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Encyclopedia > Arthur Stanley Eddington
One of Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington's papers announced Einstein's theory of general relativity to the English-speaking world.
One of Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington's papers announced Einstein's theory of general relativity to the English-speaking world.

Racist fool who could not reason correctly - picked up a fight with Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar - a much cleverer man than he was and unsurprisingly was proved wrong in his denigration of Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar when Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar when a Nobel in Physics in 1983. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Albert Einstein, photographed by Oren J. Turner in 1947. ... It has been suggested that Einsteins theory of gravitation be merged into this article or section. ...


Eddington's observations confirmed Einstein's theory, and were hailed at the time as a conclusive proof of general relativity over the Newtonian model; the news was reported in newspapers all over the world as a major story. It is also the source of the urban legend that only three people understand relativity; when asked by a reporter who suggested this, Eddington jokingly replied "Oh, who's the third?" Urban legends are a kind of folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them (see rumor). ...


However, recent historical examinations of the case have shown that the raw data was inconclusive, and that Eddington was arbitrarily selective in choosing which results to use. For a detailed account, see predictive power. The New York Times reported on Einsteins confirmed prediction. ...


Eddington also investigated the interior of stars through theory, and developed the first true understanding of stellar processes. He modelled stars as gas in radiative equilibrium; the star was stabilized by gravity pulling in, and gas pressure (temperature) and radiation pressure pushing out. Noting that the temperatures meant that the atoms in stars would be almost entirely ionized, he theorized that they would behave as almost-ideal gases, thereby making the mathematics much more tractable. The Pleiades star cluster A star is a massive body of plasma in outer space that is currently producing or has produced energy through nuclear fusion. ... // An ion is an atom, group of atoms, or subatomic particle with a net electric charge. ... An ideal gas or perfect gas is a hypothetical gas consisting of identical particles of negligible volume, with no intermolecular forces. ...


With these assumptions, he demonstrated that the interior temperature of stars must be millions of degrees. He discovered the mass-luminosity relationship for stars, he calculated the abundance of hydrogen and he produced a theory to explain the pulsation of Cepheid variable stars. The Pleiades star cluster A star is a massive body of plasma in outer space that is currently producing or has produced energy through nuclear fusion. ... A Cepheid variable or Cepheid is a member of a particular class of variable stars, notable for a fairly tight correlation between their period of variability and absolute luminosity. ...


In 1920, Eddington, on the basis of the precise measurements of atomic weights by F. W. Aston, was the first to suggest that stars obtained their energy from nuclear fusion of hydrogen to helium. This was the first suggestion that stars obtained their energy from nuclear fusion, over which he had a long running argument with James Jeans. Later, in 1938 and 1939, Hans Bethe introduced the theory for the fusion, which made the process seem rather "natural" and the debate generally ended. 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Francis William Aston (born Birmingham, September 1, 1877; died Cambridge, November 20, 1945) was a British physicist who won the 1922 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the invention of the mass spectrometer. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... General Name, Symbol, Number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 4. ... Sir James Hopwood Jeans (born Ormskirk, September 11, 1877, died Dorking, September 16, 1946) was a British physicist, astronomer and mathematician who was the first to propose the theory of continuous creation of matter in the universe. ... Hans Bethe in 1945. ...


Throughout this period Eddington lectured on relativity, and was particularly well known for his ability to explain the concepts in lay terms as well as scientific. He collected many of these into the Mathematical Theory of Relativity in 1923, which Albert Einstein suggested was the finest presentation of the subject in any language. Albert Einstein, photographed by Oren J. Turner in 1947. ...

Contents


Fundamental theory

During 1920s until his death, he increasingly concentrated on what he called "fundamental theory" which was intended to be a unification of quantum theory, relativity and gravitation. At first he progressed along "traditional" lines, but turned increasingly to an almost numerological analysis of the dimensionless ratios of fundamental constants. His work was increasingly seen as "crankish", and he became something of a science pariah in his later years. The 1920s were a decade sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... A theory of everything (TOE) is a theory of theoretical physics and mathematics that fully explains and links together all known physical phenomena. ... Fig. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Relativity: The Special and General Theory Albert Einsteins theory of relativity, or simply relativity, refers specifically to two theories: special relativity and general relativity. ... In physics, gravitation or gravity is the tendency of objects with mass to accelerate toward each other. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ...


His basic approach was to combine several fundamental constants in order to produce a dimensionless number. In many cases these would result in numbers close to 1040, its square, or its cube root. He was convinced that the mass of the proton and the charge of the electron, were a natural and complete specification for constructing a Universe and that their values were not accidental. One of the discoverers of quantum mechanics, P. A. M. Dirac, also pursued this line of investigation, which has become known as the Dirac large numbers hypothesis, and some scientists even today believe it has something to it. Properties In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... Properties The electron is a lightweight fundamental subatomic particle that carries a negative electric charge. ... Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, (August 8, 1902 - October 20, 1984) was a British theoretical physicist and a founder of the field of quantum physics. ... The Dirac large numbers hypothesis refers to an observation made by Paul Dirac in 1937 relating ratios of size scales in the universe to that of force scales. ...


