FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Arthur Koestler

Arthur Koestler (September 5, 1905, BudapestMarch 3, 1983, London) was a Hungarian polymath who became a naturalized British subject. He wrote journalism, novels, social philosophy, and books on scientific subjects. He was a communist during much of the 1930s, but later became an outspoken anti-communist. He remained politically active until the 1950s. He wrote several popular books, including Arrow in the Blue (the first volume of his autobiography), The Yogi and the Commissar (a collection of essays, many dealing with Communism), The Sleepwalkers (A History of Man's Changing Vision of the Universe), The Act of Creation, and The Thirteenth Tribe (a new theory on the origins of Eastern European Jews). Koestler's Magnum opus, the novel Darkness at Noon about the Soviet 1930s purges, ranks with George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four as a fictional treatment of Stalinism. He also wrote Encyclopædia Britannica articles. September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (63rd in leap years). ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Leonardo da Vinci is seen as an epitome of the Renaissance man or polymath A polymath (Greek polymathÄ“s, πολυμαθής, meaning knowing, understanding, or having learnt in quantity, compounded from πολυ- much, many, and the root μαθ-, meaning learning, understanding[1]) is a person well educated in a wide variety of subjects or... Journalism is a discipline of writing. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... Social philosophy is the philosophical study of interesting questions about social behavior (typically, of humans). ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Magnum opus (sometimes Opus magnum, plural magna opera), from the Latin meaning great work,[1] refers to the best, most popular, or most renowned achievement of an author, artist, or composer, and most commonly one who has contributed a very large amount of material. ... Darkness at Noon is the most famous novel by Hungarian-born British novelist Arthur Koestler. ... “CCCP” redirects here. ... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) is the name given to campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the late 1930s. ... Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... Nineteen Eighty-Four (commonly written as 1984) is a dystopian novel by the English writer George Orwell, published in 1949. ... Joseph Stalin Stalinism is the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general encyclopedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...

Contents

Life

He was born Kösztler Artúr (Hungarian names have the surname first) in Budapest, Austria-Hungary, to a German-speaking Hungarian family of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. His father, Henrik, was a prosperous start-up industrialist and inventor. His great business success was a "health" soap, which substituted conventional soaps based on animal fats (scarce during the WWI). Henrik's mineral soaps were thought to have health qualities thanks to their weak radioactivity, which in those times was considered curative. When Artur was 14, his family moved to Vienna. // Orthography Modern Hungarian orthography is slightly different (simpler) than that of 18th or 19th century, but many Hungarian surnames retain their historical spelling. ... A family name, or surname, is that part of a persons name that indicates to what family he or she belongs. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Languages Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religions Judaism, Satanism, Nazism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Business magnate. ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ...


Koestler studied science and psychology at the University of Vienna, where he became President of a Zionist student fraternity. A month before he was due to finish his studies, he burnt his matriculation book and did not take his final examinations but made "aliyah" to Israel (then a British Mandate). From 1926 to 1929 he lived in the British Mandate of Palestine, firstly in a kibbutz in the Jezreel Valley ("Heftzibah"), and later in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, where he almost starved. He left Palestine for Paris as a correspondent to the Ullstein group of German newspapers. A year later he became science editor for Ullstein based in Berlin; a highlight of that post was membership in a 1931 Zeppelin expedition to the North Pole. Psychology is an academic or applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes such as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. ... The University of Vienna (German: Universität Wien) in Vienna, Austria is the oldest university in the current Austro-Hungarian domain; it formally opened in 1365. ... A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים; gathering or together) is an Israeli collective intentional community. ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... LZ127 Graf Zeppelin, one of the two zeppelins that carried passengers from Germany to the United States. ... North Pole Scenery When not otherwise qualified, the term North Pole usually refers to the Geographic North Pole – the northernmost point on the surface of the Earth, where the Earths axis of rotation intersects the Earths surface. ...


He joined the Communist Party of Germany in 1931, but left it after the Stalinist show-trials of 1938. During this period he traveled extensively in the Soviet Union and climbed Mount Ararat in Turkey. In Turkmenistan, he met the Black American writer Langston Hughes. 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Mount Ararat (Turkish: , Armenian: , Kurdish: , Greek: , Persian: ‎, Russian: , Hebrew: ‎, Tiberian Hebrew: ) is the tallest peak in Turkey. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and newspaper columnist. ...

In his memoir The Invisible Writing, Koestler recalls that during the summer of 1935 he "wrote about half of a satirical novel called The Good Soldier Schweik Goes to War Again..... It had been commissioned by Willy Münzenberg [the Comintern's chief propagandist in the West] ... but was vetoed by the Party on the grounds of the book's 'pacifist errors' ..." (p. 283). The Invisible Writing: The Second Volume Of An Autobiography, 1932-40 (1954) is a book by Arthur Koestler. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... The Good Soldier Å vejk is an unfinished satirical novel by Jaroslav HaÅ¡ek. ... Willi Münzenberg (August 14, 1889–October 21, 1940) was a leading propagandist for the KPD (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, Communist Party of Germany) in the Weimar Era. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... This article is about the type of communication. ... The term Western world or the West (also on rare occasions called the Occident) can have multiple meanings depending on its context (i. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the Russian...


