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Encyclopedia > Arthur Jensen
Arthur Jensen

Arthur Jensen (born August 24, 1923) is a Professor Emeritus of educational psychology at the University of California, Berkeley.[1] Jensen is known for his work in psychometrics and differential psychology, which is concerned with how and why individuals differ behaviorally from one another. He is a major proponent of the hereditarian position in the nature versus nurture debate, the position that concludes genetics play a significant role in behavioral traits, such as intelligence and personality. He is the author of over 400 scientific papers published in refereed journals[2] and currently sits on the editorial boards of the scientific journals Intelligence and Personality and Individual Differences.[3] Image File history File links Circle-question-red. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Arthur Jensen (November 9, 1897 - November 28, 1981) was a Danish actor whose career lasted for almost 60 years. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (582x657, 90 KB) This is a copyrighted promotional photo with a known source. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (582x657, 90 KB) This is a copyrighted promotional photo with a known source. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... Psychometrics is the field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, which includes the measurement of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and personality traits. ... Differential psychology is concerned with the study of individual differences in humans. ... Hereditarianism is the doctrine or school of thought that heredity is at least as important as environment in determining human nature and character traits, such as intelligence and personality. ... The nature versus nurture debates concern the relative importance of an individuals innate qualities (nature) versus personal experiences (nurture) in determining or causing individual differences in physical and behavioral traits. ... DNA, the molecular basis for inheritance. ... Intelligence is the mental capacity to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research. ... Intelligence is a scientific journal dealing with intelligence and psychometrics. ... Personality and Individual Differences (PAID) is a scientific journal published bi-monthly by Elsevier and founded in 1980. ...


Jensen is both among the most eminent psychologists of the twentieth century[4] and a highly controversial figure. A special 1998 issue of the scientific journal Intelligence was entirely devoted to his life and work under the headline “A King among Men”. E. O. Wilson calls him “an honest and courageous man”.[5] A lifelong student of Mahatma Gandhi, Jensen once offered this insight during an interview Intelligence is a scientific journal dealing with intelligence and psychometrics. ... Edward Osborne Wilson (b. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhÄ«, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948), was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ...

"One of the tenets of my own philosophy is to be as open as possible and to strive for a perfect consistency between my thoughts, both spoken and published, in their private and public expression. This is essentially a Gandhian principle, one that I have long considered worth striving to live by."

Contents

Biography

Jensen was born August 24, 1923, to a father of Danish ancestry and a mother who was half Polish Jewish and half German (non-Jewish).[6]. Jensen studied at University of California, Berkeley (B.A. 1945), San Diego State College (M.A., 1952) and Columbia University (Ph.D., 1956). Jensen did his doctoral thesis on the Thematic Apperception Test. From 1956 through 1958, Jensen did his postdoctoral research at the University of London, Institute of Psychiatry. Upon returning to the United States, Jensen became a researcher and professor at the University of California, Berkeley, where he focused on individual differences in learning, especially the influences of culture, development, and genetics on intelligence and learning. Jensen received tenure at Berkeley in 1962 and was given his first sabbatical in 1964. He has concentrated much of his work on the learning difficulties of culturally disadvantaged students. In 2003, Jensen was awarded the Kistler Prize for original contributions to the understanding of the connection between the human genome and human society. is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The history of the Jews in Poland reaches back over a millennium. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... San Diego State University (SDSU), founded in 1897, is the largest and oldest higher education facility in the greater San Diego area, and is part of the California State University system. ... Columbia University is a private research university in the United States and a member of the prestigious Ivy League. ... The Thematic Apperception Test or TAT is amongst the most widely used, researched, and taught psychological tests. ... The University of London is a university based primarily in London. ... Culture (Culture from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate,) generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Look up tenure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A sabbatical year is a prolonged hiatus, typically one year, in the career of an otherwise successful individual taken in order to fulfill some dream, e. ... The Kistler Prize (created 1999) is awarded annually to recognize original contributions to the understanding of the connection between human heredity and human society, and includes a cash award of US $100,000 and a 200-gram gold medallion. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ...


