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Encyclopedia > Arthur Griffith

Arthur Griffith (Irish: Art Ó Gríobhtha; 31 March 187112 August 1922) was the founder and first leader of Sinn Féin. He served as President of Dáil Éireann from January to August 1922, and was head of the Irish delegation at the negotiations that produced the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921. March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Sinn Féin (pronounced in English, in Irish) is a name used by a series of Irish political movements of the 20th century, each of which claimed sole descent from the original party established by Arthur Griffith in 1905. ... The head of government under the Dáil Constitution adopted by the First Dáil of the Irish Republic in January 1919. ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic which concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ...

Príomh Aire
Cathal Brugha (January — April 1919)
Éamon de Valera (1919—August 1921)
Éamon de Valera (1919—August 1921)
President of The Republic
Éamon de Valera (August 1921—1922)
Éamon de Valera (August 1921—1922)
President of Dáil Éireann
Arthur Griffith (January—August 1922)
W.T. Cosgrave (August—December 1922)
W.T. Cosgrave (August—December 1922)
Office abolished
December 1922

Contents

Image File history File links Cathal Brugha (image before 1922) from postcard issued when he was killed. ... Image File history File links Cathal Brugha (image before 1922) from postcard issued when he was killed. ... Cathal Brugha Cathal Brugha (born Charles William St. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (479 × 640 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Date c. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (479 × 640 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Date c. ... Éamon de Valera (born with the name Edward George de Valera,IPA: [1][2]) (14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (479 × 640 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Date c. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (479 × 640 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Date c. ... Éamon de Valera (born with the name Edward George de Valera,IPA: [1][2]) (14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ... historical image of Arthur Griffith who died in August 1922. ... historical image of Arthur Griffith who died in August 1922. ... cropped image of WT Cosgrave from Image:WTCosgrave. ... cropped image of WT Cosgrave from Image:WTCosgrave. ... William Thomas Cosgrave (Irish name Liam Tomás Mac Cosgair; 6 June 1880 – 16 November 1965), known generally as W.T. Cosgrave, was an Irish politician who succeeded Michael Collins as Chairman of the Irish Provisional Government from August to December 1922. ...

Early life

Arthur Griffith was born in Dublin, Ireland on 31 March 1872, of distant Welsh lineage, and was educated by the Irish Christian Brothers. Griffith College Dublin in South Circular Road, Dublin, Griffith Avenue in North Dublin and Griffith Park in Lucan, County Dublin are named after him. This article is about the city in Ireland. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the country. ... Lucan can refer to: Lucan, a town in County Dublin Lucan, a town in Minnesota, USA Lucan, a town in Ontario, Canada Earl of Lucan, a British peerage title Richard Bingham, 7th Earl of Lucan, the most famous holder Lucan, a Roman poet Lucan the Butler, a Knight of the...


He worked for a time as a printer before joining the Gaelic League, which was aimed at promoting the restoration of the Irish language. His father had been a printer on The Nation newspaper — Griffith was one of several employees locked out in the early 1890s due to a dispute with a new owner of the paper. The young Griffith was a member of the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB). He visited South Africa from 1897–1898, after the defeat and death of Charles Stewart Parnell whose more moderate views he had initially supported, while he (Griffith) convalesced from tuberculosis; there he supported the Boers against British expansionism and was a strong admirer of Paul Kruger. Conradh na Gaeilge (The Gaelic League) is an organization for the purpose of keeping the Irish language spoken in Ireland. ... Irish () is a Goidelic language spoken in Ireland. ... The Nation was an Irish nationalist newspaper, published in the 19th century, co-founded by Thomas Davis and Charles Gavan Duffy, its first editor. ... The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) was a secret fraternal organisation dedicated to fomenting armed revolt against the British state in Ireland in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. ... Charles Stewart Parnell, the uncrowned King of Ireland Charles Stewart Parnell[1] (27 June 1846 – 6 October 1891) was an Irish political leader and one of the most important figures in 19th century Ireland and the United Kingdom; William Ewart Gladstone described him as the most remarkable person he had... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease that is caused by mycobacteria, primarily Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Afrikaners are white South Africans of predominantly Calvinist Dutch, German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloon descent who speak Afrikaans. ... Paul Kruger Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger (10 October 1825 – 14 July 1904), better known as Paul Kruger and fondly known as Oom Paul (Afrikaans for Uncle Paul) was a prominent Boer resistance leader against British rule and president of the Transvaal Republic in South Africa. ...