A particularly damaging statement in his defence of these concepts involved the fine structure constant α. At the time it was measured to be very close to 1/136, and he argued that the value should in fact be exactly 1/136 for various reasons. Later measurements placed the value much closer to 1/137, at which point he switched his line of reasoning and claimed that the value should in fact be exactly 1/137, the Eddington number. At this point most other researchers stopped taking his concepts very seriously. The current measured value is estimated at 1/137.03599911. The fine-structure constant or Sommerfeld fine-structure constant, usually denoted , is the fundamental physical constant characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction. ... In 1938, the British astronomer Arthur Eddington hit on the idea that the fine structure constant α, which had been measured at approximately 1/136, should be exactly 1/136. ...


He did not complete this line of research before his death in 1944, and his book entitled Fundamental Theory was published posthumously in 1946. Eddington died in Cambridge, England. Map of the Cambridgeshire area (1904) The city of Cambridge is an old English university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the British Isles Languages None official English de facto Capital None official London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001...


It was rather unfortunate that he vehemently opposed the budding Indian scientist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar about his theory on the maximum mass of stars known as white dwarfs, the mass above which the star collapses and becomes a neutron star, quark star or black hole. Chandrasekhar was proven to be right, and went on to win the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983. This article is about the Indian-American physicist. ... Neutron stars are one of the few possible endpoints of stellar evolution. ... A black hole is a concentration of mass great enough that the force of gravity prevents anything past its event horizon from escaping it except through quantum tunnelling behaviour (known as Hawking Radiation). ...


Honours

Awards

Named after him The Catherine Wolfe Bruce gold medal is awarded every year by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific for outstanding lifetime contributions to astronomy. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Henry Draper Medal was established by the widow of Henry Draper, and is awarded by the US National Academy of Sciences for contributions to astrophysics. ... Gold Medal awarded to Asaph Hall The Gold Medal is the highest award of the Royal Astronomical Society. ... The Royal Medals of the Royal Society of London were established by King George IV. They were further supported with certain changes to their conditions, by King William IV and Queen Victoria. ... The premises of the Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1930 (MCMXXX) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... For other Orders see Order of Merit (disambiguation). ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Eddington is the lava-flooded remnant of a lunar impact crater, located on the western part of Oceanus Procellarum. ... Bulk composition of the moons mantle and crust estimated, weight percent Oxygen 42. ... An asteroid is a small, solid object in our Solar System, orbiting the Sun. ... The Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) began as the Astronomical Society of London in 1820 to support astronomical research (mainly carried on at the time by gentleman astronomers rather than professionals). ... The Eddington Medal, named after Sir Arthur Eddington, is awarded by the Royal Astronomical Society nominally once every two years for investigations of outstanding merit in theoretical astrophysics. ...

Writer

Eddington was a superb populariser of science, writing many books aimed at the layman. He is also attributed with introducing the Infinite Monkey Theorem with the 1929 phrase "If an army of monkeys were strumming on typewriters, they might write all the books in the British Museum". According to the second Borel-Cantelli lemma, given enough time, a chimpanzee like this one typing at random will almost certainly eventually type out a copy of one of Shakespeares plays. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The main entrance to the British Museum. ...


Books by Eddington

  • 1914. Stellar Movements and the Structure of the Universe. London: Macmillan.
  • 1920. Space, Time and Gravitation: An Outline of the General Relativity Theory. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521337097
  • 1923, 1952. The Mathematical Theory of Relativity. Cambridge University Press.
  • 1926. Stars and Atoms. Oxford: British Association.
  • 1926. The Internal Constitution of Stars. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521337089
  • 1928. Fundamental Theory. Cambridge University Press.
  • 1929. Science and the Unseen World. Macmillan. ISBN 0849514266
  • 19nn. The Expanding Universe: Astronomy's 'Great Debate', 1900-1931. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521349761
  • 1928, 1948. The Nature of the Physical World. MacMillan. ISBN 0841438854
  • 1935. New Pathways in Science. Cambridge University Press.
  • 1936. Relativity Theory of Protons and Electrons. Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • 1939. Philosophy of Physical Science. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0758120540
  • 19nn. The Domain of Physical Science.
  • 1946. Fundamental Theory. Cambridge University Press.

The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ...