Jensen has had a life long interest in classical music and was, early in his life, attracted by the idea of becoming a conductor himself. At fourteen, Jensen conducted a band that won a nationwide contest held in San Francisco. Later, Jensen conducted orchestras and attended a seminar given by Nikolai Sokoloff. Soon after graduating from Berkeley, Jensen moved to New York, mainly to be near the conductor Arturo Toscanini. Jensen was also deeply interested in the life and example of Gandhi, producing an unpublished book-length manuscript on his life. During Jensen's period in San Diego he spent time working as a social worker with the San Diego Department of Public Welfare. Nikolai Sokoloff (1886–1965), was a Russian-American conductor and violinist. ... Arturo Toscanini (March 25, 1867 – January 16, 1957) was an Italian musician. ... A social worker is a person employed in the administration of charity, social service, welfare, and poverty agencies, advocacy, or religious outreach programs. ...


IQ and academic achievement

Jensen's interest in learning differences directed him to the extensive testing of black, Mexican-American, and other minority-group school children. The results led him to distinguish between two separate types of learning ability. Level I, or associative learning, may be defined as retention of input and rote memorization of simple facts and skills. Level II, or conceptual learning, is roughly equivalent to the ability to manipulate and transform inputs, that is, the ability to solve problems. Statistical analysis of his findings led Jensen to conclude that Level I abilities were distributed equally among members of all races, but that Level II occurred with significantly greater frequency among whites and Asian-Americans than among African-Americans and Mexican-Americans.


Later, Jensen was an important advocate in the mainstream acceptance of general intelligence factor, a concept which was essentially synonymous with his Level II conceptual learning. General intelligence factor, or g, is an abstraction that stems from the observation that scores on all forms of cognitive tests correlate positively with one another. Jensen claimed, on the basis of his research, that general cognitive ability is essentially an inherited trait, determined predominantly by genetic factors rather than by environmental conditions. He also contended that while associative learning, or memorizing ability, is equally distributed among the races, conceptual learning, or synthesizing ability, occurs with significantly greater frequency in whites than in blacks. He suggested that from the data, one might conclude that on average, white Americans are more intelligent than African-Americans.[7] The general intelligence factor (abbreviated g) is a controversial construct used in the field of psychology (see also psychometrics) to quantify what is common to the scores of all intelligence tests. ... To inherit something is to get it from ones ancestors. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Predominantly Christianity and Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ...


Jensen's most controversial work, published in February 1969 in the Harvard Educational Review, was titled "How Much Can We Boost I.Q. and Scholastic Achievement?" It concluded, among other things, that "head start" programs designed to boost African-American IQ scores had failed, and that this was likely never to be remedied, largely because, in Jensen's estimation, heritability of IQ was over 0.7 of the within-race IQ variability, and the 0.3 left over was due to non-shared environmental influences. Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... The Harvard Educational Review is an interdisciplinary scholarly journal of opinion and research dealing with education, published by the Harvard Education Publishing Group. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... IQ redirects here; for other uses of that term, see IQ (disambiguation). ...


The work became one of - if not the most - cited papers in the history of psychometrics.[8] The release of Jensen's paper, How Much Can We Boost I.Q. and Scholastic Achievement?, sparked a huge academic controversy. Although his paper was widely cited, a random selection of 60 of these citations revealed that 29 of the papers were direct rebuttals or criticisms of Jensen's arguments, 8 cited the paper as an "example of controversy," 8 used it as a background reference. Only 15 citations of Jensen's paper were in any way supportive of his theories, 7 of these 15 were only in relation to minor points.[9]


After the paper was released, students and faculty staged large protests outside Jensen's U.C. Berkeley office. There may have been death threats against him[citation needed]. Jensen was denied reprints of his work by his publisher and was not permitted to reply in response to letters of criticism -- both extremely unusual and exceptional policies for their day. Many colleagues at the time felt that even if Jensen's work contained no scientific merit, his treatment was itself against the spirit of science and the free exchange of ideas. Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ...