Soon after the outbreak of World War II, the French authorities detained him for several months as a resident alien in Le Vernet Internment Camp in the foothills of the Pyrenees mountains. Upon his release, he joined the French Foreign Legion. He eventually escaped to England via Morocco and Portugal. In England, he served in the British Army as a member of the British Pioneer Corps, 1941-42, then worked for the BBC. He became a British subject in 1945, and returned to France after the war, where he rubbed shoulders with the set gravitating around Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir (one of the characters in de Beauvoir's novel The Mandarins is believed to be based on Koestler). Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The French département where Le Vernet is located. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees The Pyrenees (Spanish: Pirineos; French: Pyrénées; Catalan: Pirineus; Occitan: Pirenèus; Aragonese: Perinés; Basque: Pirinioak) are a range of mountains in southwest Europe that form a natural border between France and Spain. ... Legionnaire (film) The French Foreign Legion (French: Légion étrangère) is a unique elite unit within the French Army established in 1831. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion... In British nationality law, the term British subject has at different times had different meanings. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... La Beauvoir redirects here; also see: Beauvoir (disambiguation). ... The Mandarins is a novel by Simone de Beauvoir (1908-86), whose father was a Catholic lawyer of conservative views. ...


Koestler returned to London and spent the rest of his life writing and lecturing. In June 1950, Koestler attended and delivered the keynote address at a conference of anti-Communist intellectuals in Berlin that led to the founding of the Congress for Cultural Freedom. He was made a Commander in the Order of the British Empire in the 1970s. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... The International Association for Cultural Freedom (previously known as the Congress for Cultural Freedom) was an anti-communist political group best known for being revealed in 1967 as a covert operation of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. ... The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority, these are Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE) Knight Commander... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ...


In 1983, suffering from Parkinson's disease and leukemia, Koestler committed joint suicide with his third wife Cynthia by taking an overdose of drugs. He had long been an advocate of voluntary euthanasia, and in 1981 had become vice-president of EXIT (now the United Kingdom's Voluntary Euthanasia Society). His will endowed the chair of parapsychology at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland. 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... It has been suggested that Suicide method be merged into this article or section. ... Euthanasia (from Greek: ευθανασία -ευ, eu, good, θάνατος, thanatos, death) is the practice of terminating the life of a person or animal in a presumably painless or minimally painful way, usually by lethal injection. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Parapsychology is the study of certain types of paranormal phenomena (parapsychology comes from the Greek para, “beside, beyond,” + psychology, derived from the Greek psyche, “soul, mind,” + logos “rational discussion”). The term was coined by Max Dessoir (1889). ... The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime...


Speaking out against Nazi atrocities during World War II

During the Second World War, Koestler continually spoke out against the atrocities of the Nazi regime in Germany — his Central European Jewish family background made him particularly involved in a way that many British and United States politicians were not. He had also witnessed personally, the growth of extremist tendencies in the region. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Koestler and a minority of writers and public figures believed that if they sufficiently described the horrors being committed in Europe in news media and public meetings, it would spur the West to action. Despite their efforts, these protests often fell on deaf ears. Capturing their frustration, Koestler described these people as the "screamers". In 1944, he wrote:

We, the screamers, have been at it now for about ten years. We started on the night when the epileptic van der Lubbe set fire to the German Parliament; we said that if you don't quench those flames at once, they will spread all over the world; you thought we were maniacs. At present we have the mania of trying to tell you about the killing-by hot steam, mass-electrocution, and live burial-of the total Jewish population of Europe. So far three million have died. It is the greatest mass killing in recorded history; and it goes on daily, hourly, as regularly as the ticking of your watch. I have photographs before me on the desk while I am writing this, and that accounts for my emotion and bitterness.[1]

Despite these frustrations, Koestler and the "screamers" continued their campaign until the late stages of the war. Mugshot of van der Lubbe Marinus van der Lubbe (January 13, 1909 – January 10, 1934) was a Dutch council communist accused of and executed for setting fire to the German Reichstag building on February 27, 1933, an event known as the Reichstag fire. ... The Reichstag fire was a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany. ...


Multilingualism

In addition to his mother tongue German, and the Hungarian of his homeland, Koestler became fluent in English, and French, and knew some Hebrew and Russian. His biographer David Cesarani claims there is some evidence that Koestler may have picked up some Yiddish from his grandfather. Koestler's multilingualism was principally due to his having resided, worked, or studied in Hungary, Austria, Germany, Palestine, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and France, all by 40 years of age. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Professor David Cesarani (1956-) is an English historian who specialises in Jewish history, especially the Holocaust. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ...