See also

Astronomy (Greek: αστρονομία = άστρον + νόμος, astronomia = astron + nomos, literally, law of the stars) is the science of celestial objects and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere, such as stars, planets, comets, aurora, galaxies, and the cosmic background radiation. ... In physics, the Eddington Limit is a natural limit to the luminosity that can be radiated by spherically symmetric accretion onto a compact object, like a black hole. ... The Chandrasekhar limit, also known as Schenberg-Chandrasekhar limit, is the maximum mass of a white dwarf, a type of star, and is approximately 3 × 1030 kg, around 1. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Cross section of a red giant showing nucleosynthesis and elements formed Stellar nucleosynthesis is the collective term for the nuclear reactions taking place in stars to build the nuclei of the heavier elements. ... Timeline of stellar astronomy 134 BC - Hipparchus creates the magnitude scale of stellar apparent luminosities 1596 - David Fabricius notices that Miras brightness varies 1672 - Geminiano Montanari notices that Algols brightness varies 1686 - Gottfried Kirch notices that Chi Cygnis brightness varies 1718 - Edmund Halley discovers stellar proper motions... Famous astronomers and astrophysicists include: Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A Marc Aaronson (USA, 1950 – 1987) George Ogden Abell (USA, 1927 – 1983) Antonio Abetti (Italy... An astrophysicist is a person whose profession is astrophysics. ... The scope of this article is limited to the empirical sciences. ... Pathological science is a neologism to pejoratively describe the pursuit of pseudoscientific claims as like a pathology, or Such claims are said to be distinguished from pseudoscience (itself a pejorative) in that they have a larger and more dogmatic following, and are asserted to be based in self-deception amongst... In physics, fundamental physical constants are physical constants that are independent of systems of units and are in general dimensionless numbers. ... Timeline of gravitational physics and relativity 1583 - Galileo Galilei induces the period relationship of a pendulum from observation (according to later biographer). ... It has been suggested that Einsteins theory of gravitation be merged into this article or section. ... Special relativity (SR) or the special theory of relativity is the physical theory published in 1905 by Albert Einstein in his article On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies. It replaced Newtonian notions of space and time and incorporated electromagnetism as represented by Maxwells equations. ... The luminiferous aether: it was hypothesised that the Earth moves through a medium of aether that carries light In the late 19th century luminiferous aether (light-bearing aether) was the term used to describe a medium for the propagation of light. ... The following is a list of historically important scientific experiments and observations. ... A theory of everything (TOE) is a theory of theoretical physics and mathematics that fully explains and links together all known physical phenomena (i. ... In 1938, the British astronomer Arthur Eddington hit on the idea that the fine structure constant α, which had been measured at approximately 1/136, should be exactly 1/136. ... The Dirac large numbers hypothesis refers to an observation made by Paul Dirac in 1937 relating ratios of size scales in the universe to that of force scales. ... Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names Kings Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street... The Religious Society of Friends (commonly known as Quakers or Friends) was founded in England in the 17th century by people who were dissatisfied with the existing denominations and sects of Christianity. ... The Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) began as the Astronomical Society of London in 1820 to support astronomical research (mainly carried on at the time by gentleman astronomers rather than professionals). ... Father Georges-Henri Lemaître (July 17, 1894 – June 20, 1966) was a Belgian Roman Catholic priest and astronomer. ... According to the second Borel-Cantelli lemma, given enough time, a chimpanzee like this one typing at random will almost certainly eventually type out a copy of one of Shakespeares plays. ... 137 is the natural number following 136 and preceding 138. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Eddington is the name of several places United States of America Eddington, Maine Eddington, Pennsylvania United Kingdom Eddington, Berkshire Eddington, Kent Edington, Somerset Edington, Wiltshire Also see: Arthur Eddington, an important astrophysicist This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... This is a partial list of English people of note and of some notable individuals born there, alphabetically within categories: // Actors/Actresses Dame Julie Andrews Tom Baker, (born 1933) Sean Bean, (born 1959) Orlando Bloom, (born 1977) Dame Judi Dench (born 1934) Ralph Fiennes (born 1962) George Formby, (1904-1961... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology. ...

External links and references

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Arthur Stanley Eddington

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... Wikiquote logo Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... The MacTutor history of mathematics archive is a website hosted by University of St Andrews in Scotland. ...

Obituaries


  Results from FactBites:
 
Arthur Eddington (364 words)
Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington (December 28, 1882 - November 22, 1944) was arguably the most important astrophysicist from the early 20th century.
Eddington wrote an article, Report on the relativity theory of gravitation, which announced Einstein's theory of general relativity to the English-speaking world.
Eddington also investigated the interior of stars, and calculated their temperature based on what would be necessary to withstand the pressure of the higher-laying layers.
Astrophysics and Mysticism: the life of Arthur Stanley Eddington (4942 words)
Arthur Stanley Eddington was born on 28 Dec 1882 in Kendal, on the edge of the Lake District.
Eddington thought he had a proof that the inverse of the fine structure constant (the dimensionless constant formed from the values h, c and e, that governs the strength of radiative interactions in atoms) is precisely 137.
Eddington identifies three types of knowledge: (1) structural, with the approximate meaning of mathematical, but in Eddington's thinking the structure appears to be almost identified with Group theory, (2) direct awareness (approximately sensation) and (3) sympathetic understanding, which he argues is essential because a remembered sensation is sympathetic understanding of a past sensation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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