Arthur Jensen winning the 2003 Kistler Prize.

In a later article, Jensen argued that his claims had been misunderstood: Arthur Jensen From <Future Foundation File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Arthur Jensen From <Future Foundation File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Kistler Prize (created 1999) is awarded annually to recognize original contributions to the understanding of the connection between human heredity and human society, and includes a cash award of US $100,000 and a 200-gram gold medallion. ...

...nowhere have I "claimed" an "innate deficiency" of intelligence in blacks. My position on this question is clearly spelled out in my most recent book: "The plain fact is that at present there exists no scientifically satisfactory explanation for the differences between the IQ distributions in the black and white populations. The only genuine consensus among well-informed scientists on this topic is that the cause of the difference remains an open question" (Jensen, 1981a, p. 213).

Thomas Sowell wrote: Thomas Sowell (born June 30, 1930), is an American economist, political writer, and commentator. ...

Professor Jensen pointed out back in 1969 that black children's IQ scores rose by 8 to 10 points after he met with them informally in a play room and then tested them again after they were more relaxed around him. He did this because "I felt these children were really brighter than their IQ would indicate." What a shame that others seem to have less confidence in black children than Professor Jensen has had. [5]

However, Jensen's 1998 The g Factor: The Science of Mental Ability gives his position suggesting a genetic component is implicated in the white-black difference in IQ: The g Factor is a book by Arthur Jensen, explaining his views about the general intelligence factor (or g) and its apparent relation to race. Links Stalking the wild taboo - review of The g Factor in Mankind Quarterly, Vol. ...

In Chapter 12: Population Differences in g: Causal Hypotheses, Jensen writes: "The relationship of the g factor to a number of biological variables and its relationship to the size of the white-black differences on various cognitive tests (i.e., Spearman's hypothesis) suggests that the average white-black difference in g has a biological component. Human races are viewed not as discrete, or Platonic, categories, but rather as breeding populations that, as a result of natural selection, have come to differ statistically in the relative frequencies of many polymorphic genes. The genetic distances between various populations form a continuous variable that can be measured in terms of differences in gene frequencies. Racial populations differ in many genetic characteristics, some of which, such as brain size, have behavioral and psychometric correlates, particularly g."

In 1994 he was one of 52 signatories on "Mainstream Science on Intelligence," an editorial written by Linda Gottfredson and published in the Wall Street Journal, which defended the findings on race and intelligence in The Bell Curve. [10] The English psychologist Charles Spearman, in his 1904 book, General Intelligence - Objectively Determined and Measured, described his two-factor theory of intelligence, using his strong background in statistics. ... Mainstream Science on Intelligence is a 1994 editorial written by Linda Gottfredson and published in the Wall Street Journal on December 13. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ... Throughout the history of psychology, no question has been so persistent or so resistant to resolution as that of the relative roles of nature and nurture in causing individual and group differences in cognitive ability. ... The Bell Curve is a controversial, best-selling 1994 book by Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray exploring the role of genes in American life. ...


In 1995 an American Psychological Association task force published a paper titled "Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns" which concluded that within the white population the heritability of IQ is "around .75" but also " It is sometimes suggested that the Black/ White differential in psychometric intelligence is partly due to genetic differences (Jensen, 1972). The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ...


Criticism

Melvin Konner wrote in the notes to his book The Tangled Wing: Biological Constraints on the Human Spirit:

"Statements made by Arthur Jensen, William Shockley, and other investigators in the late 1960s and early 1970s about race and IQ or social class and IQ rapidly passed into currency in policy discussions. Many of these statements were proved wrong, but they had already influenced some policymakers, and that influence is very difficult to recant."

