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Encyclopedia > Arthur Schopenhauer
Western Philosophy
19th century philosophy
Arthur Schopenhauer

Name In the 18th Century the philosophies of The Enlightenment would begin to have dramatic effect, and the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau would have an electrifying effect on a new generation of thinkers. ... Image File history File links Schopenhauer. ...

Arthur Schopenhauer

Birth

February 22, 1788 (Danzig) is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...

Death

September 21, 1860 (aged 72) (Frankfurt-am-Main) is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth largest city in Germany. ...

School/tradition

Kantianism, idealism Kantianism is the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher born in Königsberg, Germany (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ...

Main interests

Metaphysics, aesthetics, phenomenology, morality, psychology Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ... Psychological science redirects here. ...

Notable ideas

Will, Fourfold root of reason, pessimism // For the racing driver, see Will Power. ... Originally published as a doctoral dissertation in 1813, Arthur Schopenhauer revised this important work and re-published it in 1847. ... Pessimists see the world as uninviting and cruel. ...

Influences

Plato, Kant, Upanishad, Goethe For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Kant redirects here. ... The Upanishads (Devanagari: उपनिषद्, IAST: upaniṣad) are part of the Vedas and form the Hindu scriptures which primarily discuss philosophy, meditation, and the nature of God; they form the core spiritual thought of Vedantic Hinduism. ... Goethe redirects here. ...

Influenced

Samuel Beckett, Henri Bergson, Jorge Luis Borges, Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer, Albert Einstein, Mihai Eminescu, Freud, Eduard von Hartmann, Hesse, Horkheimer, Jung, Suzanne Langer, Mann, Nietzsche, Popper, Gilbert Ryle, Tolstoy, Hans Vaihinger, Vivekananda, Maupassant, Proust, Wagner, Wittgenstein, Houellebecq, Schrödinger, George Santayana Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ... Henri-Louis Bergson (October 18, 1859–January 4, 1941) was a major French philosopher, influential in the first half of the 20th century. ... Borges redirects here. ... Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer (February 27, 1881 - December 2, 1966), usually cited as L. E. J. Brouwer, was a Dutch mathematician, a graduate of the University of Amsterdam, who worked in topology, set theory, measure theory and complex analysis. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Mihai Eminescu (pronunciation in Romanian: ) (January 15, 1850 – June 15, 1889), born Mihail Eminovici, was a late Romantic poet, the best-known and most influential Romanian poet celebrated in both Romania and Moldova. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... ... Hermann Hesse (pronounced ) (2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962) was a German-Swiss poet, novelist, and painter. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg Max Horkheimer (February 14, 1895 – July 7, 1973) was a Jewish-German philosopher and sociologist, known especially as the founder and guiding thinker of the Frankfurt School of critical theory. ... Jung redirects here. ... Susanne Katherina Langer (née Knauth) (1895-1985) was an American philosopher of art, a follower of Ernst Cassirer. ... For other persons named Thomas Mann, see Thomas Mann (disambiguation). ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. ... Sir Karl Raimund Popper CH FRS FBA (July 28, 1902 â€“ September 17, 1994) was an Austrian and British[1] philosopher and a professor at the London School of Economics. ... Gilbert Ryle (born August 19, 1900 in Brighton, died October 6, 1976 in Oxford), was a philosopher, and a representative of the generation of British ordinary language philosophers influenced by Wittgensteins insights into language, and is principally known for his critique of Cartesian dualism, for which he coined the... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Hans Vaihinger (September 25, 1852 - December 18, 1933) was a German philosopher, best known as a Kant scholar and for his Philosophie des Als Ob (Philosophy of As If, 1911). ... Swami Vivekananda (Sanskrit: , Svāmi Vivekānanda) (January 12, 1863 – July 4, 1902), whose pre-monastic name was Narendranath Dutta (Bengali: , Nôrendrônath Dôt-tô), was one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga. ... Guy de Maupassant. ... “Proust” redirects here. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (IPA: ) (April 26, 1889 in Vienna, Austria – April 29, 1951 in Cambridge, England) was an Austrian philosopher who contributed several ground-breaking ideas to philosophy, primarily in the foundations of logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of mind. ... Michel Houellebecq (pronounced ) (real name Michel Thomas), born 26 February 1958, on the French island of Réunion is a controversial, award-winning French novelist. ... Schrödinger in 1933, when he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics Bust of Schrödinger, in the courtyard arcade of the main building, University of Vienna, Austria. ... George Santayana George Santayana (December 16, 1863, Madrid – September 26, 1952, Rome), was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist. ...

Signature

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation. Schopenhauer attempted to make his career as an academic by correcting and expanding Immanuel Kant's philosophy concerning the way in which we experience the world. Kant thought that what we experience, and thus what we can know, is limited to the phenomenal aspect of the world i.e., what we can sense. Kant thought that to understand the phenomenal world was to understand the concepts we use to order our experiences. Although we can never know objects in themselves, the noumena, we can develop of complete understanding of phenomena. It was not until Wittgenstein's Tractatus that a complete account of the phenomena or epistemic reality was attempted. Schopenhauer disagreed with Kant. Rather than developing an understanding of the concepts we use to understand phenomena, we need to understand the way we experience the world. Conceptual analysis is beneficial, but to really understand our situation in the world, we need to understand how it is that we can experience the world at all. His critique of Kant and considerably creative solutions to human experience and explication of the limits of human knowledge are among the greatest of philosophical accomplishments. Among these are the introduction of the idea of 'will' which inspired Friedrich Nietzsche, Wagner, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Karl Popper, Bryan Magee, and many other philosophers to pursue philosophy as a solution to Kant's questions and a resolution of his mistakes. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Published in 1819, The World as Will and Representation, sometimes translated as The World as Will and Idea (original German title: Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung), is the central work of Arthur Schopenhauer. ... Kant redirects here. ... Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), pictured here in 1930, made influential contributions to Logic and the philosophy of language, critically examining the task of conventional philosophy and its relation to the nature of language. ... Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus is the only book-length work published by the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein in his lifetime. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. ... Wagner may refer to more than one place in the United States: Wagner, South Dakota Wagner, Wisconsin Wagner may refer to more than one person: Richard Wagner, German composer Cosima Wagner, daughter of Franz Liszt and wife of Richard Wagner Heinrich Leopold Wagner, dramatist and author John Peter Honus Wagner... Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (IPA: ) (April 26, 1889 in Vienna, Austria – April 29, 1951 in Cambridge, England) was an Austrian philosopher who contributed several ground-breaking ideas to philosophy, primarily in the foundations of logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of mind. ... Sir Karl Raimund Popper CH FRS FBA (July 28, 1902 â€“ September 17, 1994) was an Austrian and British[1] philosopher and a professor at the London School of Economics. ... Bryan Magee (born April 12, 1930) is a noted British broadcasting personality, politician, and author, best known as a popularizer of philosophy. ...