Though he wrote the bulk of his later work in English, Koestler wrote his best-known novels in three different languages: The Gladiators in Hungarian, Darkness at Noon in German (although the original is now lost), and Arrival and Departure in English. His journalism was written in German, Hebrew, French and English, and he even produced the first Hebrew language crossword puzzles and wrote the sketches for the first Hebrew cabaret ("HaMatateh"). The Gladiators is the name of Arthur Koestlers novel about the Spartacus revolt in the Roman Empire. ... Darkness at Noon is the most famous novel by Hungarian-born British novelist Arthur Koestler. ... Arrival and Departure (1943) is the third part of Arthur Koestlers trilogy of novels, the first volume being The Gladiators about the subversion of the Spartacus revolt, and the second being Darkness at Noon, the celebrated novel about the Soviet Show trials. ... A crossword is a word puzzle that normally takes the form of a square grid of black and white squares. ...


Women

Koestler was married to Dorothy Asher (1935-50), Mamaine Paget (1950-52), and Cynthia Jefferies (1965-83). He also had a very short fling with the French writer Simone de Beauvoir. Cesarani claimed that Koestler beat and raped several women, including film director Jill Craigie. The resulting protests led to the removal of a bust of Koestler from public display at the University of Edinburgh. La Beauvoir redirects here; also see: Beauvoir (disambiguation). ... Jill Craigie (7 March 1914, Fulham—13 December 1999, Camden) was a pioneering British documentary film director, actor and writer, feminist and wife of distinguished Labour Party politician, Michael Foot. ... The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


Questions have also been raised by his suicide pact with his last spouse. Although he was terminally ill at the time, she was apparently healthy, leading some to claim he persuaded her to take her own life. A suicide pact describes the suicides of two or more individuals in an agreed-upon plan. ... Terminal illness is a medical term popularized in the 20th century for an active and progressive disease which cannot be cured and is expected to lead to death and or death due to symptoms of disease. ...


Mixed legacy

Just as Darkness at Noon was selling well during the Cold War of the 1940s and '50s, Koestler announced his retirement from politics. Much of what he wrote thereafter revealed a multidisciplinary thinker whose work anticipated a number of trends by many years. He was among the first to experiment with LSD (in a laboratory). He also wrote about Japanese and Indian mysticism in The Lotus and the Robot (1960). Darkness at Noon is the most famous novel by Hungarian-born British novelist Arthur Koestler. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ... The Lotus and the Robot is a book by Arthur Koestler exploring eastern mysticism. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ...


This originality resulted in an uneven set of ideas and conclusions. Topics covered by his works include creativity (Insight and Outlook, Act of Creation) and the history of science (The Sleepwalkers). Some of his other pursuits, such as his interest in the paranormal, his support for euthanasia, his theory of the origin of Ashkenazi Jews like himself, and his disagreement with Darwinism, are more controversial. Paranormal is an umbrella term used to describe a wide variety of reported anomalous phenomena. ... Euthanasia (from Greek: ευθανασία -ευ, eu, good, θάνατος, thanatos, death) is the practice of terminating the life of a person or animal in a presumably painless or minimally painful way, usually by lethal injection. ... Languages Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religions Judaism, Satanism, Nazism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... Charles Darwin Darwinism is a term for the underlying theory in those ideas of Charles Darwin concerning evolution and natural selection. ...


Politics

Koestler was involved in a number of political causes during his life, from Zionism and communism to anti-communism, voluntary euthanasia, and campaigns against capital punishment, particularly hanging. He was also an early advocate of nuclear disarmament. Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Euthanasia (from Greek: ευθανασία -ευ, eu, good, θάνατος, thanatos, death) is the practice of terminating the life of a person or animal in a presumably painless or minimally painful way, usually by lethal injection. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... // This page is about death by hanging. ... Nuclear disarmament is the proposed undeployment and dismantling of nuclear weapons, particularly those of the United States and the Soviet Union (later Russia) targeted on each other. ...


Journalism

Until the bestseller status of Darkness at Noon made him financially comfortable, Koestler often earned his living as a journalist and foreign correspondent, trading on his ability to write quickly in several languages, and to acquire with facility a working knowledge of a new language. He wrote for a variety of newspapers, including Vossische Zeitung (science editor) and B.Z. am Mittag (foreign editor) in the 1920s. In the early 1930s, he worked for the Ullstein publishing group in Berlin and did freelance writing for the French press. The Vossische Zeitung (more precisely: (Königlich Privilegierte) Berlinische Zeitung von Staats- und Gelehrten Sachen) was the well known liberal German newspaper that was published in Berlin (1721-1934). ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ...