Many studies that purport to be both science-based and attempt to influence public policy have been accused of scientific racism. Konner wrote:

"What of the latest currents of thought? Are they likely to lead to, or at least encourage, further distortions of social policy? The indications are not all encouraging. Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray published a book in 1994 clearly directed at policy, just as Jensen and others had in the 1960s and 1970s. The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life (New York: Free Press, 1994) teamed a psychologist with a conservative policy advocate to try to prove that both the class structure and the racial divide in the United States result from genetically determined differences in intelligence and ability."
"Their general assertions about genes and IQ were not very controversial, but their speculations on race were something else again."

Jensen, 84, and retired, has co-authored recent articles with J. Phillipe Rushton. Konner wrote: J. Philippe Rushton (born 1943 in Bournemouth, England), is a psychology professor at the University of Western Ontario, Canada best known for his controversial work on racial differences. ...

"Also in the 1990s, Phillipe Rushton has tried to couch racial differences in IQ in a theory drawn from evolutionary biology. This theory takes the concepts of r and K selection, crudely useful when applied to a vast range of living creatures considered on a continuum, and apply it to subtle differences in skull form, mental test results, and sexual behavior within our one species. This theory has no academic legitimacy and little relationship to real evolutionary theory, but it taints the whole Darwinian enterprise, strongly recalling the “scientific anthropology” of the era of slavery."
"The reality is quite different. As argued by George Armelagos in his Presidential Address to the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (“Race, Reason and Rationale,” Evolutionary Anthropology 4, 1995, pp. 103–109) race itself is a dubious concept for the human species. Obviously it is sociologically meaningful, but even in the social realm it is a constantly moving target with little or no core biological legitimacy.[11] [6]"

Lisa Suzuki and Joshua Arson of New York University wrote in 2005 that Jensen has largely ignored evidence that fails to support his position that IQ test score gaps represent a genetic racial hierarchy unwaveringly for over 30 years.[12] During this time Jensen has received more than a million dollars from the often-criticized Pioneer fund.[13] New York University (NYU) is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in New York City. ... DNA, the molecular basis for inheritance. ... The Pioneer Fund is a foundation that claims to have played a significant role in research on heredity and human personality differences since its 1937 founding, particularly in intelligence. ...


Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould, known for his popularizations of science in mass market books and magazines, attacked Jensen's work in his 1981 book The Mismeasure of Man. Natural History magazine Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... First edition (1981) of The Mismeasure of Man The Mismeasure of Man is a controversial, best-selling 1981 book written by the Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002). ...


Gould claims that Jensen misapplies the concept of "heritability", which is defined as a measure of the variation of a trait due to inheritance within a population (Gould 1981: 127; 156-156). Jensen uses heritability to measure differences between populations. Heritability, as used professionally in genetics, has a very precise definition. ... In music, variation is a formal technique where material is altered during repetition; reiteration with changes. ...


Second, Gould disagrees with Jensen's belief that IQ tests measure a real variable, g, or "the general factor common to a large number of cognitive abilities" which can be measured along a unilinear scale. This is a claim most closely identified with Charles Spearman. According to Gould, Jensen misunderstood the research of L. L. Thurstone to ultimately support this claim; Gould however argues that Thurstone's factor analysis of intelligence revealed g to be an illusion (1981: 159; 13-314). The general intelligence factor (abbreviated g) is a widely accepted but controversial construct used in the field of psychology (see also psychometrics) to quantify what is common to the scores of all intelligence tests. ... Charles Edward Spearman (September 10, 1863 - September 7, 1945) was an English psychologist known for work in statistics, as a pioneer of factor analysis, and for Spearmans rank correlation coefficient. ... Louis Leon Thurstone (29 May 1887&#8211;29 September 1955) was a psychometrician most notable for his contributions to factor analysis with regard to psychological tests. ... Factor analysis is a statistical data reduction technique used to explain variability among observed random variables in terms of fewer unobserved random variables called factors. ...


