone is an opera by Arthur Sullivan to a libretto by Arthur Wing Pinero and J. Comyns Carr. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Sir Edward German (17 February 1862 - 11 November 1936) was a musician and composer. ...

Incidental Music to Plays

The Tempest is the title of: A play by William Shakespeare A painting by Giorgione A Star Trek: Deep Space Nine novel It is also the nickname often attached to the Sonata No. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Merry Wives of Windsor is a comedy by William Shakespeare featuring the fat knight Falstaff. ... 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... 1877 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Scene from Macbeth, depicting the witches conjuring of an apparition in Act IV, Scene I. Painting by William Rimmer This article is on the play Macbeth by William Shakespeare. ... 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (August 6, 1809 - October 6, 1892) is generally regarded as one of the greatest English poets. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Ballet

  • L'Île Enchantée (1864)
  • Victoria and Merrie England (1894)

1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

Choral Works with Orchestra

  • Kenilworth (1864)
  • On Shore and Sea (1871)
  • Festival Te Deum (1872)
  • The Light of the World (1873)
  • The Martyr of Antioch (1880)
  • The Golden Legend (1886)
  • Te deum laudamus (1902; performed posthumously)

1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1873 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calaber). ... 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

Orchestral Works

  • Overture in D (1858; now lost)
  • Overture The Feast of Roses (1860; now lost)
  • Procession March (1863)
  • Princess of Wales's March (1863)
  • Symphony in E (1866)
  • Overture in C, "In Memoriam" (1866)
  • Concerto for Cello and Orchestra (1866)
  • Overture Marmion ((1867)
  • Overture Di Ballo (1870)
  • Ode for the Opening of the Colonial and Indian Exhibition (1886)
  • Ode for the Laying of the Foundation Stone of The Imperial Institute (1887)
  • Imperial March (1893)
  • "Absent-Minded Beggar" March (1899)

1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar). ... 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...

Other Works

References

  • Ainger, Michael (2002). Gilbert and Sullivan – A Dual Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Allen, Reginald; Gale R. D'Luhy (1975a). Sir Arthur Sullivan – Composer & Personage. New York: The Pierpont Morgan Library.
  • Allen, Reginald (1975b). The First Night Gilbert and Sullivan. London: Chappell & Co. Ltd.
  • Baily, Leslie (1966). The Gilbert and Sullivan Book, Third Edition, London: Spring Books.
  • Burton, Nigel (2000). See how the fates. URL accessed on 2006-04-09.
  • Dunhill, Thomas F. (1928). Sullivan's Comic Operas – A Critical Appreciation. London: Edward Arnold & Co..
  • Harris, Roger, ed. (1986). The Golden Legend. Chorleywood, Herts., UK: R. Clyde.
  • Hughes, Gervase (1959). The Music of Sir Arthur Sullivan. London: Macmillan & Co Ltd.
  • Jacobs, Arthur (1992). Arthur Sullivan – A Victorian Musican, Second Edition, Portland, OR: Amadeus Press.
  • Tillett, Selwyn (1998). The Ballets of Arthur Sullivan. Coventry, UK: Sir Arthur Sullivan Society.
  • Young, Percy M (1971). Sir Arthur Sullivan. London: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd.

2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Arthur Sullivan information - Search.com (4007 words)
Sullivan's orchestra was typical of any other pit orchestra of that era: 2 flutes (+piccolo), oboe, 2 clarinets, bassoon, 2 horns, 2 cornets, 2 trombones, timpani, percussion, and strings.
Sullivan, who had suffered from ill health throughout his life, succumbed to pneumonia at the age of 58 at his house in London on November 22 1900.
Sullivan's authorship of the overture to Utopia Limited cannot be verified with certainty, as his autograph score is now lost, but it is likely attributable to him, as it consists of only a few bars of introduction, followed by a straight copy of music heard elsewhere in the opera (the Drawing Room scene).
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