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Encyclopedia > Arthur Kornberg
Arthur Kornberg
Arthur Kornberg

Arthur Kornberg (born March 3, 1918) is an American biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959 for his discovery of "the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)" together with Dr. Severo Ochoa of New York University. He has also been awarded the Paul-Lewis Laboratories Award in Enzyme Chemistry from the American Chemical Society in 1951, L.H.D. degree from Yeshiva University in 1962, as well as National Medal of Science in 1979. Image File history File links Arthur_Kornberg. ... Image File history File links Arthur_Kornberg. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... A biochemist is a scientist trained and dedicated to producing results in the discipline of biochemistry. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... DNA replication Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid which carries genetic instructions for the biological development of all cellular forms of life and many viruses. ... Severo Ochoa Statue outside the School of Medicine of the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM). ... New York University (NYU) is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in New York City. ... The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a learned society (professional association) based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Yeshiva University is a private Jewish university in New York City whose first component was founded in 1886. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... National Medal of Science The National Medal of Science is an honor given by the President of the United States to individuals in science and engineering who have made important contributions to the advancement of knowledge in the fields of behavioral and social sciences, biology, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and physics. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


His primary research interests have been in biochemistry, especially enzyme chemistry, the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and studying the nucleic acids which control heredity in animals, plants, bacteria and viruses. Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... DNA replication Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid which carries genetic instructions for the biological development of all cellular forms of life and many viruses. ...

Contents

Early life

Born in New York City he was the son of Joseph and Lena Kornberg. His parents emigrated to New York from Austrian Galicia (now part of Poland) in 1900 before they were married. His paternal grandfather had changed the family name from Queller (also spelled Kweller) to avoid the draft by taking on the identity of someone who had already completed military service. Joseph married Lena Katz in 1904. He worked as a sewing machine operator in the sweat shops of the Lower East side of New York for almost 30 years, and when his health failed, opened a small hardware store in Brooklyn, where Arthur assisted customers at the age of nine. Joseph spoke at least six languages although he had no formal education. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Galicia. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Mural on Orchard Street and Houston Street by artist Marco L.E.S. redirects here. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ...


Arthur Kornberg was educated first at Abraham Lincoln High School and then at City College in New York City. He received at B. Sc. in 1937, followed by an M.D. at the University of Rochester in 1941. Kornberg has an elevated level of bilirubin in his blood—a mild jaundice known as Gilbert's syndrome—and while at medical school he took a survey of fellow students to discover how common the condition was. The results were published in Kornberg's first research paper, in 1942. Abraham Lincoln High School is a public high school located at 2800 Ocean Parkway, Brooklyn, New York, and educates grades 9 through 12. ... City College of The City University of New York The City College of The City University of New York (known more commonly as the City College of New York or simply City College) is a senior college of the City University of New York, in New York City. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Medicinæ Doctor or Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or D.M.) is a doctorate level degree held by medical doctors. ... The University of Rochester (UR) is a private, coeducational and nonsectarian research university located in Rochester, New York. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Bilirubin is a yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. ... Jaundice, also known as icterus (attributive adjective: icteric), is a yellowing of the skin, conjunctiva (a clear covering over the sclera, or whites of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia (increased levels of bilirubin in red blooded animals). ... Gilberts syndrome (pr. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


His internship was with Strong Memorial Hospital in Rochester, New York, between 1941-1942. After completing his medical training he joined the armed services as a Lieutenant in the United States Coast Guard, serving as a ship's doctor in 1942. Rolla Dyer, the Director of National Institutes of Health, had noticed his paper and invited him to join the research team at the Nutrition Laboratory of the NIH. From 1942-1945, Kornberg's work was the feeding of specialised diets to rats to discover new vitamins. Strong Memorial Hospital is a 750-bed medical facility located at the University of Rochester Medical Center in Rochester, New York. ... Nickname: Motto: Rochester: Made for Living Location of Rochester in New York State Country State County Monroe Government [1]  - Mayor Robert Duffy (D) Area  - City  37. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the United States armed forces a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ... Rolla Eugene Dyer (1886-1971), was born in Delaware County, Ohio. ... NIH can refer to: National Institutes of Health Norwegian School of Sports Sciences: (Norges idrettshøgskole - NIH) Not Invented Here This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Scientific research

The feeding of rats was boring work, and Kornberg became fascinated by enzymes. He transferred to Dr Severo Ochoa's laboratory at New York University in 1946, and took summer courses at Columbia University to fill out the gaps in his knowledge of organic and physical chemistry while learning the techniques of enzyme purification at work. He became Chief of the Enzyme and Metabolism Section at NIH from 1947-1953, working on understanding of ATP production from NAD and NADP. This led to his work on how DNA is built up from simpler molecules. Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Severo Ochoa Statue outside the School of Medicine of the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM). ... New York University (NYU) is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in New York City. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alma Mater Columbia University in the City of New York is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ or in older notation DPN+) is an important coenzyme found in cells. ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) are two important coenzymes found in cells. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ...