In 1899, on returning to Dublin, he co-founded the weekly United Irishman newspaper with his associate William Rooney, who died in 1901. In 1910, Griffith married his fiancée, Maud, after a fifteen-year engagement; they had a son and a daughter. WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... This article is about the newspaper. ...


Griffith's fierce criticism of the Irish Parliamentary Party's alliance with British Liberalism was heavily influenced by the anti-liberal rhetoric of Young Irelander John Mitchel, the County Londonderry-born son of a Presbyterian minister; Griffith combined fierce hostility to snobbery and deference, as well as a sort of "producerist" attitude based on skilled craft trade unionism, with some strongly illiberal attitudes. He defended anti-semitic rioters in Limerick, denounced socialists and pacifists as conscious tools of the British Empire, and successively praised Tsarist Russia and Wilhelm II as morally superior to Great Britain. The Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP) (commonly called the Irish Party) was formed in 1882 by Charles Stewart Parnell, the leader of the Nationalist Party, replacing the Home Rule League, as official parliamentary party for Irish nationalist Members of Parliament (MPs) elected to the House of Commons at Westminster within the... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... Young Ireland was an Irish nationalist revolutionary movement, active in the mid-nineteenth century. ... John Mitchel John Mitchel (Irish: Seán Uí Mistéil; b. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Derry Area: 2,074 km² Population (est. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Grange poster depicting the independent, industrious farmer as the keystone figure in society. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Росси́йская Импе́рия, (also Imperial Russia) covers the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great into the Russian Empire stretching from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to... Wilhelm II of Prussia and Germany, Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern (January 27, 1859 - June 4, 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and the last King (König) of Prussia from 1888 - 1918. ...


In Sept 1900, he established an organization called Cumann na nGaedhael to unite advanced nationalist/separatist groups and clubs. In 1903 He set up the National Council to campaign against the visit to Ireland of King Edward VII his consort Alexandra of Denmark.[1] Cumann na nGaedhael (IPA: ; Society of the Gaels), sometimes spelt Cumann na nGaedheal,[1] was an Irish language name given to two Irish political parties, the second of which had the greater impact. ... Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ... Princess Alexandra of Denmark (later Queen Alexandra of the United Kingdom; 1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925), was Queen Consort to Edward VII of the United Kingdom and thus Empress of India during her husbands reign. ...


In 1907, this organization merged with Sinn Féin and a number of others movements to form the Sinn Féin League (Irish for "We Ourselves"). In 1906, after the United Irishman journal collapsed because of a libel suit, Griffith refounded it under the title Sinn Féin; it briefly became a daily in 1909 and survived until its suppression by the British government in 1914, after which it was sporadically revived as the ultranationalist journal, Nationality. Sinn Féin (pronounced in English, in Irish) is a name used by a series of Irish political movements of the 20th century, each of which claimed sole descent from the original party established by Arthur Griffith in 1905. ... This article is about the newspaper. ...


Foundation of Sinn Féin

Most historians opt for 28 November 1905, as a founding date because it was on this date that Griffith first presented his 'Sinn Féin Policy'. In his writings, Griffith declared that the Act of Union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1800 was illegal and that, consequently, the Anglo-Irish dual monarchy which existed under Grattan's Parliament, and the so-called Constitution of 1782 was still in effect. Its first president was Edward Martyn. November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Act of Union 1800 merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of England and Wales and Scotland under the Act of Union 1707) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ... Henry Grattan (July 3, 1746 - June 6, 1820) was a member of the Irish House of Commons and a campaigner for legislative freedom for the Irish Parliament in the late 18th century. ... Edward Martyn (1859-1923) of Tullira Castle, Co. ...


The fundamental principles on which Sinn Féin was founded were outlined in an article published in 1904 by Griffith called the Resurrection of Hungary, in which, noting how in 1867 Hungary went from being part of the Austrian Empire to a separate co-equal kingdom in Austria-Hungary. Though not a monarchist himself, Griffith advocated such an approach for the Anglo-Irish relationship, namely that Ireland should become a separate kingdom alongside Great Britain, the two forming a dual monarchy with a shared monarch but separate governments, as it was thought this solution would be more palatable to the British. However, this idea was never really embraced by later separatist leaders, especially Michael Collins, and never came to anything, although Kevin O'Higgins toyed with the idea as a means of ending partition, shortly before his assassination. Anthem: Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) Capital Vienna Language(s) German Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Disestablished 1867 Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was an empire centred on what is modern day Austria that officially lasted from 1804... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy as a form of government in a nation. ... Anglo-Irish was a term used historically to describe a ruling class inhabitants of Ireland who were the descendants and successors of the Protestant Ascendancy[1], mostly belonging to the Anglican Church of Ireland or to a lesser extent one of the English dissenting churches, such as the Methodist church. ... King George V, the first monarch to reign in the Irish Free State. ... General Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: ; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, both as Chairman of the Provisional Government and... Kevin Christopher OHiggins (Irish name Caoimhín Críostóir Ó hUiginn; June 7, 1892 – July 10, 1927). ... The Partition of Ireland took place in May 1921. ...