While covering the Spanish Civil War, in 1937, he was captured and held for several months by the Falangists in Málaga, until the British Foreign Office negotiated his release. His Spanish Testament records these experiences, which he soon transformed into his classic prison novel Darkness at Noon. After his release from Spanish detention, Koestler worked for the News Chronicle, then edited Die Zukunft with Willi Münzenberg, an anti-Nazi, anti-Stalinist German language paper based in Paris, founded in 1938. During and after World War II, he wrote for a number of English and American papers, including The Sunday Telegraph, on various subjects. He was a frequent contributor to Encounter, one of the most influential periodicals of the Cold War period. Combatants Spanish Republic With the support of: Soviet Union[1] Nationalist Spain With the support of: Italy Germany Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco Gonzalo Queipo de Llano Emilio Mola José Sanjurjo Casualties 500,000[2] The Spanish Civil War (Spanish: Guerra Civil Espa... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Yoke and Arrows. ... Location of Málaga Municipality Málaga  - Mayor Francisco de la Torre Prados Area    - City 385. ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Whitehall, seen from St. ... Spanish Testament is a 1937 book by Arthur Koestler, describing Koestlers recent (at the time of writing) experiences during the Spanish Civil War, where he went as a correspondent for the British News Chronicle, and especially his traumatic period of incarceration by Francos forces under a sentence of... Darkness at Noon is the most famous novel by Hungarian-born British novelist Arthur Koestler. ... Die Zukunft was an exile German language paper, both anti-Nazi and anti-Stalinist in its politics, which was founded in 1938, and was based in Paris and edited by Arthur Koestler and Willi Münzenberg. ... Willi Münzenberg (August 14, 1889–October 21, 1940) was a leading propagandist for the KPD (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, Communist Party of Germany) in the Weimar Era. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Paranormal and scientific interests

During the last 30 years of his life, Koestler wrote extensively on science and scientific practice. The post-modernist scepticism colouring much of this writing tended to alienate most of the scientific community. A case in point is his 1971 book The Case of the Midwife Toad about the biologist Paul Kammerer, who claimed to find experimental support for Lamarckian inheritance. Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated pomo) is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Paul Kammerer (August 17, 1880 in Vienna, Austria – September 23, 1926 in Puchberg am Schneeberg, Austria) was a well known biologist who studied Lamarckian inheritance. ... Lamarckism or Lamarckian evolution is a theory put forward by the French biologist Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck, based on heritability of acquired characteristics, the once widely accepted idea that an organism can acquire characteristics during its lifetime and pass them on to its offspring. ...


Koestler's trilogy culminating with The Ghost in the Machine and later Janus: A Summing Up bridges concepts of reductionism and holism with his systemic theory of Open Hierarchical Systems. Holons in a Holarchy have the dual tendency of integration and development and out of balance they tend to a pathology. He included his concept of Bisociation that became a profound basis for other's work on creativity and James Papez/Paul McLean's Schizophysiology to explain the often irrational behaviour of humans as part of Open Hierarchical Systems. Disambiguation: please visit Ghost in the Machine (disambiguation) for other uses of this term The Ghost in the Machine (1967) is a non-fiction work by Arthur Koestler. ... Janus: A Summing Up is a book by Arthur Koestler, in which he develops his philosophical idea of Holarchies. ... Descartes held that non-human animals could be reductively explained as automata — De homines 1622. ... Holism (from holos, a Greek word meaning all, entire, total) is the idea that all the properties of a given system (biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic, etc. ... A holon (from the Greek holos = whole and on = entity) is something that is simultaneously a whole and a part. ... A holarchy, in the terminology of Arthur Koestler, is a hierarchy of holons — where a holon is simply a part of a hierarchy which itself is a complex system. ... Dr. James Papez Dr. James Papez (1883-1958) was a famous American neuroanatomist. ... McLean Family (rugby union footballers) The McLean family were a remarkable Australian rugby clan who between them played 77 Tests for the Australian national rugby union team and a number of Tests for the Australian national rugby league team. ...


Mysticism and a fascination with the paranormal imbued much of his later work, and greatly influenced his personal life. For some years following his death a Koestler Society in London promoted investigation of these and related subjects. He left a substantial part of his estate to establish the Koestler Parapsychology Unit at the University of Edinburgh dedicated to the study of paranormal phenomena. His The Roots of Coincidence makes an overview of the scientific research around telepathy and psychokinesis and compares it with the advances in quantum physics at that time. It mentions yet another line of unconventional research by Paul Kammerer, the theory of coincidence or synchronicity. He also presents critically the related writings of Carl Jung. More controversial were Koestler's studies of levitation and telepathy. Mysticism from the Greek μυστικός (mustikos) an initiate (of the Eleusinian Mysteries, μυστήρια (musteria) meaning initiation[1]) is the pursuit of achieving communion or identity with, or conscious awareness of, ultimate reality, the divine, spiritual truth, or God through direct experience, intuition, or insight; and the belief that such experience is one... Parapsychology is the study of certain types of paranormal phenomena (parapsychology comes from the Greek para, “beside, beyond,” + psychology, derived from the Greek psyche, “soul, mind,” + logos “rational discussion”). The term was coined by Max Dessoir (1889). ... The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The Roots of Coincidence, written by Arthur Koestler, is an accessible introduction to theories of parapsychology, including extra-sensory perception and psychokinesis. ... Telepathy, from the Greek τῆλε, tele, remote; and πάθεια, patheia, to be effected by, describes the hypothetical transfer of information on thoughts or feelings between individuals by means other than the five classical senses. ... Psychokinesis (Greek ψυχή + κίνησις, literally spirit-movement)[1][2] or PK, also known as telekinesis[3] (Greek + , literally distant-movement referring to telekinesis) or TK, is the proposed paranormal ability of the mind to influence matter or energy without the use of any currently known type of physical means. ... Synchronicity is a word that Swiss psychologist Carl Jung used to describe the temporally coincident occurrences of acausal events. ... Carl Jungs partially autobiographical work Memories , Dreams, Reflections, Fontana edition “Karl Jung” redirects here. ... A cubical magnet levitating over a superconducting material (this is known as the Meissner effect). ... Telepathy, from the Greek τῆλε, tele, remote; and πάθεια, patheia, to be effected by, describes the hypothetical transfer of information on thoughts or feelings between individuals by means other than the five classical senses. ...