Contents

Life

Arthur Schopenhauer was born in 1788 in the city of Danzig (Gdańsk) as the son of Heinrich Floris Schopenhauer and Johanna Schopenhauer,[1] who were both descendants of wealthy German middle class mercantile families in the city located on the Baltic Sea. In 1793, when Danzig was annexed by Prussia, Schopenhauer's family moved to another mercantile harbour city, Hamburg, where in 1805, Schopenhauer's father died. (Some speculate he committed suicide[1].) Johanna, who was an author, moved to Weimar, then the centre of German literature, with Goethe and others. Because of a promise to pursue a business career, Schopenhauer remained in Hamburg. His disgust with this career, however, drove him away to join his mother in Weimar after only a year. He never got along with his mother; when the writer Goethe, who was a friend of Johanna Schopenhauer, told her that he thought her son was destined for great things, Johanna objected: she had never heard there could be two geniuses in a single family. For alternative meanings of GdaÅ„sk and Danzig, see GdaÅ„sk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... Johanna Schopenhauer (July 9, 1766 – April 17, 1838) was a German author and the mother of Arthur Schopenhauer. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Weimar (disambiguation). ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... Johann Wolfgang Goethe  , IPA: , later von Goethe, (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German polymath: he was a poet, novelist, dramatist, humanist, scientist, theorist, painter, and for ten years chief minister of state for the duchy of Weimar. ...

Schopenhauer as a youth
Schopenhauer as a youth

Schopenhauer became a student at the University of Göttingen in 1809. There he studied metaphysics and psychology under Gottlob Ernst Schulze, who advised him to concentrate on Plato and Kant. In Berlin, from 1811 to 1812, he had attended lectures by the prominent post-Kantian philosopher J. G. Fichte and the theologian Schleiermacher. Schopenhauer objected to Schleiermacher's assertion that the purpose of philosophy is to gain knowledge of God[2]. He also reacted against the Fichte's extreme idealism. Fichte claimed that the observing subject or Ego causes observed objects, whereas Schopenhauer contended that subject and object always exist together in a necessary correlation[3]. After submitting as his doctoral dissertation On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, he was awarded a PhD from the University of Jena in absentia. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 431 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (456 × 634 pixel, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 431 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (456 × 634 pixel, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Gottlob Ernst Schulze (1761—1833) was born in Heldrungen, Thuringia, Germany. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (April 22, 1724 – February 12, 1804) was a Prussian philosopher, generally regarded as one of Europes most influential thinkers and the last major philosopher of the Enlightenment. ... For the US Federal Agent designation, see Special agent. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Johann Gottlieb Fichte Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 - January 27, 1814) has significance in the history of Western philosophy as one of the progenitors of German idealism and as a follower of Kant. ... Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (November 21, 1768 - February 12, 1834) was a theologian and philosopher. ... Originally published as a doctoral dissertation in 1813, Arthur Schopenhauer revised this important work and re-published it in 1847. ... PhD usually refers to the academic title Doctor of Philosophy PhD can also refer to the manga Phantasy Degree This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Friedrich Schiller University of Jena (FSU) is located in Jena, Thuringia in Germany and was named for the German writer Friedrich Schiller. ...


In 1814 Schopenhauer began his seminal work The World as Will and Representation (Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung.) He would finish it in 1818 with publication in the following year of 1819 (in Dresden his illegitimate child was born and died the same year [2][3].) In 1820, Schopenhauer became a lecturer at the University of Berlin; it was there that his opposition to G. W. F. Hegel began. Schopenhauer scheduled his own lectures to coincide with Hegel's, in an attempt to demolish student support of Hegel's philosophy. However, only five students turned up to Schopenhauer's lectures, and he dropped out of academia. He never taught at a university again. A late essay On University Philosophy expressed his resentment towards university philosophy. Published in 1819, The World as Will and Representation, sometimes translated as The World as Will and Idea (original German title: Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung), is the central work of Arthur Schopenhauer. ... Dresden (etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ... There is no institution called the University of Berlin, but there are four universities in Berlin, Germany: Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) Technical University of Berlin (Technische Universität Berlin) Free University of Berlin (Freie Universität Berlin) Berlin University of the Arts (Universität der... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ...


In 1831, a cholera epidemic broke out in Berlin and both Hegel and Schopenhauer fled; but Hegel returned prematurely, caught the infection, and died a few days later. Schopenhauer moved south, and settled permanently in Frankfurt in 1833. There he remained for the next twenty-seven years, living alone except for a succession of pet poodles named Atma and Butz. Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is an extreme diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ...   (German: , English: American English: ) is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany, with a mid-2007 population of 663,567. ...

Schopenhauer's gravestone
Schopenhauer's gravestone

While in Berlin, Schopenhauer was named as a defendant in an action at law initiated by a woman named Caroline Marquet.[4] She asked for damages, alleging that Schopenhauer had pushed her. Knowing that he was a man of some means and that he disliked noise, she deliberately annoyed him by raising her voice while standing right outside his door. Marquet alleged that the philosopher had assaulted and battered her after she refused to leave his doorway. Her companion testified that she saw Marquet prostrate outside of his apartment. Because Marquet won the lawsuit, he made payments to her for the next twenty years.[5] When she died, he wrote on a copy of her death certificate, "Obit anus, abit onus" (The old woman dies, the burden is lifted). Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...


Schopenhauer had a robust constitution, but in 1860 his health began to deteriorate. He died, sitting in his armchair, of heart failure on September 21 of that year at the age of 72. is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Thought

Image File history File links Ambox_emblem_question. ...

Philosophy

Schopenhauer called himself a Kantian, but hurled invective at several other contemporary German philosophers who had been influenced by Kant. These included Hegel, Fichte, and Schelling. He formulated a pessimistic philosophy that gained importance and support after the failure of the German and Austrian revolutions of 1848. Kant redirects here. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Johann Gottlieb Fichte Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 - January 27, 1814) has significance in the history of Western philosophy as one of the progenitors of German idealism and as a follower of Kant. ... Notable people with the last name of Schelling include: Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, German philosopher Thomas Schelling, American economist and Nobel laureate Category: ... Pessimists see the world as uninviting and cruel. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as...


Schopenhauer's starting point was Kant's division of the universe into the phenomenal and the noumenal. Schopenhauer extended Kant's ideas to, in his opinion, gain greater understanding of the noumenal. For instance, he suggested that noumenal reality was singular because multiplicity was part of phenomenal experience. Some commentators suggest that Schopenhauer claimed that the noumenon was the same as that in us which we call Will. Other commentators, like Bryan Magee, suggest that he considered will to be the most immediate manifestation of the noumenon that we can experience.[citation needed] Kant redirects here. ... A phenomenon (plural: phenomena) is an observable event, particularly something special (literally something that can be seen from the Greek word phainomenon = observable). ... The noumenon (plural: noumena) classically refers to an object of human inquiry, understanding or cognition. ... // For the racing driver, see Will Power. ... Bryan Magee (born April 12, 1930) is a noted British broadcasting personality, politician, and author, best known as a popularizer of philosophy. ...