Griffith sought to combine elements of Parnellism with the traditional separatist approach; he saw himself not as a leader but as providing a strategy which a new leader might follow. Central to his strategy was parliamentary abstention: the belief that Irish MPs should refuse to attend the Parliament of the United Kingdom at Westminster, but should instead establish a separate Irish parliament (with an administrative system based on local government) in Dublin. Charles Stewart Parnell, the uncrowned King of Ireland Charles Stewart Parnell[1] (27 June 1846 – 6 October 1891) was an Irish political leader and one of the most important figures in 19th century Ireland and the United Kingdom; William Ewart Gladstone described him as the most remarkable person he had... Abstentionism is the policy of seeking election to a body while refusing to take up the seats or even sitting in an alternative assembly. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... The Houses of Parliament, as seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ...


In 1907 Sinn Féin unsuccessfully contested a by-election in North Leitrim, where the sitting MP, one Charles Dolan of Manorhamilton, County Leitrim, had defected to Sinn Féin. At this time Sinn Féin was being infiltrated by the Irish Republican Brotherhood, who saw it as a vehicle for their aims; it had several local councillors (mostly in Dublin, including W. T. Cosgrave) and contained a dissident wing grouped from 1910 around the monthly periodical called Irish Freedom. The IRB members argued that the aim of dual monarchism should be replaced by republicanism, and that Griffith was excessively inclined to compromise with conservative elements (notably in his pro-employer position during the 1913 – 1914 Dublin Lockout, when he saw the syndicalism of James Larkin as aimed at crippling Irish industry for Great Britain's benefit). Manorhamilton (Irish: ) is a small town in County Leitrim, Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Carrick-on-Shannon Code: LM Area: 1,588 km² Population (2006) 28,837 Website: www. ... The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) was a secret fraternal organisation dedicated to fomenting armed revolt against the British state in Ireland in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. ... ... Statue of James Larkin on OConnell Street (Oisín Kelly 1977) The Dublin Lockout of 1913 was the most severe industrial dispute in the history of Ireland, a general lockout of workers in Dublin meant to contain the expansion of trade unions. ... Statue of James Larkin on OConnell Street, Dublin (Oisín Kelly 1977) James (Big Jim) Larkin (Irish: Séamas Ó Lorcáin)(1874-1947), an Irish trade union leader and socialist activist, was born in Liverpool, England on 28 January 1874, of Irish parents. ...


Griffith was sexually puritanical and bigoted.[citation needed] Despite initially supporting William Butler Yeats' National Theatre he attacked John Millington Synge's The Shadow of the Glen and The Playboy of the Western World as slandering Irish womanhood and morality, and was extremely critical of William Butler Yeats' acceptance of a literary pension from the British Crown.[citation needed] He also voiced his support for a 1904 pogrom in Limerick against the tiny Jewish community (See Limerick Pogrom), which was supported by the Catholic bishop of that diocese.[citation needed] W.B. Yeats in Dublin on 24 January 1908. ... The exterior of the Abbey Theatre in 2006. ... John Millington Synge (April 16, 1871 - March 24, 1909) was an Irish dramatist, poet, prose writer, and collector of folklore. ... The Playboy of the Western World is a play written by J. M. Synge and first performed in January 1907. ... W.B. Yeats in Dublin on 24 January 1908. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen_in_Parliament) legislative power. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ...


1916 Rising

In 1916 rebels seized and took over a number of key locations in Dublin, in what became known as the Easter Rising. After its defeat, it was widely described both by British politicians and the Irish and British media as the "Sinn Féin rebellion", even though Sinn Féin had no involvement. When in 1917, surviving leaders of the rebellion were released from gaol (or escaped) they joined Sinn Féin en masse, using it as a vehicle for the advancement of the republic. The result was a bitter clash between those original members who backed Griffith's concept of an Anglo-Irish dual monarchy and the new members, under Éamon de Valera, who wanted to achieve a republic. Matters almost led to a split at the party's Ard Fheis (conference) in October, 1917. Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Patrick Pearse, James Connolly, Brigadier-General Lowe General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... Éamon de Valera (born with the name Edward George de Valera,IPA: [1][2]) (14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ...