Third, Gould criticizes Jensen for citing Catharine Cox's 1926 Genetic Studies of Genius, which examines historiometrically the IQs of historic intellectuals after their deaths (Gould 1981: 153-154). Catharine Morris Cox Miles (1890-1984) was an American psychologist known for her work on intelligence and genius. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Francis Galton, one of the pioneers of historiometry. ...


In a 1982 review of The Mismeasure of Man, Jensen gives point-by-point rebuttals to Gould's critique, including Gould's treatment of heritability, the "reification" of g, and the use of Thurstone's analysis. Gould's responses appear in the 1996 edition of The Mismeasure of Man. Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... First edition (1981) of The Mismeasure of Man The Mismeasure of Man is a controversial, best-selling 1981 book written by the Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002). ...


Jensen's response and criticism

In Arthur Jensen's response to Gould's criticisms, in the paper titled The Debunking of Scientific Fossils and Straw Persons.[7], Jensen begins his paper with this observation

"Stephen Jay Gould is a paleontologist at Harvard's Museum of Comparative Zoology and offers a course at Harvard entitled, "Biology as a Social Weapon." Apparently the course covers much the same content as does the present book. Having had some personal cause for interest in ideologically motivated attacks on biologically oriented behavioral scientists, I first took notice of Gould when he played a prominent role in a group called Science for the People and in that group's attack on the theories of Harvard zoologist Edward O. Wilson, a leader in the development of sociobiology..."

While Jensen recognizes the validity of some of Gould's claims, in many places, he criticizes Gould's general approach Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Science for the People is a left-wing organization, magazine, and movement which emerged from the antiwar culture of the 1970s. ... E.O. Wilson with Dynastes hercules E. O. Wilson, or Edward Osborne Wilson, (born June 10, 1929) is an entomologist and biologist known for his work on ecology, evolution, and sociobiology. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...

"This charge of a social, value-laden science undoubtedly contains an element of truth. In recent years, however, we recognize this charge as the keystone of the Marxist interpretation of the history of science."

Jensen adds that Gould made a number of misrepresentations, whether intentional or unintentional, while purporting to present Jensen's own positions Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ...

"In his references to my own work, Gould includes at least nine citations that involve more than just an expression of Gould's opinion; in these citations Gould purportedly paraphrases my views. Yet in eight of the nine cases, Gould's representation of these views is false, misleading, or grossly caricatured. Nonspecialists could have no way of knowing any of this without reading the cited sources. While an author can occasionally make an inadvertent mistake in paraphrasing another, it appears Gould's paraphrases are consistently slanted to serve his own message."

See also: the discussion of intelligence testing, Science wars, and race and intelligence. ... The Science wars were a series of intellectual battles in the 1990s between postmodernists and realists (though neither party would likely use the terms to describe themselves) about the nature of scientific theories. ... Throughout the history of psychology, no question has been so persistent or so resistant to resolution as that of the relative roles of nature and nurture in causing individual and group differences in cognitive ability. ...


Recent books

The g Factor

The g Factor: The Science of Mental Ability (1998) is considered by supporters to be Jensen's magnum opus on the general intelligence factor (g). The book deals with the intellectual history of the discovery of g and various models of how to conceptualize intelligence, and with the biological correlates of g, its heritability, and its practical predictive power. The general intelligence factor (abbreviated g) is a controversial construct used in the field of psychology (see also psychometrics) to quantify what is common to the scores of all intelligence tests. ...


Clocking the Mind

Jensen's book Clocking the Mind : Mental Chronometry and Individual Differences (July 17, 2006) is the culmination of 25 years of researching mental chronometry (MC), a variety of techniques for measuring the speed with which the brain processes information. Whereas IQ merely represents an ordinal (ranking) scale and thus possesses no true ratio scale properties, Jensen argues mental chronometry represents a true natural science of mental ability. // Definition and history Psychologists have investigated mental chronometry for over 100 years. ... IQ redirects here; for other uses of that term, see IQ (disambiguation). ...