In 1953 he became Professor and Head of the Department of Microbiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S., until 1959. Here he continued experimenting with the enzymes which created DNA. In 1956 he isolated the first DNA polymerising enzyme, now known as DNA polymerase I [1]. This won him the Nobel prize in 1959. Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Washington University in St. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1960 he received a LL.D. again from City College, followed by a D.Sc. at the University of Rochester in 1962. He has been Professor and Executive Head of the Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University, Stanford since 1959. Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Legum Doctor (English: Doctor of Laws; abbreviated to LL.D.) In the UK the LL.D. is a higher doctorate awarded on the basis of exceptionally insightful and distinctive publications, containing significant and original contributions to the science or study of law. ... Sc. ... The University of Rochester (UR) is a private, coeducational and nonsectarian research university located in Rochester, New York. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Stanford” redirects here. ... Stanford may refer: Stanford University Places: Stanford, Kentucky Stanford, California, home of Stanford University Stanford Shopping Center Stanford, New York, town in Dutchess County. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Kornberg's mother died of gas gangrene from a spore infection after a routine gall bladder operation in 1939. This started a lifelong fascination with spores, and he devoted some of his research efforts to understanding them while at Washington University. From 1962 to 1970, in the midst of his work on DNA synthesis, Kornberg devoted half his research effort to determining how DNA is stored in the spore, what replication mechanisms are included, and how the spore generates a new cell. This was an unfashionable but complex area of science, and although some progress was made, eventually Kornberg abandoned this research. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst) is a pear-shaped organ that stores bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the...


The Arthur Kornberg Medical Research Building at the University of Rochester Medical Center was named in his honor in 1999. The University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC), located in Rochester, New York, is one of the main campuses of the University of Rochester and comprises the universitys primary medical education, research and patient care facilities. ...


As of 2006, Kornberg still maintains an active research laboratory at Stanford, and regularly publishes peer reviewed scientific papers. For several years the focus of his research has been the metabolism of inorganic polyphosphate. Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... Polyphosphates are phosphate polymers linked between hydroxyl groups and hydrogen atoms. ...


The "Kornberg school" of biochemistry refers to Arthur Kornberg's many graduate students and post-doctoral fellows, i.e., his intellectual children, and the trainees of his trainees, i.e., his intellectual grandchildren. Kornberg's intellectual children include I. Robert Lehman, Randy Schekman, William T. Wickner and Ken-ichi Arai. Randy Schekman received the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research in 2002. ...


Family life

Kornberg married Sylvy Ruth Levy, also a biochemist of note, on November 21, 1943. She worked closely with Kornberg and contributed significantly to the discovery of DNA polymerase. The day after he was awarded the Nobel prize, she was quoted in a newspaper as saying "I was robbed". is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


They had three sons: Roger David Kornberg (1947) (currently Professor of Structural Biology at Stanford University, and the 2006 laureate of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry), Thomas B. Kornberg (1948) (who discovered DNA polymerase II and III in 1970 and is now a biochemist at the University of California, San Francisco), and Kenneth Andrew Kornberg (1950) (an architect specialising in the design of biomedical and biotechnology laboratories and buildings). Roger D. Kornberg Roger David Kornberg (born April 24, 1947) is an American scientist and professor of structural biology at Stanford University School of Medicine. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Stanford” redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... Thomas Bill Kornberg is an American biochemist who was the first person to purify and characterise DNA polymerase II and DNA polymerase III.[1][2] He is currently a Professor of biochemistry and biophysics at the University of California, San Francisco working on Drosophila melanogaster development. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 3D structure of the DNA-binding helix-hairpin-helix motifs in human DNA polymerase beta A DNA polymerase is an enzyme that assists in DNA replication. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... UCSF in 1908, with the streetcar that used to run on Parnassus Avenue The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) is one of the worlds leading centers of health sciences research, patient care, and education. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Sylvy died in 1986. Arthur Kornberg married Charlene Walsh Levering in 1988. Charlene died in 1995 and Arthur married Carolyn Dixon in December of 1998. He still works in the Stanford University Biochemistry Department several days a week, even though he is in his eighties. Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...


References

  1. ^ Nicole Kresge, Robert D. Simoni, Robert L. Hill (2005). Arthur Kornberg's Discovery of DNA Polymerase I. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 46. free fulltext

Books

  • For the Love of Enzymes: The Odyssey of a Biochemist. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1989, ISBN 0-674-30776-3
  • The Golden Helix: Inside Biotech Ventures. University Science Books, 2002, ISBN 1-891389-19-X

Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

External link


  Results from FactBites:
 
Arthur Kornberg (557 words)
Arthur Kornberg was born on March 3, 1918, in New York City.
Kornberg has an elevated level of bilirubin in his blood—a mild jaundice known as Gilbert's syndrome—and while at medical school he took a survey of fellow students to discover how common the condition was.
Kornberg was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1959 for his “discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid” together with Severo Ochoa at New York University.
BIO.COM: Biotechnology Pharmaceutical Therapeutics, Vaccines, Diagnostics, Discovery - Biotech, Pharma, Biomedical (1856 words)
Kornberg's research, and latest award, is a family affair: his father Arthur Kornberg, PhD, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1959 for studies of how genetic information is transferred from one DNA molecule to another.
Arthur Kornberg said he had not imagined decades ago, when his son first began his career as a biochemist, that there would be a second Nobel laureate in the family.
Kornberg is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and an honorary member of the Japanese Biochemical Society.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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