In a compromise, it was decided to seek to establish a republic initially, then allow the people to decide if they wanted a republic or a monarchy, subject to the condition that no member of Britain's royal house could sit on any prospective Irish throne. Griffith resigned the party leadership and presidency at that Ard Fheis, and was replaced by de Valera. The leaders of the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP) sought a rapprochement with Griffith over the British threat of conscription, which both parties condemned, but Griffith refused unless the IPP embraced his more radical and subversive ideals, a suggestion which John Dillon, a leader of the IPP rubbished as unrealistic, although it would ultimately mean the defeat and dissolution of the IPP after the election in December 1918. The Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP) (commonly called the Irish Party) was formed in 1882 by Charles Stewart Parnell, the leader of the Nationalist Party, replacing the Home Rule League, as official parliamentary party for Irish nationalist Members of Parliament (MPs) elected to the House of Commons at Westminster within the... John Dillon (September 4, 1851 - August 4, 1927) was an Irish nationalist politician. ...


War of Independence

Griffith was elected a Sinn Féin MP in the East Cavan by-election of mid-1918, and held the seat when Sinn Féin subsequently routed the Irish Parliamentary Party at the 1918 general election. In that election he was also returned for the seat of Tyrone North-West. Cavan (An Cabhán in Irish, meaning the hollow) is the main town and administrative centre of County Cavan in the Republic of Ireland. ... The Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP) (commonly called the Irish Party) was formed in 1882 by Charles Stewart Parnell, the leader of the Nationalist Party, replacing the Home Rule League, as official parliamentary party for Irish nationalist Members of Parliament (MPs) elected to the House of Commons at Westminster within the... The Irish general election of 1918 was that part of the 1918 United Kingdom general election that took place in Ireland. ... The name Tyrone can refer to: A county in Northern Ireland; see County Tyrone An Earl of Tyrone A small steam train which runs between Bushmills and the Giants Causeway in Northern Ireland. ...


Sinn Féin's MPs decided not to take their seats in the British House of Commons but instead set up their own Irish parliament, Dáil Éireann; the War of Independence followed almost immediately. The dominant leaders in the new unilaterally declared Irish Republic were figures like Éamon de Valera, President of Dáil Éireann (1919-21), President of the Republic (1921-1922), and Michael Collins, Minister for Finance, head of the IRB and the Irish Republican Army's Director of Intelligence. The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Irish stamp comemorating the first meeting of Dáil Éireann in 1919. ... An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerrilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament... A declaration of independence is a proclamation of the independence of a newly formed or reformed independent state from a part or the whole of the territory of another, or a document containing such a declaration. ... The head of government under the Dáil Constitution adopted by the First Dáil of the Irish Republic in January 1919. ... This article is about the president of the 1919-1922 Irish Republic Republic of Ireland see: President of Ireland. ... General Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: ; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, both as Chairman of the Provisional Government and... This article is about the historical army of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919-21, and the Irish Civil War 1922-23. ...


During de Valera's absence in the United States (1919-21) Griffith served as Acting President and gave regular press interviews. He was imprisoned in 1921 but subsequently released.


Treaty Negotiations and Death

Griffith became central to the Republic again when, in October 1921, President de Valera asked him to head the delegation of Irish plenipotentiaries to negotiate with the British government. The delegates set up Headquarters in Hans Place, London. After nearly 2 months of negotiations it was there, in private conversations, that the delegates finally decided to recommend the Treaty to the Dail Eirann on 5th December 1921; negotiations closed at 2.20am on 6th December 1921. Griffith was the member of the treaty delegation most supportive of its eventual outcome, a compromise based on dominion status, rather than a republic. After the ratification by 64 votes to 57 of the Anglo-Irish Treaty by the Second Dáil on 7 January 1922, he replaced de Valera, who stepped down in protest as President of the soon-to-be abolished Irish Republic. A vote was held on 9 January to choose between Griffith or De Valera, which De Valera lost by 58 to 60. A second ratification of the Treaty by the House of Commons of Southern Ireland followed shortly afterwards. Griffith was, however, to a great extent merely a figurehead as President of the second Dáil Éireann and his relations with Michael Collins, head of the new Provisional Government were somewhat tense. Hans Place is a prime residential garden square situated immediately south of Harrods in Knightsbridge. ... A dominion, often Dominion, is the territory or the authority of a dominus (a lord or master). ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic which concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... House of Commons of Southern Ireland was the lower house of the Irish parliament created by the Government of Ireland Act, passed in 1920, during the Irish War of Independence. ... The Second Dáil was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 16th August, 1921 until 8th June, 1922. ... A provisional government is an emergency or interim government set up when a political void has been created by the collapse of a previous administration or regime. ...