Further reading

Interviews

  • SASP Interviews: Arthur R. Jensen. Beaujean, A. A. (2002, July). SASP News, 2 (4). (pdf)
  • "A Conversation With Arthur Jensen (Part 2". (1992). American Renaissance, 3(9).
  • Intelligence, Race, and Genetics: Conversations with Arthur R. Jensen. (2002) Frank Miele (of Skeptic Magazine). Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-4008-X

American Renaissance (AR) is a monthly white separatist magazine published by the New Century Foundation. ... The Skeptics Society is a nonprofit organization devoted to promoting scientific skepticism and resisting the spread of pseudoscience, superstition, and irrational beliefs. ...

Selected Articles, Books, & Book Chapters

  • Rushton, J. P., & Jensen, A. R.. (2005). Thirty years of research on Black-White differences in cognitive ability. Psychology, Public Policy, & the Law, 11, 235-294. (pdf)
  • Rushton, J. P., & Jensen, A. R. (2005). Wanted: More race-realism, less moralistic fallacy. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 11, 328-336. (pdf)
  • Rushton, J. P., & Jensen, A. R. (2003). African-White IQ differences from Zimbabwe on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised are mainly on the g factor. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 177-183. (pdf)
  • Jensen, A. R. (2002). Galton's legacy to research on intelligence. Journal of Biosocial Science, 34, 145-172.
  • Jensen, A. R. (2002). Psychometric g: Definition and substantiation. In R. J. Sternberg, & E. L. Grigorenko (Eds.). The general factor of intelligence: How general is it? (pp. 39-53). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Jensen, A. R. (2000). Testing: The dilemma of group differences. Psychology, Public Policy, & Law, 6, 121-128.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1998) The g factor and the design of education. In R. J. Sternberg & W. M. Williams (Eds.), Intelligence, instruction, and assessment: Theory into practice. (pp. 111-131). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1996). Giftedness and genius: Crucial differences. In C. P. Benbow, & D. J. Lubinski (Eds), Intellectual talent: Psychometric and social issues (pp. 393-411). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1995). Psychological research on race differences. American Psychologist, 50, 41-42.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1993). Spearman's g: Links between psychometrics and biology. In F. M. Crinella, & J. Yu (Eds.), Brain mechanisms: Papers in memory of Robert Thompson (pp. 103-129). New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1993). Why is reaction time correlated with psychometric g? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2, 53-56.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1989). The relationship between learning and intelligence. Learning and Individual Differences, 1, 37-62.
  • Kranzler, J. H., & Jensen, A. R.(1989). Inspection time and intelligence: A meta-analysis. Intelligence, 13, 329-347.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1974). Ethnicity and scholastic achievement. Psychological Reports, 34, 659-668.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1974). Kinship correlations reported by Sir Cyril Burt. Behavior Genetics, 4, 1-28.