Will and desire

A key aspect of Schopenhauer's thought is the investigation of what makes man less than reasonable. This force he calls "Wille zum Leben" or Will (lit. will-to-life), by which he means the forces driving man, to remain alive and to reproduce, a drive intertwined with desire. This Will is the inner content and the driving force of the world. For Schopenhauer, Will had ontological primacy over the intellect; in other words, desire is understood to be prior to thought, and, in a parallel sense, Will is said to be prior to being. Schopenhauer felt this was similar to notions of purushartha or goals of life in Vedanta Hinduism. This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... Intelligence is a general mental capability that involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... In Indian religion, the purusharthas are the canonical four aims of human life. ... This article is about the Hindu philosophy. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages)[1] is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


In attempting to solve or alleviate the fundamental problems of life, Schopenhauer was a rare philosopher who considered philosophy and logic less important (or less effective) than art, certain charitable practices ("loving kindness", in his terms), and certain forms of religious discipline. Schopenhauer concluded that discursive thought (such as philosophy and logic) could neither touch nor transcend the nature of desire — i.e., Will. In The World as Will and Representation, Schopenhauer proposed that humans living in the realm of objects are living in the realm of desire, and thus are eternally tormented by that desire. The role of desire in Schopenhauer is similar to the role of Kāma, sensual gratification, which is treated as one of the goals of life relating to the second stage of life in the Hindu tradition. For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Published in 1819, The World as Will and Representation, sometimes translated as The World as Will and Idea (original German title: Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung), is the central work of Arthur Schopenhauer. ... Kāma (Skt. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...


Metaphysics

For Schopenhauer, the aesthetic viewpoint is more objective than the scientific viewpoint precisely because it separates the intellect from the will in the form of art. The ability to view nature aesthetically is a telltale sign of a genius. An important metaphysical distinction that Schopenhauer makes involves the notion of the will versus art. In a sense, Schopenhauer claimed that the body is an extension of the will, while art is a spontaneous act which cannot be linked to either the body or the intellect. The intellect allows man to suffer because it brings the suffering or pain of the world into a more vivid consciousness. Logically speaking then, the more intellectually-inclined person suffers most. Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ... For other uses of objectivity, see objectivity (disambiguation). ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... Intelligence is a general mental capability that involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... Look up will in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... A genius is a person of great intelligence. ... For other uses, see Body (disambiguation). ... Suffering is any aversive (not necessarily unwanted) experience and the corresponding negative emotion. ...


Aesthetic contemplation for Schopenhauer translates into an immediate objectification of the will. He employs a Platonic allegory to demonstrate that all existence is ultimately futile since it can be fundamentally characterized by a want of satisfaction that can never be attained. This want is otherwise known as happiness. Schopenhauer's metaphysics is said by many to be essentially marked by an all-encompassing pessimism. This pessimism serves as a stark contrast to Schopenhauer's Romantic contemporaries in 19th century Germany. His contemporaries, who include Hegel and Schelling, tended to employ a wide-ranging optimism concerning the seemingly progressive history of mankind. Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ... Futility may refer to: The quality of uselessness. ... For other uses, see Happiness (disambiguation). ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Pessimists see the world as uninviting and cruel. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (January 27, 1775 – August 20, 1854), later von Schelling, was a German philosopher. ... “Positive Attitude” redirects here. ... Historical progress has been a main object of philosophy of history. ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... Look up Mankind in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Other notable ideas pertaining to Schopenhauer's metaphysics entail the notion of how art is conceived. Schopenhauer argued that art was a spontaneous, pre-determined idea which the artist has in mind before even attempting to create. Art, therefore, placed man above science and ultimately nature since it effectively goes beyond the realm of sufficient reason. Science, for Schopenhauer, shall be relegated to the boundaries of reason and, thus, the genius is precluded from entering its territory. Moreover, philosophy is not necessarily a pursuit of wisdom but, rather, it can be viewed as a means for interpreting the personal experiences of one's own life. Schopenhauer maintained that desire produces suffering and, thus, one ought to be wary of the torturous effects of hedonism. IDEA may refer to: Electronic Directory of the European Institutions IDEA League Improvement and Development Agency Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Indian Distance Education Association Integrated Data Environments Australia Intelligent Database Environment for Advanced Applications IntelliJ IDEA - a Java IDE Interactive Database for Energy-efficient Architecture International IDEA (International Institute... The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Look up desire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any sources. ...


Aesthetics

This wild and powerful drive to reproduce, however, caused suffering or pain in the world. For Schopenhauer, one way to escape the suffering inherent in a world of Will was through art. Arthur Schopenhauers aesthetics flow from his doctrine of the primacy of the Will as the thing in itself, the ground of life and all being; and from his judgment that the Will is evil. ... Suffering is any aversive (not necessarily unwanted) experience and the corresponding negative emotion. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ...


Through art, Schopenhauer thought, the thinking subject could be jarred out of their limited, individual perspective to feel a sense of the universal directly—the "universal" in question, of course, was the will. The contest of personal desire with a world that was, by nature, inimical to its satisfaction is inevitably tragical; therefore, the highest place in art was given to tragedy. Music was also given a special status in Schopenhauer's aesthetics as it did not rely upon the medium of representation to communicate a sense of the universal. Perspective in theory of cognition is the choice of a context or a reference (or the result of this choice) from which to sense, categorize, measure or codify experience, cohesively forming a coherent belief, typically for comparing with another. ... Universals (used as a noun) are either properties, relations, or types, but not classes. ... Look up desire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Arthur Schopenhauers aesthetics flow from his doctrine of the primacy of the Will as the thing in itself, the ground of life and all being; and from his judgment that the Will is evil. ...


Schopenhauer believed the function of art to be a meditation on the unity of human nature, and an attempt to either demonstrate or directly communicate to the audience a certain existential angst for which most forms of entertainment—including bad art—only provided a distraction. A wide range of authors (from Thomas Hardy to Woody Allen) and artists have been influenced by this system of aesthetics, and in the 20th century this area of Schopenhauer's work garnered more attention and praise than any other. For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Human nature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Audience (disambiguation). ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement emphasizing individualism, individual freedom, and subjectivity. ... For other uses, see Angst (disambiguation). ... Thomas Hardy redirects here. ... Woody Allen (born Allen Stewart Königsberg on December 1, 1935) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director, writer, actor, jazz musician, comedian, and playwright. ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ...


According to Daniel Albright (2004: p39, n34), "Schopenhauer thought that music was the only art that did not merely copy ideas, but actually embodied the will itself." For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ...


Ethics

Schopenhauer's moral theory proposed that of three primary moral incentives, compassion (Mitleid) was the genuine motivator to moral expression. He ruled the other two, malice and egoism, corrupt as moral incentives. The identification of compassion as the true moral incentive was a central aspect of Schopenhauer's mission, and associated his thoughts firmly with eastern thought.