Under increasing strain because of quarrels with many old friends, and faced with a nation sliding into chaos, Griffith's health deteriorated and he died of a brain haemorrhage on 12 August 1922, at the age of 50, ten days before Michael Collins' assassination in County Cork. He is buried in Glasnevin Cemetery. A stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is suddenly interrupted by occlusion (an ischemic stroke- approximately 90% of strokes), by hemorrhage (a hemorrhagic stroke - less than 10% of strokes) or other causes. ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... General Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: ; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, both as Chairman of the Provisional Government and... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Cork Code: C (CK proposed) Area: 7,457 km² Population (2006) 480,909 (including City of Cork); 361,766 (without Cork City) Website: www. ... Glasnevin Cemetery, also known as Prospect Cemetery, is the main Catholic cemetery in Dublin, the capital of Ireland. ...


Posthumous reputation

The historian Diarmaid Ferriter considers that, though he had founded Sinn Féin, Griffith was 'quickly airbrushed' from Irish history. His widow had to beg his former colleagues for a pension, saying that he 'had made them all'. She considered that his grave plot was too modest and threatened to exhume his body. Only in 1968 was a plaque fixed on his former home.[2]


Anti-Semitism

Griffith was known to be an anti-semite [3] [4] [5]. He published anti-semitic articles [6] and was involved in the so-called "Limerick Pogrom" of 1904-06 where Jews were driven out of the town [7]


Quotations

  • "In Arthur Griffith there is a mighty force in Ireland. He has none of the wildness of some I could name. Instead there is an abundance of wisdom and an awareness of things which are Ireland." - Michael Collins.

Time magazine, 20 August 1923 Frederick Edwin Smith, 1st Earl of Birkenhead, GCSI, PC (12 July 1872–30 September 1930) was a British Conservative statesman and lawyer of the early 20th century. ... Timothy Patrick Coogan is an Irish historian, broadcaster, newspaper columnist and was appointed editor of the Irish Press newspaper in 1968. ...

Sources

  • Patrick Maume, The Long Gestation (Gill & Macmillan, 1999).
  • There is a 2003 reprint of The Resurrection of Hungary with an introduction by Patrick Murray (University College Dublin Press).
  • The Treaty Debates on-line (Dec 1921-Jan 1922)

Notes

  1. ^ Irish Leaving cert history textbook; Movements for Political and Social Reform 1870-1914.
  2. ^ Ferriter D. The Transformation of Ireland 1900-2000 (Profile 2004) p.260. ISBN 1-86197-307-1
  3. ^ http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/modernism-modernity/v010/10.4mullin.html
  4. ^ http://www.jewishsf.com/content/2-0-/module/displaystory/story_id/8878/edition_id/168/format/html/displaystory.html
  5. ^ http://www.historytoday.com/dt_main_allatonce.asp?gid=14397&g14397=x&g12272=x&g30028=x&g20991=x&g21010=x&g19965=x&g19963=x&amid=14397
  6. ^ http://www.tau.ac.il/Anti-Semitism/asw2003-4/ireland.htm
  7. ^ http://www.tcd.ie/Education/Teachers_Pack/Text_Only/b3/Racism06.html

Political career

Political offices
Preceded by
Michael Collins
Minister for Home Affairs
1919–1921
Succeeded by
Frank Aiken
Preceded by
Count Plunkett
Minister for Foreign Affairs
1921–1922
Succeeded by
George Gavan Duffy
Preceded by
Éamon de Valera
President of Dáil Éireann
1922
Succeeded by
W. T. Cosgrave
Prime Ministers of Ireland
Taoisigh na hÉireann