Judaism

Although a lifelong atheist, Koestler's ancestry was Jewish. His biographer David Cesarani claimed that Koestler deliberately disowned his Jewish ancestry. Professor David Cesarani (1956-) is an English historian who specialises in Jewish history, especially the Holocaust. ...


When Koestler resided in Palestine during the 1920s, he lived on a kibbutz. This experience provided background for his novel Thieves in the Night. Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים; gathering or together) is an Israeli collective intentional community. ...


He supported the statehood of Israel, but remarked that the Balfour Declaration of 1917 amounted to "one nation solemnly promising to a second nation the country of a third."[citation needed] He believed that Israel would never be destroyed short of a second Shoah.[citation needed] However, he opposed a diaspora Jewish culture: In an interview published in the London Jewish Chronicle around the time of Israel's founding, Koestler maintained that all Jews should either migrate to Israel or else assimilate completely into their local cultures.[citation needed] As for Jewish culture in Israel, Koestler proposed that Israel drop the Hebrew alphabet for the Roman.[citation needed] The Balfour Declaration of 1917 (dated November 2, 1917) was a formal but classified statement of policy by the British government on the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of the World War I. The letter stated the position, agreed at a British Cabinet meeting on October 31... ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ...


Koestler's book The Thirteenth Tribe (1976) advanced the controversial thesis that Ashkenazi Jews are not descended from the Israelites of antiquity, but from the Khazars, a Turkic people in the Caucasus who converted to Judaism in the 8th century and were later forced to move westwards into present-day Russia, Ukraine and Poland. Koestler stated that part of his intent in writing The Thirteenth Tribe was to defuse anti-Semitism by undermining the identification of European Jews with Biblical Jews, with the hope of rendering anti-Semitic epithets such as "Christ killer" inapplicable. Ironically, Koestler's thesis that Ashkenazi Jews are not Semitic has become an important claim of many anti-Semitic groups. The Thirteenth Tribe (1976) is a book by Arthur Koestler. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Arabic خزر; Persianخزر ; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...


Some Palestinians have eagerly seized upon this thesis, believing that to identify most Jews as non-Semites seriously undermines their historical claim to the land of Israel. The main thesis of The Thirteenth Tribe has since been tentatively disproved by genetic testing. A 2000 study of haplotypes by Hammer et al found that the Y chromosome of most Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews was of Middle Eastern origin, containing mutations that are also common among Palestinians and other Middle Eastern peoples, but uncommon in the general European population. This suggested that the male ancestors of the Ashkenazi Jews could be traced primarily to the Middle East.[2] A 2006 study by Behar et al, based on haplotype analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), suggested that about 40% of the current Ashkenazi population is descended matrilineally from just four women. These four "founder lineages" were "likely from a Hebrew/Levantine mtDNA pool" originating in the Near East in the first and second centuries CE.[3] The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ... A haplotype, a contraction of the phrase haploid genotype, is the genetic constitution of an individual chromosome. ... The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... A haplotype is the genetic constitution of an individual chromosome. ... // Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA that is located in mitochondria. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: /lÉ™vænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...


Hallucinogens

In November, 1960, Koestler participated in Timothy Leary's early experiments with psilocybin at Harvard. According to fellow participant Charles Olson, Koestler was distressed by the effects of the drug and isolated himself in an unfurnished bedroom in the Cambridge house Leary used for his project. Koestler again experimented with psilocybin at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, comparing this trip to Walt Disney's Fantasia. For the American baseball player use Tim Leary (baseball player) Timothy Francis Leary, Ph. ... Psilocybin (also known as psilocybine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the tryptamine family, found in psilocybin mushrooms. ... Charles Olson (27 December 1910 – 10 January 1970) was an important 2nd generation American modernist poet who was a crucial link between earlier figures like Ezra Pound and William Carlos Williams and the New American poets, a rubric which includes the New York School, the Black Mountain School, the Beat... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (UM, U of M or U-M) is a coeducational public research university in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... For the railroad company, see Ann Arbor Railroad. ... For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... Fantasia is a 1940 motion picture produced by Walt Disney. ...