Psychology

Schopenhauer was perhaps even more influential in his treatment of man's psychology than he was in the realm of philosophy. Psychological science redirects here. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...


Philosophers have not traditionally been impressed by the tribulations of love, but Schopenhauer addressed it and related concepts forthrightly: For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ...

"We should be surprised that a matter that generally plays such an important part in the life of man [love] has hitherto been almost entirely disregarded by philosophers, and lies before us as raw and untreated material."

He gave a name to a force within man which he felt had invariably precedence over reason: the Will to Live (Wille zum Leben), defined as an inherent drive within human beings, and indeed all creatures, to stay alive and to reproduce. For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... Look up will in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Drive in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Reproduction is the creation of one thing as a copy of, product of, or replacement for a similar thing, e. ...


Schopenhauer refused to conceive of love as either trifling or accidental, but rather understood it to be an immensely powerful force lying unseen within man's psyche and dramatically shaping the world: The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ...

"The ultimate aim of all love affairs ... is more important than all other aims in man's life; and therefore it is quite worthy of the profound seriousness with which everyone pursues it."
"What is decided by it is nothing less than the composition of the next generation ..."

These ideas foreshadowed and laid the groundwork for Darwin's theory of evolution and Freud's concepts of the libido and the unconscious mind.[6] For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... For other uses, see Libido (disambiguation). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Political and social thought

Politics

Schopenhauer's politics were, for the most part, a much diminished echo of his system of ethics (the latter being expressed in Die beiden Grundprobleme der Ethik, available in English as two separate books, On the Basis of Morality and On the Freedom of the Will; ethics also occupies about one quarter of his central work, The World as Will and Representation). In occasional political comments in his Parerga and Paralipomena and Manuscript Remains, Schopenhauer described himself as a proponent of limited government. What was essential, he thought, was that the state should "leave each man free to work out his own salvation", and so long as government was thus limited, he would "prefer to be ruled by a lion than one of [his] fellow rats" — i.e., a monarch. Schopenhauer did, however, share the view of Thomas Hobbes on the necessity of the state, and of state violence, to check the destructive tendencies innate to our species. Schopenhauer, by his own admission, did not give much thought to politics, and several times he writes prideful boasts of how little attention he had paid "to political affairs of [his] day". In a life that spanned several revolutions in French and German government, and a few continent-shaking wars, he did indeed maintain his aloof position of "minding not the times but the eternities". He wrote many disparaging remarks about Germany and the Germans. A typical example is "For a German it is even good to have somewhat lengthy words in his mouth, for he thinks slowly, and they give him time to reflect." (The World as Will and Representation, Vol. 2, Ch. 12) For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... On the Basis of Morality (German: Ãœber die Grundlage der Moral) is one of Arthur Schopenhauers major works in ethics, in which argues that morality stems from compassion. ... On the Freedom of the Will was an essay presented to the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences in 1839 by Arthur Schopenhauer as a response to the academic question that they had posed. ... Published in 1819, The World as Will and Representation, sometimes translated as The World as Will and Idea (original German title: Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung), is the central work of Arthur Schopenhauer. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Hobbes redirects here. ... Published in 1819, The World as Will and Representation, sometimes translated as The World as Will and Idea (original German title: Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung), is the central work of Arthur Schopenhauer. ...


Schopenhauer possessed a distinctly hierarchical conception of the human races, attributing civilizational primacy to the northern "white races" due to their sensitivity and creativity:

"The highest civilization and culture, apart from the ancient Hindus and Egyptians, are found exclusively among the white races; and even with many dark peoples, the ruling caste or race is fairer in colour than the rest and has, therefore, evidently immigrated, for example, the Brahmans, the Incas, and the rulers of the South Sea Islands. All this is due to the fact that necessity is the mother of invention because those tribes that emigrated early to the north, and there gradually became white, had to develop all their intellectual powers and invent and perfect all the arts in their struggle with need, want and misery, which in their many forms were brought about by the climate. This they had to do in order to make up for the parsimony of nature and out of it all came their high civilization." (Parerga and Paralipomena, Volume II, Section 92)

Schopenhauer additionally maintained a marked metaphysical and political anti-Judaism. Schopenhauer argued that Christianity constituted a revolt against the materialistic basis of Judaism, exhibiting an Indian-influenced ethics reflecting the Aryan-Vedic theme of spiritual "self-conquest" as opposed to the ignorant drive toward earthly utopianism of the superficially this-worldly Jewish spirit: An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... Aryan (/eərjən/ or /ɑːrjən/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... Veda redirects here. ...

"While all other religions endeavor to explain to the people by symbols the metaphysical significance of life, the religion of the Jews is entirely immanent and furnishes nothing but a mere war-cry in the struggle with other nations" ("Fragments for the history of philosophy," Parerga and Paralipomena, Volume I).

Views on women

Before delving into Schopenhauer's famously misogynistic perspective on women, one should digest an important quotation, spoken to Richard Wagner's friend Malwida von Meysenbug, "I have not yet spoken my last word about women. I believe that if a woman succeeds in withdrawing from the mass, or rather raising herself above the mass, she grows ceaselessly and more than a man."[7] Malwida von Meysenbug (October 28, 1816, Kassel - April 23, 1903, Rome) was a friend of Friedrich Nietzsche and Richard Wagner. ...


Schopenhauer is famous for his essay "On Women" (Über die Weiber), in which he expressed his opposition to what he called "Teutonico-Christian stupidity" on female affairs. He claimed that "woman is by nature meant to obey", and opposed Schiller's poem in honor of women, Würde der Frauen. The essay does give two compliments however: that "women are decidedly more sober in their judgment than [men] are" and are more sympathetic to the suffering of others. However, the latter was discounted as weakness rather than humanitarian virtue. Friedrich Schiller “Schiller” redirects here. ...


In 1821 he fell in love with 19-year old opera singer Caroline Richter, called Medon, and had a relationship with her for several years. However he discarded marriage plans: "Marrying means to halve one's rights and double one's duties", or even more drastic: "Marrying means, to grasp blindfold into a sack hoping to find out an eel out of an assembly of snakes." At the age of 43 in 1831, he again took interest in a younger woman, the 17-year old Flora Weiss, who rejected her older adorer. (ref: The Leuven Philosophy Newsletter pgs. 42-43)


The ultra-intolerant view of women contrasts with Schopenhauer's generally liberal views on other social issues: he was strongly against taboos on issues like suicide and homosexuality, and condemned the treatment of African slaves. This polemic on female nature has since been fiercely attacked as misogynistic. However, he did not hold a universally negative opinion of women; one should note that Schopenhauer had a very high opinion of Madame de Guyon, whose writings and biography he highly recommended. This article is about cultural prohibitions in general, for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Slave redirects here. ... Look up Polemic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This box:      Misogyny (IPA: ) is hatred or strong prejudice against women; an antonym of philogyny. ... Categories: People stubs | 1648 births | 1717 deaths ...