Éamon de ValeraJohn A. CostelloSeán LemassJack LynchLiam CosgraveCharles HaugheyGarret FitzGeraldAlbert ReynoldsJohn BrutonBertie Ahern General Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: ; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, both as Chairman of the Provisional Government and... The Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform is the senior minister at the Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform (An Roinn Dlí agus Cirt, Comhionannais agus Athchóirithe Dlí) in the Irish Government. ... Frank Aiken (February 13, 1898 - May 18, 1983) was a senior Irish politician. ... George Noble Plunkett (1851–1948) was an Irish nationalist and father of Joseph Mary Plunkett, one of the leaders of the Easter Rising of 1916. ... The Minister for Foreign Affairs is the senior minister at the Department of Foreign Affairs (An Roinn Gnóthaí Eachtracha) in the Irish Government. ... George Gavan Duffy (1882 - 1951) was an Irish politician. ... Éamon de Valera (born with the name Edward George de Valera,IPA: [1][2]) (14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ... The head of government under the Dáil Constitution adopted by the First Dáil of the Irish Republic in January 1919. ... ... The Taoiseach ( or [1]) — plural: Taoisigh ( or [1]) — or, more formally, An Taoiseach[2], is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet, the rough equivalent of a prime minister under the Westminster System. ... Image File history File links COA_of_Ireland. ... Éamon de Valera (born with the name Edward George de Valera,IPA: [1][2]) (14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ... For the member of Seanad Éireann from 1963–65, see John Costelloe John Aloysius Costello (20 June 1891 – 5 January 1976), a successful barrister, was one of the main legal advisors to the government of the Irish Free State after independence, Attorney General of Ireland from 1926–1932 and Taoiseach... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... John (Jack) Mary Lynch (15 August 1917—20 October 1999), was the fourth Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland, serving two terms in office; 1966 to 1973 and 1977 to 1979. ... Liam Cosgrave (Irish name Liam Mac Cosgair) (born 13 April 1920), served as the fifth Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland between 1973 and 1977. ... Link title Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Charles Haughey Charles James Haughey (Irish: ; 16 September 1925–13 June 2006) was the sixth Taoiseach of Ireland. ... Dr. Garret FitzGerald (Irish name: Gearóid MacGearailt) (born February 9, 1926) was the seventh Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland, serving two terms in office; July 1981 to February 1982, and December 1982 to March 1987. ... Albert Reynolds (born November 3, 1932), was the eighth Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland, serving one term in office from 1992 until 1994. ... John Gerard Bruton (born May 18, 1947) was the ninth Taoiseach (Prime Minister) of the Republic of Ireland. ... Patrick Bartholomew Ahern (known as Bertie Ahern, Irish: ; born 12 September 1951) is an Irish politician. ...


Previous prime ministerial offices under earlier constitutions

Príomh Aire (1919–1921) Cathal BrughaÉamon de Valera
President of the Irish Republic (1921–1922) Éamon de ValeraArthur Griffith
Chairman of the Provisional Government (1922) Michael CollinsW. T. Cosgrave
President of the Executive Council (1922–1937) W. T. CosgraveÉamon de Valera
The head of government under the Dáil Constitution adopted by the First Dáil of the Irish Republic in January 1919. ... Cathal Brugha Cathal Brugha (born Charles William St. ... Éamon de Valera (born with the name Edward George de Valera,IPA: [1][2]) (14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ... This article is about the president of the 1919-1922 Irish Republic Republic of Ireland see: President of Ireland. ... Éamon de Valera (born with the name Edward George de Valera,IPA: [1][2]) (14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ... The Chairman of the Provisional Government of Southern Ireland was a transitional post established in January 1922, lasting until the creation of the Irish Free State in December 1922. ... General Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: ; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, both as Chairman of the Provisional Government and... ... The President of the Executive Council (Irish: Uachtaráin na hArd-Chomhairle) was the head of government or prime minister of the 1922-1937 Irish Free State, and the leader of the Executive Council (cabinet). ... ... Éamon de Valera (born with the name Edward George de Valera,IPA: [1][2]) (14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Arthur Griffith - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1385 words)
Arthur Griffith (not Arthur Griffiths as his name is sometimes misspelled) was born in Dublin, Ireland on March 31, 1872, of distant Welsh lineage, and was educated by the Irish Christian Brothers.
Griffith was elected a Sinn Féin MP in the East Cavan by-election of mid-1918, and Sinn Féin routed the Irish Parliamentary Party at the 1918 general election.
Griffith was, however, to a great extent merely a figurehead as President of the second Dail Eireann and his relations with Michael Collins, head of the new Provisional Government were somewhat tense.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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