In Return Trip to Nirvana, published in the Sunday Telegraph in 1967, Koestler wrote about the drug culture and his own experiences with hallucinogens. The article also challenged the defence of drugs in Aldous Huxley's The Doors of Perception: This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Doors of Perception is a 1954 book by Aldous Huxley detailing his experiences when taking mescaline. ...

I profoundly admire Aldous Huxley, both for his philosophy and uncompromising sincerity. But I disagree with his advocacy of "the chemical opening of doors into the Other World", and with his belief that drugs can procure "what Catholic theologians call a gratuitous grace". Chemically induced hallucinations, delusions and raptures may be frightening or wonderfully gratifying; in either case they are in the nature of confidence tricks played on one's own nervous system.

Cultural influence

In his younger days, the singer Sting was an avid reader of Koestler[citation needed]. His band of the time, The Police, were to name one of their albums Ghost in the Machine after one of Koestler's books. Their album Synchronicity was also inspired by Koestler's The Roots of Coincidence, which discusses Carl Jung's theory of the same name. Koestler knew little about the burgeoning New Wave music scene, and is alleged to have said[citation needed]: Sting in Budapest, 2000 Gordon Matthew Sumner, CBE (born October 2, 1951), usually known by his stage name Sting, is an English musician from Newcastle upon Tyne. ... The Police are a three-piece rock band consisting of singer/bassist Sting, guitarist Andy Summers, and drummer Stewart Copeland. ... For other uses, please see Ghost in the Machine (disambiguation) Ghost in the Machine is the fourth album by The Police, released in 1981 (see 1981 in music). ... Synchronicity is the fifth album by The Police, released in 1983. ... The Roots of Coincidence, written by Arthur Koestler, is an accessible introduction to theories of parapsychology, including extra-sensory perception and psychokinesis. ... Carl Jungs partially autobiographical work Memories , Dreams, Reflections, Fontana edition “Karl Jung” redirects here. ... Synchronicity is a word that Swiss psychologist Carl Jung used to describe the temporally coincident occurrences of acausal events. ... New Wave is a term that has been used to describe many developments in music, but is most commonly associated with a movement in Western popular music, in the late 1970s and early 1980s inspired by the punk rock movement. ...

Look at this. Did you ever see a magazine called the New Musical Express? It turns out there is a pop group called The Police—I don't know why they are called that, presumably to distinguish them from the punks—and they've made an album of my essay The Ghost in the Machine. I didn't know anything about it until my clipping agency sent me a review of the record. The New Musical Express (better known as the NME) is a weekly magazine about popular music published in the UK. It is unlike many other popular music magazines due to its intended focus on guitar-based music and indie rock bands, instead of mainstream pop acts. ...

Trivia

The cyberpunk manga and anime series Ghost in the Shell was also inspired by Koestler's The Ghost in the Machine. Berlins Sony Center reflects the global reach of a Japanese corporation. ... Manga )   (pl. ... The main cast of the anime Cowboy Bebop (1998) (L to R: Spike Spiegel, Jet Black, Ed Tivrusky, Faye Valentine, and Ein the dog) For the oleo-resin, see Animé (oleo-resin). ... Motoko Kusanagi from the manga Ghost in the Shell. ...


Inspector Finch can also be seen reading a copy of The Roots of Coincidence in the graphic novel, V for Vendetta. Koestler is referenced several times in the work. The Roots of Coincidence, written by Arthur Koestler, is an accessible introduction to theories of parapsychology, including extra-sensory perception and psychokinesis. ... Trade paperback of Will Eisners A Contract with God (1978), often mistakenly cited as the first graphic novel. ... This article is about the comic book series. ...


In the 2002 film Red Dragon, The Act of Creation is one of the books seized from Hannibal Lecter's cell. For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Bibliography

A comprehensive introduction to Koestler's writing and thought is this 1980 anthology of passages from many of his books, described as "A selection from 50 years of his writings, chosen and with new commentary by the author":

  • 1980. Bricks to Babel. Random House, ISBN 0-394-51897-7

Autobiography

The books The Lotus and the Robot, The God that Failed, and Von weissen Nächten und roten Tagen, as well as his numerous essays, all contain autobiographical information. Arrow in the Blue is the first volume of Arthur Koestlers autobiography. ... The Invisible Writing: The Second Volume Of An Autobiography, 1932-40 (1954) is a book by Arthur Koestler. ... Spanish Testament is a 1937 book by Arthur Koestler, describing Koestlers recent (at the time of writing) experiences during the Spanish Civil War, where he went as a correspondent for the British News Chronicle, and especially his traumatic period of incarceration by Francos forces under a sentence of...