In any case, the controversial writing has influenced many, from Nietzsche to 19th century feminists. While Schopenhauer's hostility to women may tell us more about his biography than about philosophy, his biological analysis of the difference between the sexes, and their separate roles in the struggle for survival and reproduction, anticipates some of the claims that were later ventured by sociobiologists and evolutionary psychologists in the twentieth century.[citation needed] Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. ... Feminists redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated EP) is a theoretical approach to psychology that attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, i. ...


Heredity and eugenics

Schopenhauer would be classified nowadays as a hereditarian and eugenicist.[weasel words] Schopenhauer believed that a person inherited level of intellect through one's mother and personal character through one's father. Schopenhauer quotes Horace's saying, "From the brave and good are the brave descended" (Odes, iv, 4, 29) and Shakespeare's line from Cymbeline, "Cowards father cowards, and base things sire base" (IV, 2) to reinforce his hereditarian argument (Payne, The World as Will and Representation, Vol. II, p. 519). On the question of eugenics, Schopenhauer wrote: Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Hereditarianism is the doctrine or school of thought that heredity is at least as important as environment in determining human nature and character traits, such as intelligence and personality. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ...

With our knowledge of the complete unalterability both of character and of mental faculties, we are led to the view that a real and thorough improvement of the human race might be reached not so much from outside as from within, not so much by theory and instruction as rather by the path of generation. Plato had something of the kind in mind when, in the fifth book of his Republic, he explained his plan for increasing and improving his warrior caste. If we could castrate all scoundrels and stick all stupid geese in a convent, and give men of noble character a whole harem, and procure men, and indeed thorough men, for all girls of intellect and understanding, then a generation would soon arise which would produce a better age than that of Pericles" Castration, gelding, neutering, orchiectomy or orchidectomy is any action, surgical or otherwise, by which a biological male loses use of the testes. ... for other uses please see Crime (disambiguation) A crime is an act that violates a political or moral law. ... For other uses, see Harem (disambiguation). ...


—Schopenhauer, ibid., p. 527

In another context, Schopenhauer reiterated his antidemocratic-eugenic thesis: "If you want Utopian plans, I would say: the only solution to the problem is the despotism of the wise and noble members of a genuine aristocracy, a genuine nobility, achieved by mating the most magnanimous men with the cleverest and most gifted women. This proposal constitutes my Utopia and my Platonic Republic" (Essays and Aphorisms, trans. R.J. Hollingdale, Middlesex: London, 1970, p. 154). Analysts (e.g., Keith Ansell-Pearson) have suggested that Schopenhauer's advocacy of anti-egalitarianism and eugenics influenced the neo-aristocratic philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche, who initially considered Schopenhauer his mentor. This does not cite its references or sources. ... IT FEELS REALLY GOOD IF YOU IMATATE THE ANIMALS. LOL! “Mounting” redirects here. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. ...


Views on homosexuality

Schopenhauer was also one of the first philosophers since the days of Greek philosophy to address the subject of male homosexuality. In the third, expanded edition of The World as Will and Representation (1856), Schopenhauer added an appendix to his chapter on the "Metaphysics of Sexual Love". He wrote that only those who were too old or too young to reproduce strong, healthy children would resort to pederasty (Schopenhauer considered pederasty to be in itself a vice). He also wrote that homosexuality did have the benefit of preventing ill-begotten children. Concerning this he stated "...the vice we are considering appears to work directly against the aims and ends of nature, and that in a matter that is all important and of the greatest concern to her, it must in fact serve these very aims, although only indirectly, as a means for preventing greater evils." [8] Shrewdly anticipating the interpretive distortion on the part of the popular mind of his attempted scientific explanation of pederasty as a personal advocacy of a phenomenon Schopenhauer otherwise describes, in terms of spiritual ethics, as an "objectionable aberration", Schopenhauer sarcastically concludes the appendix with the statement that "by expounding these paradoxical ideas, I wanted to grant to the professors of philosophy a small favour, for they are very disconcerted by the ever-increasing publicization of my philosophy which they so carefully concealed. I have done so by giving them the opportunity of slandering me by saying that I defend and commend pederasty" (ibid., p. 567). Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Pederasty or paederasty (literally boy-love, see Etymology below) refers to an intimate or erotic relationship between an adolescent boy and an adult male outside his immediate family. ... Vice is a practice or habit that is considered immoral, depraved, and/or degrading in the associated society. ...


Influences

Schopenhauer said he was influenced by the Upanishads, Immanuel Kant, and Plato. References to Eastern philosophy and religion appear frequently in Schopenhauer's writing. As noted above, he appreciated the teachings of the Buddha and even called himself a Buddhaist[9] He said that his philosophy could not have been conceived before these teachings were available. The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... Kant redirects here. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Eastern philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of Asia, including Indian philosophy, Chinese philosophy, Persian philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ...


Concerning the Upanishads and Vedas, he writes in The World as Will and Representation: Veda redirects here. ...

If the reader has also received the benefit of the Vedas, the access to which by means of the Upanishads is in my eyes the greatest privilege which this still young century (1818) may claim before all previous centuries, if then the reader, I say, has received his initiation in primeval Indian wisdom, and received it with an open heart, he will be prepared in the very best way for hearing what I have to tell him. It will not sound to him strange, as to many others, much less disagreeable; for I might, if it did not sound conceited, contend that every one of the detached statements which constitute the Upanishads, may be deduced as a necessary result from the fundamental thoughts which I have to enunciate, though those deductions themselves are by no means to be found there.[10]

He summarised the influence of the Upanishads thusly: 'It has been the solace of my life, it will be the solace of my death!


Other influences were: Jean Jacques Rousseau, John Locke, Baruch Spinoza, Matthias Claudius, George Berkeley, David Hume, René Descartes.[citation needed] Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 - July 2, 1778) was a Swiss-French philosopher, writer, political theorist, and self-taught composer of The Age of Enlightenment Biography of Rousseau The tomb of Rousseau in the crypt of the Panthéon, Paris Rousseau was born in Geneva, Switzerland... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... Baruch de Spinoza (‎, Portuguese: , Basque: , Latin: ) (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ... Matthias Claudius (August 15, 1740 - January 21, 1815) was a German poet, otherwise known by the nom de plume of ASMUS. Born at Reinfeld, near Lübeck, and studied at Jena. ... For the second husband of Henrietta Howard, Countess of Suffolk, see George Berkeley (MP). ... This article is about the philosopher. ... Descartes redirects here. ...


Kant

Schopenhauer's identification of the Kantian noumenon (i.e., the actually existing entity) with what he termed Will deserves some explanation. The noumenon was what Kant called the Ding an Sich, the "Thing in Itself", the reality that is the foundation of our sensory and mental representations of an external world. In Kantian terms, those sensory and mental representations are mere phenomena. Schopenhauer departed from Kant in his description of the relationship between the phenomenon and the noumenon. According to Kant, things-in-themselves ground the phenomenal representations in our minds. Schopenhauer, on the other hand, believed phenomena and noumena to be two different sides of the same coin. Noumena do not cause phenomena, but rather phenomena are simply the way by which our minds perceive the noumena, according to the Principle of Sufficient Reason. This is explained more fully in Schopenhauer's doctoral thesis, On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason. Schopenhauer appended a criticism to the first volume of his The World as Will and Representation. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... The principle of sufficient reason states that anything that happens does so for a definite reason. ... Originally published as a doctoral dissertation in 1813, Arthur Schopenhauer revised this important work and re-published it in 1847. ...