Professor J. Philippe Rushton John Philippe (Phil) Rushton (born December 3, 1943) is a psychology professor at the University of Western Ontario, Canada, who is most widely known for his work on intelligence and racial differences, particularly his book Race, Evolution And Behavior. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Sailer 1998
  3. ^ Intelligence[2] and Personality and Individual Differences[3] publisher's pages.
  4. ^ Jensen is listed in a study by Haggblom et al. (2002), [4] of the 100 most eminent psychologists of the twentieth century, at number 47.
  5. ^ Cover of Intelligence, Race and Genetics (Miele 2002).
  6. ^ Miele 2002
  7. ^ Encyclopedia of Psychology
  8. ^ While only limited inference can be drawn from citation analysis, the paper has received over 1262 citations according to the ISI citation index (Aug. 2006), compared with the other influential figures in the area, Hans J. Eysenck's 821 citations of "A Revised Version of the Psychoticism Scale" (1987; lead author Eysenck, S. B.G.), Charles Spearman's 644 of "General Intelligence Objectively Determined and Measured" (1904), James Flynn's 402 citations of "Massive IQ gains in 14 Nations - What IQ Tests Really Measure" (1987), J. Phillipe Rushton's 394 of "Behavioral-Development and Construct-Validity: the Principle of Aggregation" (1983; lead author with Brainderd C. J., Pressley M.), "Linda Gottfredson's 358 of "Circumscription and Compromise: A Developmental Theory of Occupational Aspirations" (1981), and Robert J. Sternberg's 239 of "People's Conceptions of Intelligence" (1981; lead author with Conway, BE, Ketron, JL, et al.).
  9. ^ High Impact Science and the case of Arthur Jensen
  10. ^ Gottfredson, Linda (December 13, 1994). Mainstream Science on Intelligence. Wall Street Journal, p A18.
  11. ^ The Tangled Wing Biological Constraints on the Human Spirit Times Books Pub: 2002 ISBN: 0-7167-4602-6
  12. ^ The cultural malleability of intelligence and its impact on the racial/ethnic hierarchy L Suzuki, J Aronson - Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2005
  13. ^ The Pioneer Fund: Bankrolling the Professors of Hate Adam Miller The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, No. 6 (Winter, 1994-1995), pp. 58-61

A citation index is an index of citations between publications, allowing the user to easily establish which later documents cite which earlier documents. ... Hans Eysenck Hans Jürgen Eysenck (March 4, 1916 - September 4, 1997) was an eminent psychologist, most remembered for his work on intelligence and personality, though he worked in a wide range of areas. ... Charles Edward Spearman (September 10, 1863 - September 7, 1945) was an English psychologist known for work in statistics, as a pioneer of factor analysis, and for Spearmans rank correlation coefficient. ... James R. Flynn James R. Flynn, (also Jim Flynn), Emeritus Professor of Political Studies at the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand, is notable for his discovery of the Flynn effect, the continued year-on-year rise of IQ test scores in all parts of the world. ... J. Philippe Rushton (born 1943 in Bournemouth, England), is a psychology professor at the University of Western Ontario, Canada best known for his controversial work on racial differences. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Robert J. Sternberg (8 December 1949-) is the IBM Professor of Psychology and Education at Yale University. ... Mainstream Science on Intelligence is a 1994 editorial written by Linda Gottfredson and published in the Wall Street Journal on December 13. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ...

External links

  • The London School of Differential Psychology: Arthur R. Jensen
  • Powerpoint presentation of Jensen's biography
  • Jensen's Response to Gould's Criticisms

  Results from FactBites:
 
Arthur Jensen (597 words)
Arthur Jensen is an American Educational Psychologist, born August 24, 1923 and educated at the University of California, Berkeley (B.A. San Diego State College[?] (M.A., 1952) and Columbia University (Ph.D., 1956).
Jensen was a major practitioner of individual differences psychology with a special interest in intelligence and the nature versus nurture debate, eventually arguing strongly for the heritability of intelligence.
Jensen was condemned as racist in the late 1960s by a generation of academics in a state of reaction against the racist atrocities of the Second World War.
Kings of Men: a Special Issue of the journal INTELLIGENCE about Arthur Jensen (19889 words)
Jensen's writings are virtual tutorials on how to write science and how to deal with controversy -- stick to the available evidence, put all the evidence in it's full context, carefully explain the methods, their rationale and the assumptions, acknowledge the lack of evidence when it does not exist and avoid ad hominem arguments.
Jensen's method of correlated vectors demonstrates that g (specifically a test's g loading) is the best predictor of that test's correlation with a given variable, in future, when a significant correlation occurs between g-factor loadings and variable X, the result might usefully be called a "Jensen Effect" (for that X variable).
Jensen's tome does not draw back from Jensenist conclusions--that the average difference in IQ found between Blacks and Whites has a substantial hereditary component, that this difference is related mainly to the g-factor, and that it has important societal consequences.
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