Biographies

  • Atkins, J., 1956. Arthur Koestler.
  • Buckard, Christian G., 2004. Arthur Koestler: Ein extremes Leben 1905-1983. ISBN 3-406-52177-0.
  • David Cesarani, 1998. Arthur Koestler: The Homeless Mind. ISBN 0-684-86720-6.
  • Hamilton, Iain, 1982. Koestler: A Biography. ISBN 0-02-547660-2.
  • Koestler, Mamaine, 1985. Living with Koestler. ISBN 0-297-78531-1 or ISBN 0-312-49029-1.
  • Levene, M., 1984. Arthur Koestler. ISBN 0-8044-6412-X.
  • Mikes, George, 1983. Arthur Koestler: The Story of a Friendship. ISBN 0-233-97612-4.
  • Pearson, S. A., 1978. Arthur Koestler. ISBN 0-8057-6699-5.

Langston Hughes's autobiography also documents their meeting in Turkestan during the Soviet era. Professor David Cesarani (1956-) is an English historian who specialises in Jewish history, especially the Holocaust. ... Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and newspaper columnist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


Books by Koestler (excluding autobiography)

  • 1934. Von weissen Nächten und roten Tagen. Very difficult to find. In his The Invisible Writing, Koestler calls the book Red Days and White Nights, or, more usually, Red Days. Of the five foreign language editions − Russian, German, Ukrainian, Georgian, Armenian − which were intended, only the German version was eventually published, "thoroughly expurgated", in Kharkov, Ukrainian S.S.R., U.S.S.R.
  • 1935. The Good Soldier Schweik Goes to War Again.... Unfinished and unpublished.
  • 1937. L'Espagne ensanglantée.
  • 1939. The Gladiators, 1967 reprint, ISBN 0-02-565320-2. A novel on the revolt of Spartacus.
  • 1940. Darkness at Noon, ISBN 0-09-942491-6
  • 1942. Dialogue with Death. Abridgement of Spanish Testament.
  • 1943. Arrival and Departure, novel. 1990 reprint, ISBN 0-14-018119-9
  • 1945. The Yogi and the Commissar and other essays.
  • 1945. Twilight Bar. Drama.
  • 1946. Thieves in the Night.
  • 1949. The Challenge of our Time.
  • 1949. Promise and Fulfilment: Palestine 1917-1949.
  • 1949. Insight and Outlook.
  • 1951. The Age of Longing.
  • 1955. The Trail of the Dinosaur and other essays.
  • 1956. Reflections on Hanging.
  • 1959. The Sleepwalkers: A History of Man's Changing Vision of the Universe. ISBN 0-14-019246-8
  • 1960. The Watershed: A Biography of Johannes Kepler. (excerpted from The Sleepwalkers.) ISBN 0-385-09576-7
  • 1960. Lotus and the Robot, ISBN 0-09-059891-1. Koestler's journey to India and Japan, and his assessment of East and West.
  • 1961. Control of the Mind.
  • 1961. Hanged by the Neck. Reuses some material from Reflections on Hanging.
  • 1963. Suicide of a Nation.
  • 1964. The Act of Creation.
  • 1967. The Ghost in the Machine. Penguin reprint 1990: ISBN 0-14-019192-5.
  • 1968. Drinkers of Infinity: Essays 1955-1967.
  • 1970. The Age of Longing, ISBN 0-09-104520-7.
  • 1971. The Case of the Midwife Toad, ISBN 0-394-71823-2. An account of Paul Kammerer's research on Lamarckian evolution and what he called "serial coincidences".
  • 1972. The Roots of Coincidence, ISBN 0-394-71934-4. Sequel to The Case of the Midwife Toad.
  • 1972. The Call Girls: A Tragicomedy with a Prologue and Epilogue (novel).
  • 1973. The Lion and the Ostrich.
  • 1974. The Heel of Achilles: Essays 1968-1973, ISBN 0-394-49596-9.
  • 1976. The Thirteenth Tribe: The Khazar Empire and Its Heritage, ISBN 0-394-40284-7.
  • 1976. Astride the Two Cultures: Arthur Koestler at 70, ISBN 0-394-40063-1.
  • 1977. Twentieth Century Views: A Collection of Critical Essays, ISBN 0-13-049213-2.
  • 1978. Janus: A Summing Up, ISBN 0-394-50052-0. Sequel to The Ghost in the Machine
  • 1981. Kaleidoscope. Essays from Drinkers of Infinity and The Heel of Achilles, plus later pieces and stories.