Schopenhauer's second major departure from Kant's epistemology concerns the body. Kant's philosophy was formulated as a response to the radical philosophical skepticism of David Hume, who claimed that causality could not be observed empirically. Schopenhauer begins by arguing that Kant's demarcation between external objects, knowable only as phenomena, and the Thing in Itself of noumenon, contains a significant omission. There is, in fact, one physical object we know more intimately than we know any object of sense perception. It is our own body. Philosophical scepticism (UK spelling, scepticism) is both a philosophical school of thought and a method that crosses disciplines and cultures. ... This article is about the philosopher. ...


We know our human bodies have boundaries and occupy space, the same way other objects known only through our named senses do. Though we seldom think of our bodies as physical objects, we know even before reflection that it shares some of their properties. We understand that a watermelon cannot successfully occupy the same space as an oncoming truck. We know that if we tried to repeat the experiment with our own bodies, we would obtain similar results. We know this even if we do not understand the physics involved. List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...


We know that our consciousness inhabits a physical body, similar to other physical objects only known as phenomena. Yet our consciousness is not commensurate with our body. Most of us possess the power of voluntary motion. We usually are not aware of the breathing of our lungs or the beating of our hearts unless somehow our attention is called to them. Our ability to control either is limited. Our kidneys command our attention on their schedule rather than one we choose. Few of us have any idea what our livers are doing right now, though this organ is as needful as lungs, heart, or kidneys. The conscious mind is the servant, not the master, of these and other organs. These organs have an agenda which the conscious mind did not choose, and over which it has limited power. Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ...


When Schopenhauer identifies the noumenon with the desires, needs, and impulses in us that we name "Will," what he is saying is that we participate in the reality of an otherwise unachievable world outside the mind through will. We cannot prove that our mental picture of an outside world corresponds with a reality by reasoning. Through will, we know—without thinking—that the world can stimulate us. We suffer fear, or desire. These states arise involuntarily. They arise prior to reflection. They arise even when the conscious mind would prefer to hold them at bay. The rational mind is for Schopenhauer a leaf borne along in a stream of pre-reflective and largely unconscious emotion. That stream is will, and through will, if not through logic, we can participate in the underlying reality that lies beyond mere phenomena. It is for this reason that Schopenhauer identifies the noumenon with what we call our will.


See also:

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Schopenhauers criticism of Kants schemata is part of Schopenhauers criticism of the Kantian philosophy which was published in 1819. ...

Influence

Schopenhauer is thought to have influenced the following intellectual figures and schools of thought: Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Gustav Mahler, Charles Darwin, Theodule Ribot, Ferdinand Tönnies, Eugene O'Neill, Max Horkheimer, C. G. Jung, Sigmund Freud, George Gissing, John N. Gray[11], Ludwig Wittgenstein, Albert Einstein, Karl Popper, Samuel Beckett, Jorge Luis Borges, Wilhelm Busch, Dylan Thomas, Leo Tolstoy, Emil Cioran, Thomas Mann, Italo Svevo, Joseph Campbell, Eduard von Hartmann, Phenomenalism, and Recursionism.[citation needed] Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... “Mahler” redirects here. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Théodule-Augustin Ribot (1823 –1891) was a French realist painter. ... Ferdinand Tönnies (July 26, 1855, near Oldenswort (Eiderstedt) - April 9, 1936, Kiel, Germany) was a German sociologist. ... Eugene Gladstone ONeill (October 16, 1888 – November 27, 1953) was a Nobel- and four-time Pulitzer Prize-winning American playwright. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg Max Horkheimer (February 14, 1895 – July 7, 1973) was a Jewish-German philosopher and sociologist, known especially as the founder and guiding thinker of the Frankfurt School of critical theory. ... Carl Gustav Jung Carl Gustav Jung (July 26, 1875 – June 6, 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of the neopsychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... George Gissing (November 22, 1857 – December 28, 1903) was a British novelist. ... Professor John N. Gray John N. Gray (born April 17, 1948) in South Shields, County Durham, is a prominent British political philosopher and author, currently School Professor of European Thought at the London School of Economics. ... Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (IPA: ) (April 26, 1889 in Vienna, Austria – April 29, 1951 in Cambridge, England) was an Austrian philosopher who contributed several ground-breaking ideas to philosophy, primarily in the foundations of logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of mind. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Sir Karl Raimund Popper CH FRS FBA (July 28, 1902 â€“ September 17, 1994) was an Austrian and British[1] philosopher and a professor at the London School of Economics. ... Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ... Borges redirects here. ... Works (with the year of publication) 1864 Bilderpossen 1865 Max and Moritz 1866 Schnaken und Schnurren 1867 Hans Huckebein der Unglücksrabe 1868 Schnaken und Schnurren, part II 1869 Schnurrdiburr oder die Bienen Braun 1870 Der heilige Antonius von Padua 1872 Schnaken und Schnurren, part III 1872 Die fromme Helene... Dylan Marlais Thomas (27 October 1914 – 9 November 1953) was a Welsh poet. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Emil Cioran Emil Cioran (April 8, 1911 – June 20, 1995) was a Romanian philosopher and essayist. ... For other persons named Thomas Mann, see Thomas Mann (disambiguation). ... Aron Ettore Schmitz (December 19, 1861 – September 13, 1928), better known by the pseudonym Italo Svevo, was an Italian businessman and author of novels, plays, and short stories, who converted to Roman Catholicism after marrying Livia Veneziani. ... For other uses, see Joseph Campbell (disambiguation). ... ... In epistemology and the philosophy of perception, phenomenalism is the view that physical objects do not exist as things in themselves but only as perceptual phenomena or sensory stimuli (e. ... Recursionism means a variety of things to different people. ...


Schopenhauer vs. Hegel

Schopenhauer expressed his dislike for the philosophy of his contemporary Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel many times in his published works. The following quotation is typical: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (IPA: ) (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and, with Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, one of the representatives of German idealism. ...

If I were to say that the so-called philosophy of this fellow Hegel is a colossal piece of mystification which will yet provide posterity with an inexhaustible theme for laughter at our times, that it is a pseudo-philosophy paralyzing all mental powers, stifling all real thinking, and, by the most outrageous misuse of language, putting in its place the hollowest, most senseless, thoughtless, and, as is confirmed by its success, most stupefying verbiage, I should be quite right. Further, if I were to say that this summus philosophus [...] scribbled nonsense quite unlike any mortal before him, so that whoever could read his most eulogized work, the so-called Phenomenology of the Mind, without feeling as if he were in a madhouse, would qualify as an inmate for Bedlam, I should be no less right. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (IPA: ) (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and, with Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, one of the representatives of German idealism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hegels work Phänomenologie des Geistes (1807) is called The Phenomenology of Spirit or The Phenomenology of Mind in English; the German word Geist has connotations of both spirit and mind in English. ... The Bethlem Royal Hospital of London, which has been variously known as St. ...