Location Map of Ukraine with Kharkov highlighted. ... The Gladiators is the name of Arthur Koestlers novel about the Spartacus revolt in the Roman Empire. ... Spartacus by Denis Foyatier, 1830 Spartacus (ca. ... Darkness at Noon is the most famous novel by Hungarian-born British novelist Arthur Koestler. ... Spanish Testament is a 1937 book by Arthur Koestler, describing Koestlers recent (at the time of writing) experiences during the Spanish Civil War, where he went as a correspondent for the British News Chronicle, and especially his traumatic period of incarceration by Francos forces under a sentence of... Arrival and Departure (1943) is the third part of Arthur Koestlers trilogy of novels, the first volume being The Gladiators about the subversion of the Spartacus revolt, and the second being Darkness at Noon, the celebrated novel about the Soviet Show trials. ... Thieves in the Night is an unfinished, published novel by Arthur Koestler written in 1946. ... The Sleepwalkers: A History of Mans Changing Vision of the Universe is a book by Arthur Koestler, and one of the main accounts of the history of cosmology and astronomy in the Western World. ... The Lotus and the Robot is a 1960 book by Arthur Koestler exploring eastern mysticism. ... Disambiguation: please visit Ghost in the Machine (disambiguation) for other uses of this term The Ghost in the Machine (1967) is a non-fiction work by Arthur Koestler. ... Paul Kammerer (August 17, 1880 in Vienna, Austria – September 23, 1926 in Puchberg am Schneeberg, Austria) was a well known biologist who studied Lamarckian inheritance. ... Lamarckism or Lamarckian evolution is a theory put forward by the French biologist Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck, based on heritability of acquired characteristics, the once widely accepted idea that an organism can acquire characteristics during its lifetime and pass them on to its offspring. ... The Roots of Coincidence, written by Arthur Koestler, is an accessible introduction to theories of parapsychology, including extra-sensory perception and psychokinesis. ... Call Girls is a book by Arthur Koestler. ... The Thirteenth Tribe (1976) is a book by Arthur Koestler. ... Janus: A Summing Up is a book by Arthur Koestler, in which he develops his philosophical idea of Holarchies. ...

Writings as a contributor

  • The Encyclopoedia [sic] of Sexual Knowledge (1934) (In his The Invisible Writing, Koestler uses the ligature, spelling the word "Encyclopœdia".)
  • Foreign Correspondent (1939)
  • The Practice of Sex (1940)
  • The God That Failed (1950) (collection of testimonies by ex-Communists)
  • Attila, the Poet (1954) (Encounter ; ; 1954.2 (5)). On loan at the UCL library of the School of Slavonic & Eastern European Studies.
  • UCL library online
  • Beyond Reductionism: The Alpbach Symposium. New Perspectives in the Life Sciences (co-editor with J.R. Smythies, 1969), ISBN 0-8070-1535-0
  • The Challenge of Chance: A Mass Experiment in Telepathy and Its Unexpected Outcome (1973)
  • The Concept of Creativity in Science and Art (1976)
  • Life After Death, (co-editor, 1976)
  • Humour and Wit. I: Encyclopædia Britannica. 15th ed. vol. 9.(1983)
  • *humour - Encyclopædia Britannica(by Arthur Koestler)

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ligature (palaeography). ... The God that Failed is a song from Metallicas self-titled album. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general encyclopedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "On Disbelieving Atrocities", New York Times Magazine, January 1944 and reprinted in The Yogi and the Commissar, Macmillan (1945), pp. 88-92.
  2. ^ Hammer, M. F.; A. J. Redd, E. T. Wood, M. R. Bonner, H. Jarjanazi, T. Karafet, S. Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. Oppenheim, M. A. Jobling, T. Jenkins, H. Ostrer, and B. Bonné-Tamir (May 9 2000). "Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 
  3. ^ Behar, Doron M.; Ene Metspalu, Toomas Kivisild, Alessandro Achilli, Yarin Hadid, Shay Tzur, Luisa Pereira, Antonio Amorim, Lluı's Quintana-Murci, Kari Majamaa, Corinna Herrnstadt, Neil Howell, Oleg Balanovsky, Ildus Kutuev, Andrey Pshenichnov, David Gurwitz, Batsheva Bonne-Tamir, Antonio Torroni, Richard Villems, and Karl Skorecki (March 2006). "The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event". The American Journal of Human Genetics 78 (3): 487-97. PMID 16404693. 

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

  Results from FactBites:
 
Arthur Koestler - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2859 words)
Koestler's multilingualism was principally due to his having resided, worked, or studied in Hungary, Austria, Germany, Palestine (pre-1948 Israel), the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and France, all by 40 years of age.
Koestler was married to Dorothy Asher (1935-50), Mamaine Paget (1950-52), and Cynthia Jefferies (1965-83).
Koestler was involved in a number of political causes during his life, from Zionism and communism to anti-communism, voluntary euthanasia, and campaigns against capital punishment, particularly hanging.
Arthur Koestler - Wikipedia (1014 words)
Koestler blieb trotzdem zunächst dem Kommunismus verbunden, da er die Verhältnisse in Russland damals noch als unvermeidliche "Nachwehen" der Revolution betrachtete und auf ihre baldige Verbesserung hoffte.
Ab 1940 lebte und arbeitete Arthur Koestler in England und befreundete sich dort mit George Orwell (Eric Blair), der in mancher Hinsicht eine ähnliche Entwicklung hinter sich hatte wie er selbst.
Koestler sprach fließend Deutsch, Ungarisch, Englisch und Französisch, verfügte aber auch über Russisch-, Hebräisch- und vermutlich auch Jiddischkenntnisse.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m