Arthur Schopenhauer, On the Basis of Morality, pp 15-16 On the Basis of Morality (German: Ãœber die Grundlage der Moral) is one of Arthur Schopenhauers major works in ethics, in which argues that morality stems from compassion. ...

In his "Foreword to the first edition" of his work Die beiden Grundprobleme der Ethik, Schopenhauer suggested that he had shown Hegel to have fallen prey to the Post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy. For the episode of the television program The West Wing, see Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc (The West Wing). ...


Schopenhauer thought that Hegel used deliberately impressive but ultimately vacuous verbiage. He suggested his works were filled with "castles of abstraction"[citation needed] that sounded impressive but ultimately contained no content. He also thought that his glorification of church and state were designed for personal advantage and had little to do with the search for philosophical truth.[citation needed] For instance, the Right Hegelians interpreted Hegel as viewing the Prussian state of his day as perfect and the goal of all history up until then.[12] So, although Schopenhauer may have appeared vain and overly vociferous in his constant attacks on Hegel, they were not necessarily devoid of merit. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ...


Schopenhauer and Buddhism

Schopenhauer's philosophy is similar to Buddhism in many ways. Buddhism teaches what it calls the Four Noble Truths: Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Sanskrit: Catvāri āryasatyāni, Chinese: Sìshèngdì, Thai: อริยสัจสี่, Ariyasaj Sii) are one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. ...

  1. There is suffering or dukkha;
  2. Suffering results from desire;
  3. Desires can be totally eliminated (the eventual state of Nirvana)[13]
  4. Following the Eightfold Path leads to Nirvana.

Schopenhauer's philosophy asserts the first three of Buddhism's four truths in that it associates will with desire, appetite, and craving. However, instead of the fourth truth, Schopenhauer describes a twofold path. Denial of the will is attained by either: Suffering is any aversive (not necessarily unwanted) experience and the corresponding negative emotion. ... Dukkha (Pāli दुक्ख ; according to grammatical tradition from Sanskrit uneasy, but according to Monier-Williams more likely a Prakritized form of unsteady, disquieted) is a central concept in Buddhism, the word roughly corresponding to a number of terms in English including sorrow, suffering, affliction, pain, anxiety, dissatisfaction, discomfort, anguish, stress... This article is about the Buddhist concept. ...

  1. Personal experience of an extremely great suffering that leads to loss of the will to live; or
  2. Knowledge of the essential nature of life in the world through observation of the suffering of other people.

Buddhist Nirvana is equivalent to the condition that Schopenhauer described as denial of the will. Occult historian[citation needed] Joscelyn Godwin stated, "It was Buddhism that inspired the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer, and, through him, attracted Richard Wagner. This Orientalism reflected the struggle of the German Romantics, in the words of Leon Poliakov, to free themselves from Judeo-Christian fetters" (Arktos, p. 38). In opposition to Joscelyn Godwin's claim that Buddhism inspired Schopenhauer, the philosopher himself made the following statement in his discussion of religions[14]: Joscelyn Godwin (born 16 January 1945 at Kelmscott, Oxfordshire, England) is a musicologist, writer and translator. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... For the book by Edward Said, see Orientalism (book). ... Léon Poliakov (Russian: ; 1910-1997) was a historian who wrote extensively on the Holocaust and anti-Semitism. ... Jacob wrestling an angel, by Gustave Doré (1832-1883), a shared Judeo-Christian story. ...

If I wished to take the results of my philosophy as the standard of truth, I should have to concede to Buddhism pre-eminence over the others. In any case, it must be a pleasure to me to see my doctrine in such close agreement with a religion that the majority of men on earth hold as their own, for this numbers far more followers than any other. And this agreement must be yet the more pleasing to me, inasmuch as in my philosophizing I have certainly not been under its influence (emphasis added). For up till 1818, when my work appeared, there was to be found in Europe only a very few accounts of Buddhism, - .

’’The World as Will and Representation’’, Vol. 2, Ch. 17 Published in 1819, The World as Will and Representation, sometimes translated as The World as Will and Idea (original German title: Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung), is the central work of Arthur Schopenhauer. ...

Buddhist philosopher Nishitani Keiji however sought to distance Buddhism from Schopenhauer.[citation needed] Nishitani Keiji (西谷 啓治 Nishitani Keiji, 1900, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan - 1990) was one of Nishida Kitaros disciples and part of the Kyoto School of Philosophy. ...


While Schopenhauer's philosophy may sound rather mystical in such a summary, his methodology was resolutely empirical, rather than speculative or transcendental: Meethodology is defined as the analysis of the principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline, the systematic study of methods that are, can be, or have been applied within a discipline or a particular procedure or set of procedures [1]. It should be noted that methodology is... A central concept in science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. ...

Philosophy... is a science, and as such has no articles of faith; accordingly, in it nothing can be assumed as existing except what is either positively given empirically, or demonstrated through indubitable conclusions.

Parerga & Paralipomena, vol. i, pg. 106., trans. E.F.J. Payne

Also note:

This actual world of what is knowable, in which we are and which is in us, remains both the material and the limit of our consideration.

World as Will and Representation, vol. i, pg. 273, trans. E.F.J. Payne

Selected bibliography

  • On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason(Über die vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom zureichenden Grunde), 1813
  • On Vision and Colours (Über das Sehn und die Farben), 1816 ISBN 0-85496-988-8
  • The World as Will and Representation, (sometimes also known in English as The World as Will and Idea and in German Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung), 1818/1819, vol 2 1844
    • Vol. 1 Dover edition 1966, ISBN 0-486-21761-2
    • Vol. 2 Dover edition 1966, ISBN 0-486-21762-0
    • Peter Smith Publisher hardcover set 1969, ISBN 0-8446-2885-9
    • Everyman Paperback combined abridged edition (290 p.) ISBN 0-460-87505-1
  • On the Will in Nature (Über den Willen in der Natur), 1836 ISBN 0-85496-999-3
  • On the Freedom of the Will (Über die Freiheit des menschlichen Willens), 1839 ISBN 0-631-14552-4
  • On the Basis of Morality (Über die Grundlage der Moral), 1840
  • Parerga und Paralipomena, 1851 ISBN 0-19-924221-6
  • Arthur Schopenhauer, Manuscript Remains, Volume II, Berg Publishers Ltd., ISBN 0-85496-539-4

Online: Originally published as a doctoral dissertation in 1813, Arthur Schopenhauer revised this important work and re-published it in 1847. ... Published in 1819, The World as Will and Representation, sometimes translated as The World as Will and Idea (original German title: Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung), is the central work of Arthur Schopenhauer. ... On the Freedom of the Will was an essay presented to the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences in 1839 by Arthur Schopenhauer as a response to the academic question that they had posed. ...

Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Librivox is a digital library of free public domain audio books, read by volunteers. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ...

See also

Schopenhauers criticism of the proofs of the Parallel Postulate Schopenhauer criticized mathematicians attempts to prove Euclids Parallel Postulate because they try to prove from indirect concepts that which is directly evident from perception. ... Wooden Iron is a polemical term often used in philosophic rhetoric to describe the impossibility of an opposing argument. ... The Art of Being Right (Die Kunst, Recht zu Behalten) is a short treatise of the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Safranski (1990) page 12. "There was in the father's life some dark and vague source of fear which later made him hurl himself to his death from the attic of his house in Hamburg."
  2. ^ Arthur Schopenhauer, Manuscript Remains, Volume II, p. 241
  3. ^ The World as Will and Representation, Volume I, § 7
  4. ^ Addressed in: Russell, Bertrand (1945).
  5. ^ Safranski (1990), Chapter 19
  6. ^ "Nearly a century before Freud... in Schopenhauer there is, for the first time, an explicit philosophy of the unconscious and of the body. Safranski pg. 345.
  7. ^ Safranski (1990), Chapter 24. Page 348.
  8. ^ On page 566 of Schopenhauer, Arthur. "The World as Will and Representation: Volume Two". Dover
  9. ^ Abelsen, Peter (1993). "Schopenhauer and Buddhism." Philosophy East & West, 44:2 p. 255. Retrieved on: August 18, 2007.
  10. ^ The World as Will and Representation Preface to the first edition, p. xiii)
  11. ^ In the book Straw Dogs, John Gray upheld Schopenhauer as one of the few philosophers who has dedicated himself to studying Eastern philosophy as well as Western philosophy. The book argues against free will, and states that humans have much more in common with animals than is commonly admitted in the West. Schopenhauer is praised for his attitude towards animals, and for having addressed the brutality of much of human life.
  12. ^ "...the Hegelians who, in complete unsmiling seriousness, were airing the question of what the further content of world history could possibly be, now that in the Helgelian philosophy the world spirit had reached the goal, the knowledge of itself." Safranski, pg. 256
  13. ^ "There is a remarkable correspondence, at least in broad terms, between some of the central Schopenhauerian doctrines and Buddhism: notably in the views that empirical existence is suffering, that suffering originates in desires, and that salvation can be attained by the extinction of desires. These three 'truths of the Buddha' are mirrored closely in the essential structure of the doctrine of the will."Janaway, Christopher, Self and World in Schopenhauer's Philosophy, p. 28 f.
  14. ^

    Schopenhauer is often said to be the first, or indeed the only, modern Western philosopher of any note to attempt any integration of his work with Eastern ways of thinking. That he was the first is surely true, but the claim that he was influenced by Indian thought needs some qualification. There is a remarkable correspondence, at least in broad terms, between some of the central Schopenhauerian doctrines and Buddhism: notably in the views that empirical existence is suffering, that suffering originates in desires, and that salvation can be attained by the extinction of desires. These three 'truths of the Buddha' are mirrored closely in the essential structure of the doctrine of the will (On this, see Dorothea W. Dauer, Schopenhauer as Transmitter of Buddhist Ideas. Note also the discussion by Bryan Magee, The Philosophy of Schopenhauer, pp. 14-15, 316-21). Published in 1819, The World as Will and Representation, sometimes translated as The World as Will and Idea (original German title: Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung), is the central work of Arthur Schopenhauer. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Christopher Janaway (BA, DPhil Oxford), is a philosopher and author. ...

    Janaway, Christopher, Self and World in Schopenhauer's Philosophy, p. 28 f. Christopher Janaway (BA, DPhil Oxford), is a philosopher and author. ...

References

  • Albright, Daniel (2004) Modernism and Music: An Anthology of Sources. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-01267-0.
  • Russell, Bertrand (1945) A History of Western Philosophy and its Connection with Political and Social Circumstances from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. Simon and Schuster.
  • Safranski, Rüdiger (1990) Schopenhauer and the Wild Years of Philosophy. Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-79275-0

Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ...

Secondary literature

Books:

  • Atwell, John. Schopenhauer on the Character of the World, The Metaphysics of Will.
  • --------, Schopenhauer, The Human Character.
  • Christopher Janaway, 2003. Self and World in Schopenhauer's Philosophy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-825003-7
  • Hamlyn, D. W., Schopenhauer, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1980
  • --------, Schopenhauer: A Very Short introduction.
  • Magee, Bryan, The Philosophy of Schopenhauer, Oxford University Press, 1997 (reprint), ISBN 0-19-823722-7
  • Gerard Mannion, "Schopenhauer, Religion and Morality - The Humble Path to Ethics", Ashgate Press, New Critical Thinking in Philosophy Series, 2003, 314pp

Articles: Christopher Janaway (BA, DPhil Oxford), is a philosopher and author. ... Bryan Magee (born April 12, 1930) is a noted British broadcasting personality, politician, and author, best known as a popularizer of philosophy. ...

Sangharakshita (1925-) is the founder of the Western Buddhist Order, and the Friends of the Western Buddhist Order (FWBO). ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
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Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
  • Arthur Schopenhauer at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy by Robert Wicks.
  • Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860). Short essay by Kelley L. Ross on Schopenhauer's life & work, and his dim view of academia.
  • Schopenhauer and Buddhism, Peter Abelson, Philosophy East and West, Volume 43, Number 2, April 1993, p.255-278
  • On the fourfold root of the principle of sufficient reason and on the will in nature Cornell University Library Historical Monographs Collection. {Reprinted by} Cornell University Library Digital Collections
Persondata
NAME Schopenhauer, Arthur
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION German philosopher
DATE OF BIRTH February 22, 1788(1788-02-22)
PLACE OF BIRTH Stutthof, Kingdom of Prussia
DATE OF DEATH September 21, 1860
PLACE OF DEATH Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany

  Results from FactBites:
 
Arthur Schopenhauer - LoveToKnow 1911 (5805 words)
ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER (1788-1860), German philosopher, was born in Danzig on the 22nd of February 1788.
The essay, which must be treated as an episode or digression from the direct path of Schopenhauer's development, due to the potent force of Goethe, was written at Dresden, to which he had transferred his abode after the rupture with his mother.
It was thus that Schopenhauer by his own experience saw in the primacy of the will the fundamental fact of his philosophy, and found in the engrossing interests of the selfish 'pros the perennial hindrances of the higher life.
Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860). (418 words)
Schopenhauer was, as a philosopher, a pessimist; he was a follower of Kant's Idealist school.
Born in Danzig, Schopenhauer, because of a large inheritance from his father, was able to retire early, and, as a private scholar, was able to devote his life to the study of philosophy.
Schopenhauer saw the worst in life and as a result he was dour and glum.
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